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Cornell University Library 
Z242.T6 D49 1902 

Practice of typography; a treatise on ti 



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3 1924 029 496 878 




Cornell University 
Library 



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the Cornell University Library. 

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A TREATISE ON 

TITLE-PAGES 



THE PRACTICE OF TYPOGRAPHY 



A TREATISE ON 

TITLE-PAGES 

WITH NUMEROUS 

ILLUSTRATIONS IN FACSIMILE 

AND SOME OBSERVATIONS ON THE EARLY 

AND RECENT PRINTING OP BOOKS 

BY 

THEODORE LOW DE VINNE, A.M. 




NEW YORK 

THE CENTURY CO. 

1902 



Copyright, 1902, by 
Theodore Low DeVinne 



Published October, 



The DeVinne Press 



CONTENTS 



«l> 


PAGE 


Preface . . 


xvii 


PART I 




HISTORICAL 




CHAPTER 




i The Colophon . . . . 


. . 3 


ii Titles with Device . 


21 


in Titles with Engraved Borders . 


43 


iv Borders of Flowers or Rules 


75 


v Paragraph and Bastard Titles . 


95 


vi Titles in Black-Letter 


115 


vii Ornamented Titles 


141 


VIII Early Displayed Titles 


157 


ix Condensed Types 


. . 177 


PART II 




PRACTICAL 




x The Modem Title-Page . 


. . 195 


xi The Selection of Faces .... 


. . 233 



viii Contents 

CHAPTER PAGE 

xii The Display of Words . .269 

xiii About Blanks, Leading, and Spacing . 323 

xiv Red Lines and Letters. Punctuation 337 



PART III 
CRITICAL 

xv The Pickering Title. The Squared Title 351 

xvi The Chap-Book and its Outgrowths . 369 

xvil Kelmscott Typography . . 387 

xvin French Title-Pages . . 403 

xix Lettering : Plain, Grotesque, and Artistic 417 

xx A Title-Page in Ten Styles . . .449 

Index . . ... 461 



ILLUSTRATIONS 

THE COLOPHON PAGE 

Colophon of the Psalter of 1457 . . 2 
Introduction to Bible of Forty-two Lines. Gutenberg 4 
Colophon of the Catholicon of 1460. Mainz. Gutenberg 6 

Xenophon, 1511. Bartholomew Trot . . 8 

De Veritate, etc., Venice, 1480. Nicolas Jenson . 8 

A Supplement, Venice, 1483. Franz Renner . 9 

Poggio, Antwerp, 1487. Matthew Goes . 9 

Be Veritate, etc., Venice, 1480. Nicolas Jenson 10 

Cornelius Nepos, Venice, 1471. Nicolas Jenson . 11 

Roberto de Litio, Venice, 1472. Franz Renner . 12 

Petrarch, Padua, 1472. Valdezocchio . . 13 

Trithemius, Mainz, 1515. John Schoeffer . . 14 

Boccaccio, Bruges, 1476. Colard Mansion . . . 16 

Compendium, Bordeaux, 1524. John Guyart . 17 

Arte of English Poesie, London, 1589. Puttenham . 18 

COLOPHONS OB TITLES WITH DEVICE 

Caesar, Venice, 1517. Bernardinus Venetus . 20 

Trithemius, Mainz, 1462. Fust and Schoeffer 22 

Aristotle, Venice, 1499. Kalliergi . . 23 

Duns Scotus, Venice, 1481. Nicolas Jenson 24, 25 

Vita Christi, Paris, 1497. Felix Balligault 26 

Book of Hours, Paris, 1508. Simon Vostre . 27 

Book of Hours, Paris, 1525. Thielman Kerver . 29 

Ausonius, Paris, 1513. Jodocus Badius . . . 31 

Statins, Venice, 1502. Aldus Manutius . 32 
London, 1560. Device of John Daye ... 32 

Missal in English, Rouen, 1490. M. P. Olivier . . 33 



x Illustrations 

PAGE 

Edinburgh. Device of Andrew Myllar . . 34 

Fables of Aesop, Westminster, 1483. William Caxton 35 

Sallust, Lyons, 1578. Anthony Gryphius . 36 

London, 1483. Device of William Caxton . t 37 

Lives of Philosophers. Unknown printer, 15th century 38 

Petronius Arbiter, Paris, 1520. Chaudiere 39 

Tyrius, Paris, 1557. Henry Stephens 40 

London. Two devices of William Pickering . . 42 

TITLES WITH ENGRAVED BORDERS 

Calendar of Regiomontanus, Venice, 1476. Ratdolt . 44 

Meditationes, s.l., 1520. Sigismund Brith . 45 

Alciatus, Venice, 1532. Melchior Sessa 46 

Border decoration, Paris, about 1501. T. Kerver . 49 

Hortulus, Nuremberg, 1514. Anthony Koburger . 50 

Terentius, Venice, 1497. Simon da Luere . 51 

La Coronacion, Seville, 1517. Jacob Cromberger 52 

Petrus de Montagnana, Venice, 1495. Gregoriis 53 

Christian Prayers, London, 1578. John Daye 55 

Le Roman de la Rose, Geneva, 1479. Jean Croquet 56 

Turrecremata, France, 1481. John Nummeister 59 

" Breeches "Bible, London, 1611. Robert Barker 61 

The History of Noble Cavaliers, 1499. Alaman ... 62 

Cicero, Amsterdam, 1677. Daniel Elzevir 65 

Philomathi Musae, Antwerp, 1654. Balthazar Moretus 67 

Lucian, Cambridge, 1521. John Siberch 68 

Subtitle, Paris, 1868. Turlot type-foundry 70 

Border for title, London, 1840. William Pickering . 71 

Psalter or Psalmes, London. Christopher Barker 73 

BORDERS OF FLOWERS OR RULES 

Flowers of Type, London, 1770. [Luckombe] 77 

Mamillia, London, 1593. William Ponsonbie 78 

Godfrey of Bulloigne, London, 1600. Jaggard . 80 

Remarques, etc., Paris, 1761. Fourniev 81 

Manuel Typ o graph i que , Paris, 1766. Fournier . S3 

Typographia, London, 1824. Johnson . 84 



Illustrations xi 

PAGE 

Areopagitica, London, 1644. Milton . . .87 
Regulation of the Press, London, 1663. L'Estrange . 88 

Restraint on the Press, London, 1698. Darby 90 

Exhibits of modern rule borders of brass, 1900 . . 91 

Exhibit of modern rule border title, 1899 . . 93 

PARAGRAPH AND BASTARD TITLES 

A Sermon, Cologne, 1470. Ther Hoeruen . . . 96 

Cassiodorus, Basle, 1491. Amerbach 97 

Proverbia Senece, Strasburg, 1486. John Pruss . 98 

Statius, Venice, 1502. Aldus Manutius . . 99, 100 

Caesar, Venice, 1517. Bernardinus Venetus . 101 

Sallust, Lyons, 1578. Gryphius . . 103 

Galeottus, Florence, 1548. Oporinus . . 104 

School-book, Paris, 1544. Stephens . . 106 

Herodian, Paris, 1544. Stephens 107 

Typographical Founders, London, 1778. Mores . 109 

Silius Italicus, Paris, 1531. Colinaeus . Ill 

Rabelais, Valence, 1547. La Ville . 113 

TITLES IN BLACK-LETTER 

Cranmer's (or Great) Bible, London, 1540 116 

First Book of Moses, London, 1530. Quentell . 117 

Common Prayer, London, 1549. Whitchurch . 119 

Common Prayer, New York, 1893. De Vinne Press 120 

Title of Albert Durer, Nuremberg, 1538 122 

Sassenspegel, Augsburg, 1516. Othmar 123 

Early German type, Mainz, 1486. Rewick . 124 

The Luther Bible, Wittenberg, 1541 . 125 

A German Typographia, Nuremberg, 1733 126 

Theuerdank, Augsburg, 1517. Schoensperger 127, 130 

German Typographia, Leipsic, 1745. Gessner 128 

German initials of the seventeenth century . 129 

Mechanick Exercises, London, 1683. Moxon 131 

Parisian Typography, London, 1818. Greswell . . 132 
Philobiblon, DeBury, New York, 1889. Grolier Club . 134 

Book of Hours, Paris (1512?). Kerver . . 135 



xii Illustrations 

PAGE 

Reynard the Fox, London, 1845 . .... 137 

Le Faust de Goethe, Paris, 1899 .... 138 

ORNAMENTED TITLES 

Cursive Franchise, Paris, 1556. Granjon . . 140 

Hooker's Ecclesiastical Politie, London, 1666. Crooke 142 

Batarde Bris6e, Paris, 1644. Moreau . . 143 

A Writing-master's title, London. Leckey 145 

Lucan, Paris, 1512. Le Rouge 146 

Presentation plate, London, 1829. Whittingham 148 

Julia, etc., Loudon, 1795. Roach . 149 

Dissertatio, etc., Leipsic, 1710. Grleditsch 151 

Wiirdtwein's Bibliotheca, Augsburg. Biirglen 152 

Poetry of Nature [London, not dated] . 154 

A nourished title, New York, 1853 155 

EARLY DISPLAYED TITLES 

Histoire de l'lmprimerie, Paris, 1689. La Caille 158 

Satires of Juvenal, Paris, 1644. Typographia Regia 159 

Bible, Paris, 1545. Robert Stephens . 161 

Decree of Star Chamber, London, 1637. Barker 162 

Puttenham's Poesie, London, 1589. Field . 164 

Natural History of Pliny, London, 1635. Islip 165 

Book of Common Prayer, Cambridge, 1760. Baskerville 167 

Catullus, etc., Birmingham, 1772. Baskerville 168 

Zeltner on Correctors, Nuremberg, 1716. Felsecker 170 

Madan's Juvenal, London, 1789 . . . 171 

Buchdruckerkunst, Mainz, 1800. Fischer 173 

Young's Night Thoughts, London. Whittingham 174 

CONDENSED TYPES 

A modern French title, Rouen, 1846 . . .181 

A title in condensed type, New York, 1860 .... 183 

Savarin's Physiology of Taste, Paris 185 

Improper use of condensed type .... 186 

An Italian title, Milan, 1861 187 

Improper mating of discordant types . . . 188 



Illustrations 



Xlll 

PAGE 

Benjamin Franklin, New York. Harper & Brothers 189 

Illustrations of condensed types . . . 190 

THE MODERN TITLE-PAGE 

Literature of Europe, N. Y., 1841. Harper & Brothers 197 

Campaign in Russia, Middletown, 1814. L. & R. 199 

Smith's Printer's Grammar, London, 1755 204 

Same title remodelled by modern methods . 205 

Lemoine's Art of Printing, London, 1797. Fisher . 206 

Memoirs of Philip de Comines, London, 1712. Phillips 207 
Hood's Poems. Illustrative titles . . .211 

Avery Collection, etc., N. Y., 1901. De Vinne Press . 213 

History of Orange County, Newburgh, 1846-7 216 

Same title remodelled by modern methods . 217 

Anatomy of Melancholy, edition of 1652 . 220 

Anatomy of Melancholy, edition of 1847 . . . 222 

Anatomy of Melancholy. A modern variation . 223 

Plan of a title-page . . . 227 

Life of Samuel Johnson, LL.D., London, 1826 . 228 

Same title remodelled by modern methods 229 

THE SELECTION OP PACES 

Title in Caslon face . . ... 237 

Title in modernized old style . 239 

Title in antique old style . . . 241 

A Journey to Jerusalem, Oxford, 1714 .... 242 

The Kingdome of Congo, London, 1597. Wolfe . 243 

Same title in Jenson . . . 245 
Title in Elzevir face . .247 

Title in fifteenth-century style . 249 

Title in Bradford 251 

Title in two-line bold-face . . 253 

Title in " Saturday Post" . 255 

Title in two-line light-face . . . 257 

Course of Instruction, Boston, 1901. Tuckerman Press 258 
Celtic, Norman, Gothic, Runic, and De Vinne faces 259, 260 



xiv Illustrations 

PAGE 

Title exclusively in italic lower-ease . . 264 

Title exclusively in roman lower-ease . 265 

THE DISPLAY OF WORDS 

Hansard's Typographia, London, 1825 . . 268 
A History of Greece. Illustrative . . . 271 

The History of Painting in Italy. Illustrative 273 

Lectures and Notes on Shakspere, etc. Illustrative 275 

Wilhelm Meister>s Apprenticeship. Illustrative 277 

William Lloyd Garrison, N. Y., 1885. Century Co. 279 

Cinq-Mars, Paris, 1865. Levy Freres . 281 
Caesar's Commentaries. Illustrative . . 283 

The Comedies of Plautus. Illustrative 285 

Attempt to show degrees of artistic merit . 288 

The Holy Bible. Illustrative . . 289 
Title in six styles. Government Printing Office 290-293 

Same title remodelled . . 293 
The Treatises of Marcus Tullius Cicero. Illustrative 295 

Hesiod, Callimachus, and Theognis. Illustrative 297 

Photo-engraving, Photo-etching, etc. Illustrative 299 

A Dictionary of Miniaturists, etc. Illustrative 301 

Note Books of Thomas Carlyle, 1898. Grolier Club 303 

Title for Life of Bodoni, Parma, 1816 305 
Different methods of display . 306-309 

The Cyropsedia, etc. Illustrative .. 311 

The History of the Saracens. Illustrative 313 

ABOUT BLANKS, LEADING, AND SPACING 

Need of white space between lines . 326 

An unwise selection of small type 332 

A needless compression of capitals 333 

A page from Didot's Racine 335 

Illustrations of spacing and leading 336 

RED LINES AND LETTERS. PUNCTUATION 

Couut Hoym, New York, 1899. Grolier Club 339 

Titles with rubricated capitals .... 341 



Illustrations xv 

PAGE 

Rubricated capitals in Proverbia Senece 343 

Excessive rubrication in Walton's Polyglot . . . 345 

A title without points by Henry Stevens . . . 347 

THE PICKERING AND SQUARED TITLES 

Friends in Council, London, 1849. Pickering . 353 

Bret Harte's Stories, Boston, 1885. Houghton . . 355 

Poems of Milton, London, 1852. Pickering . . 357 

Paragraph title with monastic initials 358 

Paragraph title in italic capitals . . 359 

Squared title with uneven spacing . . 361 

Catalogue of Books, New York, 1896. TypothetsB 362 

Title showing uneven spacing . 363 

Catalogue of MSS., New York, 1892. Grolier Club 365 

Catalogue of Books, New York, 1895. Grolier Club 367 

Funnel-shaped tail-piece, London, 1892 368 

THE CHAP-BOOK AND ITS OUTGROWTHS 

Chap-book illustrations of Andrew Tuer 370-372 

The Bradley style, New York, 1899. Harpers 373 

Outline History, etc., Vermont. Will Crombie 375 

A title by Will H. Bradley . 377 

Engraved title, Paris, 1888. Caran d'Ache, etc. 379 

Lettering on a Greek coin of about 176 B.C. . . . 380 

The Brinton medal, designed by John Flanagan . . 381 

Vertical heading . • • 382 

Bagged outline made by Ther Hoernen, 1470 . . 383 

Bagged outline made by Gutenberg, 1454 . . 383 

Lettering on a Minton tile . . . 385 

A modern fashion of ragged title . . 386 

KELMSCOTT TYPOGRAPHY 

The Golden type of William Morris 389 

The Troy type of William Morris . . . . 391 

Engraved title of Historyes of Troye, Morris . 395 

Composition of capital letters in a book by Morris . . 396 

Composition of capital letters in a title by Pollard 397 



xvi Illustrations 

PAGE 

Poems by the Way, London, 1891. Morris .... 399 

Colophon and device of William Morris .... 400 

FRENCH TITLE-PAGES 

La Rochefoucauld, Paris. Gamier Freres . . 402 
French methods of displaying words .... 403-406 

Dictionnaire, Paris, 1853. Didot Freres 407 

Nouveau Manuel, Paris, 1852. Didot Freres 409 

French method of display . 410 

Rousseau's La Nouvelle Heloiise, Paris, 1831. Pourrat 411 

French method of displaying words . 414 

Notions de Typographic, Paris, 1888 415 

American methods of displaying words 416 

LETTERING : PLAIN, GROTESQUE, ARTISTIC 

Arabesque, Harper, and Halm types . 419 

Artistic lettering of 1849. Chatto 423 

An artistic title of reeent production 425 
Titles for Songs by William Blake 426, 427 

Artistic lettering by Walter Crane, 1894 429 

Medieval artistic lettering, Ferrara, 1497 431 

XJnpleasing decoration, London, 1890 435 

Lettering on the tablets of a library . . 436 

Lettering on old Irish signboards . 436 

Lettering on pedestal of statue . 437 

A title-page for a play of Shakspere . . 441 

A title-page elaborately engraved and decorated 445 

A TITLE-PAGE IN TEN STYLES 

Jacobi, Notes on Books and Printing. London. 1892 451-460 



PREFACE 

THIS treatise was written for and published by the 
Grolier Club of the city of New York in February, 
1901. Three hundred and twenty-five copies only were 
printed, not for public sale, but exclusively for the mem- 
bers of that club. In that edition, specially prepared 
for book-lovers, the practical side of title-page making 
was curtly treated. To make this edition for printers' 
use more acceptable, the part on practice has been re- 
written and provided with illustrations and comments 
thereon that do not appear in the club copies. These 
additions have increased the number of pages. 

Title-pages may seem too trifling a subject for many 
pages. Compared with the text that follows, the title is 
a trifle, and yet the impression made by it is not to be 
undervalued. It is the page first inspected, and it at- 
tracts or repels at a glance. If it does attract, praise or 
purchase may follow ; if it does not, the book is usually 
closed unbought, and is ever after remembered with a 
dislike which will cling to the edition. 

For illustrations of instruction the title-page of type 
has been preferred. Decorated titles are noticed only 
where they seem to have been helps or hindrances in the 
development of typography ; the eccentric lettering of 
advertising pamphlets and the covers of cloth-bound 
books must be passed by with scant comment. This 



xviii Preface 

feature of modern book-making would require another 
volume for its proper treatment. 

Unwritten rules for the composition of title-pages 
must be inferred from evident attempts at uniform prac- 
tice noticeable in early books, but these rules never have 
been stated with clearness and with suitable illustrations 
in any English work. Every writer on practical print- 
ing has avoided the subject. It has been understood 
from the beginning of book-making that titles are not 
easily brought under fixed rules ; that their words differ 
in quantity and their lines must differ in treatment ; and 
that the title-page is the creature of arbitrary fashions 
which change capriciously. 

It is not for the purpose of reviving old or making 
new rules that these facsimiles have been reproduced. 
One might as well try to provide models for unalterable 
fashions in garments, houses, furniture, or decoration. 
However pleasing a new fashion may be, that pleasure 
does not entirely suppress the desire for change, and 
this desire was never greater than it is now. Yet it is 
hard to satisfy. It is difficult for any printer to comply 
with these persistent requests for new styles of type 
and new arrangements of lines, so that each new title 
shall be strikingly distinctive. Types were never made 
with more skill or in greater variety, and type-setters 
were never more painstaking in devising new arrange- 
ments, but the new fashions cannot entirely supplant 
old methods of merit. Old-style title-pages are not uni- 
versally approved, yet they deserve study, not for a ser- 
vile copying of indefensible faults, but for a selection of 
good features, of which simplicity is always noticeable. 

The facsimiles have not been selected inconsiderately. 
Books valued only because they are rare have been put 
aside for others which more plainly illustrate the growth 
or decay of skill. To make a proper exhibit of the dif- 
ferent methods of composing a title indifferent periods, 
many titles have to be presented, even if some are of 



Preface xix 

little merit or in bad taste. A student should see what 
to avoid as well as what to imitate. The title-page of 
type, which always has been and will be in the greatest 
request, demands first consideration. 

The facsimiles here reproduced show more plainly 
than by words that uniformity of style in the treatment 
of all titles is neither possible nor desirable. Those who 
seek for distinctiveness should find here exhibits of odd 
arrangements which may be used to advantage in some 
new books. The skill with which an expert can vary 
the treatment of the same words is well exhibited in the 
chapter on A Title-page in Ten Styles, the illustrations of 
which were kindly contributed for this treatise by Mr. 
Charles T. Jacobi of the Chiswick Press of London. 

Odd arrangements are often required, and a printer 
should be qualified to produce them in an acceptable 
manner, but he should never forget that in all standard 
books, and even in many ordinary pamphlets, the gen- 
eral preference is for the title-page of severe simplicity. 
In Chapter xn some remodelled title-pages, much unlike 
in matter and manner, have been presented to show that 
a few sizes of properly selected roman types are enough 
to give fit expression to the words of the author. Their 
arrangement of display lines may not please prevailing 
tastes. It is possible to rearrange these lines neatly by 
other methods, but it will be admitted by all that they 
are more easily composed as here presented, and that 
they will be acceptable to the reader as well as to the 
author, even if they do violate some antiquated rules. 
The purpose of the remodellings is to encourage a taste 
for the simplicity which should be the first purpose of 
the compositor. 

While a study of quaint title-pages will be helpful, 
typography will not be made better by imitating too 
closely all the mannerisms of the early printers. Our 
modern roman letter seems to be now under ban : it 
has been enfeebled by needless refinements in design, a& 



xx Preface 

well as by presswork on dry and shiny paper, and it 
is not so readable as the types of the early Venetian 
printers; but with all perversions and misuses it still 
maintains its preeminence as the simplest and most 
readable of characters. It is not probable that it will 
be superseded by the invention of a new style or by the 
revival of gothic letter and mannerisms. The amateur 
may lament the inability of the modern printer to repro- 
duce the picturesqueness of the gothic manuscript, but 
he should remember that the preference of the book- 
buyer of our time is for more simplicity and legibility, 
for more of utility and less of eccentricity. The grand 
features of the Kelmscott books and the coarseness of 
old chap-books and of Puritan title-pages have induced 
a few printers to attempt imitations that have aroused 
the curiosity of the inattentive reader, but they will not 
satisfy for long time. 

The grotesque types and medieval methods now in 
fashion are seldom wisely selected for new books, for 
their charm is destroyed when they are printed on dry, 
machine-made paper. The modern book, like the mod- 
ern house, dress, or decoration, should be the outgrowth 
of its own time, consistent in all its features, not half 
old and half new, not bald upon some pages and over- 
decorated on others. An old mannerism of print, beau- 
tiful in itself, which neatly fits in a new composition, 
may be properly transplanted, but the inconsiderate 
copying of evident fault, for no better reason than its 
oddity, will surely become a lasting disfigurement. The 
reader tires of it. Still less is it probable that the un- 
pretending arrangements of text types and title-pages 
approved by many eminent printers from Aldus and 
Stephens to Bodoni and Pickering will ever go entirely 
out of fashion, or be rated as in bad taste. 




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THE COLOPHON 



O understand the reasons for 
changes in title-pages the 
student should begin at the 
real beginning, and this be- 
ginning is to be found not 
on the first but on the last 
printed leaf of the early 
book. The manuscripts then 
taken for copy by the first 
printers had no title-pages. When the name of the 
book had been fairly written on its cover of vellum, 
as was customary, there seemed no need to repeat 
it inside in the form of a full page. Vellum and 
linen paper were of high price, and a full leaf for a 
title-page may have been adjudged ueedless waste 
by the copyist who had been taught to compress let- 
ters, huddle words, and save space for the service 
of the illuminator. 




4 Early books without title-pages 

Whatever the reason, the custom was universal. 
The copyist introduced the manuscript book to 
the reader at the top of the page with the usual 
phrase of "Here beginneth . . ." (naming the sub- 
ject-matter), and then he began to copy the text, 
which he often did without indicating the change 
by making a new paragraph. He rarely affixed 
his name at the ending of the book : many early 
manuscripts of merit are without name, date, or 
place. The illuminator who decorated the book 
with initial letters and borders in bright colors 
was not so modest ; he added a paragraph at the 
end of the book in which he wrote his name and 
certified that his work was finished on* a certain 
day in a specified place. 

Manuscript introduction to the Bible of Forty-two Lines. 
Slightly reduced in size. 

The first printers followed traditional usage ; they 
did not use title-pages, and some of them did not 
put their names or any imprint on their books. 
The Bible of Forty-two Lines, supposed to have been 
printed before 1455, has this written remark at the 
top of the first printed page : " Here beginneth the 
Epistle of Saint Jerome to Paulinns the presbyter 



First book tvith printed date 5 

concerning all the books pf sacred history. Chapter 
First.' 7 It is a fair exhibit of the introduction in 
most books of that period. Neither on that page 
nor on any other is there printed mention of the 
date and place of printing or of the name of the 
printer. The belief that this Bible was printed 
before 1455 at Mainz seems wan-anted by the 
colophon of Henry Cremer in writing, at the end 
of the book, that he did the work of rnbrication at 
Mainz in the year 1456. There he stopped un- 
wisely : if the illuminator of the first printed book 
had named the printers, he might have prevented 
a long controversy concerning the date of inven- 
tion and the name of inventor. 

The certificate of the illuminator, which is known 
to bibliographers as the colophon, or the crowning- 
piece, was put at the end of the book as a painter's 
device or signature is put in the corner of a pic- 
ture, or as a stamp or seal is affixed at the bottom 
of a piece of silver or porcelain. An instinctive 
sense of propriety forbade the workman to put 
himself too prominently forward. 

In the profusely rubricated Psalter of 1457 (ac- 
cepted as the first book with a printed date), Fust 
and Schoeffer followed the cnstom of the illumina- 
tors, and added a colophon in type, in which they 
advertised themselves as the makers of books by a 
new process, and they made their advertisement 
conspicuous by a memorable device. In similar 
style the printer of the Catholicon of 1460 affixed 



6 Name of printer sometimes omitted 

a colophon to the end o£ this book, in which he 
says Mainz was the place and the year 1460 the 
date of printing, but he did not give his name as 
the printer, although he does call the reader's 

Akiffmi pitfioio cuius mm* imfimtium tfn®u fi 
unt oifcm.Qui qj nuofopc jjuulie nzudat quoo 
Cipicntibue ctlaf. bic liber csrcsmc.atboticon. 
oiiicc rnarnadomo Annfe CO cccc Ix Aim* rn ur 
bf ma^nntina nadewio mriitt g?rmanicr.QwAm 
tti demenda ram Alto mgenif (uminctono qp $ 
hwo.ccttri* terra** nadombuo jwFcnv.illttftrara 
qj Oi^nAfus eft Hon calami .ftili.aut ptmi* fuffrji 
90«@ mira parmnai; formal* qjconcoioia^ or 
done et mo3ulo.impn>flrue atqj confedus eft. 
bine tibi fcnete patw nato cQ flam'm* ficro.tau* 
«t bono) ono trino tribuam* it uno 6cdcfw Iau 
w libro boc atholiar plautt Qui Uuo atg pian i 
ftmpcr won lj»qu« mariamf ©€0.<BtWCW 

Colophon of the Catholicon of 1460. l 

1 By the assistance of the Most ahove the other nations of the 

High, at whose will the tongues earth), not by means of pen, or 

of children hecome eloquent, pencil, or stencil plate, hut by 

and who often reveals to babes the admirable proportion, har- 

what He hides from the learned, mony, and connection of the 

this renowned book, the Cathol- punches and matrices. Where- 

icon, was printed and perfected fore to thee, Divine Father, Son, 

in the year of Incarnation 1460, and Holy Ghost, triune and 

in the beloved city of Mainz only Lord, be praise and honor 

(which belongs to the illustrious ascribed, and let those who 

German nation, and which God never forget to praise [the Vir- 

has consented to prefer and to gin] Mary join also through this 

raise with such an exalted light book in the anthem of the univer- 

of the mind and of free grace sal Church. Thanks he to God. 



Value of a complete imprint 7 

attention to the new art by which the book had 
been made. It has been supposed that this book 
was the later work of John Gutenberg, but direct 
evidence to this effect is not to be found anywhere 
in its pages. The printer chose to have the book 
impersonal. Apparently, he decided that the in- 
sertion of his name would be of small importance 
to a reader who wanted the book for the thought 
of the writer and not as a specimen of the skill of 
the bookmaker. This was the practice of other 
printers of the fifteenth century, for many books 
printed after 1460 are now catalogued by libra- 
rians as s.Ls.n.j or without place, without name. 

Yet there were good reasons why a printed book 
should not be impersonal. Careful printers who 
tried to correct a faulty manuscript copy might be 
confounded with careless printers who gave little 
heed to editing or proof-reading. There were also 
piratical printers who stole the editorial work of 
more painstaking rivals, and sold faulty reprints 
as the work of their honest rivals, but always at 
lower price. After some unpleasant experiences 
consequent on unwary purchases from unknown 
printers ; the critical reader began to discover the 
relative merit of books. Before he bought a new 
book he looked for the imprint of a reputable 
printer as some guaranty of its accuracy. A book 
without attest was like a bit of silverware without 
the official stamp ; it might be good, it might be 
bad, but the latter conclusion was of tener reached. 



8 Obscurity of printed colophons 

When the fifteenth century closed, the printers of 
good standing in all countries put their names at 
the end of their books. 

Explicit /v JirifmAima cfiff.M.C C C C C .XI 
Dieiwo*ti.Mflifls 5fpfcmbw*Expflf/is hentftl 
mn&txthQlonttitrvU 

From an edition of Xenophon. 1 
Bartholomew Trot, 1511. 

Dfutnumopue crrofes in omneo gentflium 
eup berertcomm: cbriftianam fidcm fufe argu 
taenrie impugnanrium: Diui Ibomc aequina 
tteoidtmeprcdfcatowitK"pemi9 £amiaiuia vc 
ftctiiatbcologua patauinuerefufdem profcfuo 
nfa religLofue ernendam'r : eafttgaufop . Jmpici 
fum uerodedit.vir prcftarmlTimue Tlicolaug 
JmlbngaUicuKflotcntc.'Rc.priii . Uenetorum* 

goannc ZDotemgo ductZlimo felutte.ZDcccc 
.:# 7dfotta3uni}9.Cknttije fclicitcr. 

From the De Veritate Catholicae Fidei. 2 
Nicolas Jenson, Venice, 1480. 



i Here endeth the hook. In der, emended and corrected by 
the year of our Lord 1511 and Peter Lanciani the Venetian, a 
on the second day of September, theologian of Padua and mem- 
Printed at the expense of the ber of the same Order. In the 
worthy Bartholomew Trot. nourishing time of the Venetian 

2 A divine work exposing all Repuhhc, under the Doge John 

the errors of the heathen and Mocenigo, this hook was given to 

heretics, who assail by their the press in Venice by the illus- 

arguments the Christian faith, trious Nicolas Jenson of France, 

written by the divine Thomas on the thirteenth of June, in the 

Aquinas of the Dominican Or- year of Redemption 1480. 



Obscurity of printed colophons 9 

Following the custom of the copyists, the types for 
their colophons were of the same size as those used 
for the text. When these types were small, as they 
are in some following facsimiles, the colophon was 
really insignificant. Yet there were exceptions. 

The colophon of the 
Psalter of 1457 was 3mp}tflumtfttx>edpufailcjm 
properly presented in 9oitfi0|trfrancucuMimcr 
the noble types of its w1,,ilta A^'W* 
text, and no reader can Xaue tta» 

complain that its im- From A Supplement* 

print is Obscure, even Franz Renner, 1483. 

if it was put at the end 

of the book 5 but this book and all books in very 
large types were made at too great cost and were 
slow of sale. Buyers wanted handier books of 
smaller size and at lower prices, and for their needs 
small types had to be made. 

ccn'arulibcre^tfatfdia'ta* JJJmpfluo 3ne 
twrufeg me CDatbi'am goes Die tenia me 
Ro2^g^(l^Srmoon^J[D♦c(crI^pi^? 

From an edition of Poggio. 2 Matthew Goes, 
Antwerp, 1487. 



1 This little book was printed Florence, apostolic secretary. 
at Venice by Franz Renner of Printed at Antwerp by me, 
Heilbronn, 1483. God be praised. Matthew Goes, the third day 

2 Here endeth the book of of August, in the year of our 
witty sayings of Poggio of Lord 1487. 



g g H ^4 colophon of Jenson 

Another reason for the increasing 
use of smaller type may be found 
in the verbosity of some books in 
great request. Many bulky and 
expensive volumes would have been 
required if types of three or four 
lines to the inch had been selected 
for the Bible, or for the works of 
Thomas Aquinas or St. Augustine. 
The boldness that was lacking in 
the colophon was sometimes made 
up by self-assertion. Some printers 
made use of it to extol the merit of 
their books, and to brag of their su- 
perior ability as editors and greater 

§ "C £ tR eh skill as printers. 

"©i§ H % & Jenson's works show that he stood 




is 



|m -jjf in the front rank of type-founders 



2*L 

g e~g»±± g and printers, but he does not rest 
— 3 ^ upon that undenied ability : he will 



§ 3|)| % have the reader know that he was a 
g S-3 || +| good Catholic and an estimable man 
•2 m !•» ^ * n everv wav - This obtrusion of 




i Moreover, this new edition was furnished 
us to print in Venice hy Nicolas Jenson of 
France, a true Catholic, kind toward all, henef- 
icent, generous, truthful, and steadfast. In 
the beauty, dignity, and accuracy of his print- 
ing let me (with the indulgence of all) name 
him the first in the whole world ; first likewise 
in his marvellous speed. He exists in this our 
time as a special gift of Heaven to men. June 
thirteenth, in the year of Redemption 1480. 
Farewell. 



Another colophon of Jenson 11 

personal qualities does not appear in his earlier 
books. In his Cornelius Nepos of 1471, printed in 
a new roman letter, Jenson broke away from the 
fetters of custom and set his colophon entirely in 
capital letters. To call special attention to it he 
put a blank between each line so that the compo- 
sition should have a proper relief of white space 

<Tprobi aemilii de virorvm excellent 
twm vita per, m, nicola vm ienson 
venetiis opvs foeliciter impress vm 
est anno a christi incarnatione. 
m-cccclxxi,viilidvs martias. 

From an edition of Cornelius Nepos. 1 Nicolas Jenson, 
Venice, 1471. Reduced facsimile. 

and be made more readable. This preference for 
capital letters, and for blanks between the lines, 
seems a prenguration of one modern method of 
title-page display. 

There were many printers in Italy during the 
last quarter of the fifteenth centnry who were not 
content with the mean position and scant wording 
of the traditional colophon. Some of them tried 

1 The Life of Illustrious Men the eighth of March, and in the 
by Aemilius Probus. Printed year of the Incarnation fourteen 
by Nicolas Jenson at Venice, hundred and seventy-one. 



12 Eccentric forms of colophons 

to vary the usual form of words, and to make the 
colophon more attractive by putting it in metre. 
Franz Renner and the brothers Speyer of Venice, 
Ulric Hahn of Rome, and others furnished to the 
reader colophons in metre. 

Rubertus celeber finxit non parua minorum 
Gloria me fratrum Paulo regnante fecudo. 
Quarto fed Sixto uenies Halbruna alemanuS 
Francifcusformis ueneta mepreffitinurbe 
Millequadringentis&feptuagintaduobuS . 

From a book by Roberto de Litio. 1 
Franz Renner, Venice, 1472. 

Printers not poetically inclined tried to make their 
colophons noticeable by eccentric arrangements of 
types. A squat Venetian wine-cnp appears in an 
edition of Petrarch by Bartholomew Valdezocchio, 
made at Padua in 1472. 

A German drinking-glass is shown by John 
Schoeffer in his edition of Trithemius, dated 1515. 
This colophou is a curious bit of typographical 
legerdemain, but it is an untruthful bit of history, 
for it suppresses the name and services of Guten- 
berg. 

i Famous Robert, the glory of came from Heilbronn in the 

the Franciscan brothers, com- time of Sixtus the Fourth, and 

posed me in the reign of Paul printed me on types in the city 

the Second. Franz the German of Venice in 1472. 



Colophon of Yal&ezoccliio 13 

Francifci pctarcaclaureati poetae 
nccnon fecrecarii apoftolici 
bcncmenti . Rerum 
uulginu fragme' 
ta ex original! 
libro excracta 
In ur be pa 
tauinali 
ber abfo 
lutus ell 
foclici 
ter. 
BAR*de VaUe.pafciiras.F.F. 
Marrinus de feptem arboribus Prutenus, 
M.CCCC.LXXIL 
'DIEVI.NO 
VEN 

Bias. 

From an edition of Petrarch. 1 Valdezocchio, Padua, 1472. 

1 Fragments of common things was completed in the city of 

excerpted from the original Padna. Bartolomeo de Valde- 

hook of Francesco Petrarca, zocchio of Padna and Martinus 

poet laureate and excellent de Septem Arboribus of Prussia 

apostolic secretary. The hook printed it. November 6, 1472. 



C IMPRESSVM ET COMPLETVM EST PRESENS 

chronicarumopus'annodni. M D XV.in uigilia Marga 

retxuirginis. Innobili fomofacp urbeMoguntina,hu* 

iusam'simprcirorifinuentriccprima.PerIOANNEM 

ScfaofFcr^icpotcquodahondttuirilOANNIS fafth 

duisMoguntinjincmoratcartispriniarij aucloris 

Qui tande imprimendi arte proprio ingenio ex? 

cogitarefpeculariqt coepitanodnice. naciuitatis 

MCCCC ♦UindbdioeXIILRegnanteillu 

ftriffimoRaimpcraforcFREDERICO 

HLPrefidente Andac Mogunctn at fcdi 

Reuerediffimo in chro pre domino 

THEODERICOpincernadeEr* 

each pricipe electore Anno auC 

M.CCCC.LIL perfecitdedu? 

»K£ea(diuinafauentc gra 

tta)inopus inprimedi 

(Opera tnacmultis 

nccefiarijs adin # 

uentionibus 

PETRI 

Schofferde 

Gernshriminfc 

ftriflu'cp filjj adopts 

uOCuictiamfilJamfuam 

CH(RISTINAM fufthin # 

digna laboru muleorifcp adinueV 

tiona remuneranoe nuptui dedir .Re* 

tinerSt aathij duo iS prenominati IO ANNES 

filfth &PETRVS Schbffer hScaitem i fccreto( omi* 

busminiftris acfamdiaribuseo^neiUa quofimodo mani 

f&axctjmeimdo aftriAis)Quo tande de 5no dniMCCCC 

LXII g cofdero femiliarcs i diuerfas terra^t^uincias dwulgata 

hatid pariun fumpfit icrementumA 

CVM GRATIA ET PRTVILEGIO CAESAREE MMB 
flatfciufru«ipcafishondhIDANNISHafdpcrgex Ala maiorc 
Conftanticn df occfis**.* 

Compendium of Trithemius. John Sckoeffer, Mainz, 1515. 
Reduced facsimile. (See next page for translation.) 



ScJweffer's notice of the invention 15 

The colophon was often composed in the form of 
a funnel or inverted cone, and this form was nsed 
afterward as an approved style of composition for 
the ending of chapters. The reader was warned 
by the tapering of the composition that the text 
was hastening to its end. 

Another variation in the form of the colophon 
may be seen in the full diamond given to it in a 
treatise printed in 1524 by John Guyart at Bor- 
deaux. 

The funnel, diamond, wine-cup, and drinking- 
glass are incomplete exhibits of early freaks with 



The present chronicle was 
printed and completed in the 
year of our Lord 1515, on the 
eve of Margaret the Virgin, in 
the noble and famous city of 
Mainz, the first inventress of 
this art of printing, by John 
Schoeffer, grandson of the late 
worthy John Fust/ citizen of 
Mainz, the chief originator of 
the said art. It was in the year 
of the birth of our Lord 1450, 
in the thirteenth Induction, dur- 
ing the reign of the illustrious 
Roman Emperor Frederick III, 
the most Reverend Father in 
Christ, Theoderic, Cup-bearer 
of Erbach and Prince Elector, 
being Archbishop of Mainz, that 
Fust at length began by his own 
unaided genius to devise and ex- 
perimentuponaniethod of print- 
ing. This, with the help of di- 
vine grace, he perfected and 
applied to practical purposes in 



the year 1452. This result, how- 
ever, was not attained without 
the aid and the many indis- 
pensable improvements of Peter 
Schoeffer of Gernsheim, his 
workman and adopted son, to 
whom, in fitting recognition of 
these labors and many discov- 
eries, he also gave in marriage 
his daughter Christine. Now 
the two just mentioned, John 
Fust and Peter Schoeffer, kept 
this art a secret, binding all their 
workmen and servants by an 
oath not to make the process 
known in any way. From the 
year 1462, however, it was car- 
ried by these same workmen into 
different countries of the world, 
and made no slight advance. 
With the grace and privilege of 
the Imperial Majesty, and at 
the bidding and expense of the 
worthy John Haselberg of Rhei- 
nau in the diocese of Constance. 



16 Fondness for fantastic forms 

types ; the forms of crosses and wedges, pyramids 
and globes, were other shapes then supposed to 
make print more readable. 

These fantastic arrangements of types, regarded 
as work of merit, served as precursors of the en- 

oi # a Kttfftucftoty % feus 
a tffeaftut mx&xt foot 
a qu tt<$& »s nc6Cfe0 
#>mmts « femmw , jm s 
j»tmt a Q&zugfi* pw Co* 
<5m manftotj ♦QCnno ♦<#• 

From an edition of Boccaccio. 1 Colard Mansion, 
Bruges, 1476. 

graved device about to come in fashion, but it was 
difficult then as it is now to cramp types in the 
strait- jackets of a geometrical form. To do it with 

1 To the glory and praise of Pall of Noble Men and Women 
God and the instruction of all, is printed at Bruges by Colard 
this work of Boccaccio on the Mansion in the year 1476. 



Colophon of Guyart 17 

success the compositor had to abbreviate words, 
omit or widen spaces, and suppress capital letters 
with a freedom that would be adjudged unpardon- 



wefllw 



fteOUmeff 

!)ocb£euecom* 

trcnDfutnaBur&egft 

U.^tftnitumDerim* 

ttonagpctobite* ainnft 

fcomtniflEHleCtmoqtti 

gftcnmotttgeftmo 

Qua«o.3tD!auD§ 

DeionwipotS 

t(0cttuue* 

numtott 

UratS 

* 

From a Compendium of Medicine. 1 John Guyart, 
Bordeaux, 1524. 

able in any modern book. Yet all these artificial 
forms seem to have been approved, for one rhet- 
orician at least showed euvy. Puttenham, in his 
Arte of English Poesie, advised versifiers to select 
words and construct metre so that verses could be 

1 This short compend was year of our Lord 1524, to the 
printed at Bordeaux and fin- glory of God and the advantage 
ished the 19th of October, in the of youth. 



ThcFuzicor ThcTri- 
Thc Loxangc fpindle.c ailed angle ,or 
called Rambus Roroboides Tncquet 



The Square or 
quadrangle 



The Pillaften 
or Cdiiadcr 




55-3 3SJ- S3 sa*- sssr 



piramij 



or Sphere figure 




*tt e» ™sr* 13 Ksr 



teuerfed difplayed reuwfed 




rirJLp/ toff"*'*'?* <** "^ 



^(9 trey* C*> ?"« 

lend m thy fab* 
iVbofeetfyUgkl 



Sfat *** "•* 

Much honor b#b ho xtwtne 

'BydeUfhttJte&t done 

In Cord fa* 

And dl tac 

W&tde 



From The Arte of English Poesie, by George Puttenham, 
London, 1589. Reduced facsimile. 



Geometrical forms once in favor 19 

squeezed in the forms shown on the previous 
page, and he proves the possibility of the method 
by a few amusing exhibits. 1 His was one of many 
attempts to improve the unimprovable— not a whit 
more praiseworthy than the old fashion of pruning 
little trees in an absurd imitation of the shapes of 
boxes, birds, or beasts. We have outgrown these 
fancies about constructing poetry in geometrical 
forms, and for training vegetation in unnatural 
shapes. It is now the general belief that trees are 
not bettered by distorting their natural outgrowth, 
but the notion still lingers in the minds of a few 
amateurs of our time that typography can be im- 
proved by distorting types, by dislocating sylla- 
bles, by abbreviating words or spacing single types 
in short lines, after the method of Procrustes, when 
the words do not fit a prescribed measure. 

1 Puttenham says that a con- they wil feeme nothing pleafant 

struction of verse in geometrical to an Englif h eare, but time and 

forms ' ' is f omewhat hard to per- vf age wil make them acceptable 

forme, becaufe of the restraint inough, as it doth in all other new 

of the figure from which ye may guif es, be it for wearing ap- 

not digreffe. At the beginning parell or otherwife." 




Verietiis per Bernardinutn Vcnctum de Vitalibus 

Anno Domini *M» D* XVIL Die Vlcimo 

MenfisNoucmbris RegnanceSercy 

niflimo Principe Dno*D*Lco/ 

nardo Laurecano Dux 

Vcnetiarum 

Inclytifli 




The last page of an early edition of Caesar's Commentaries. 



II 



TITLES WITH DEVICE 



OOKS were printed from type 
with nearly all the usages of 
the copyists for many years 
before the colophon was dis- 
carded. It should have been 
foreseen that the colophon 
often would be set in very 
small type, or be put in an 
obscure place, and give seri- 
ous annoyance to readers who would have to search 
for the exact name of the book and its printer, and 
the date and place of printing, in a petty paragraph 
at the end of the text, where it was sometimes ob- 
scured by the index that followed. Peter Schoeffer 
had a forewarning of this defect, and he provided 
for if by adding to his colophon the black device 
of Fust and Schoeffer. Other printers followed 
the example, and had bold devices engraved that 




"10 



Advantages and defects of the device 




were intended to serve as seals to a signature. It 
was hoped that the distinctiveness of a peculiar 
device would be remembered by the book-buyer 
who had forgotten the name of his preferred 
printer. 

In the beginning the device was put at the end 
of the book, above or below the colophon. It was 

at first a small and sim- 
ple design in white on 
a black ground ; but the 
eagerness to have a de- 
vice that should be strik- 
ing led to its enlargement 
and afterward to an en- 
tire change of position. 
Device of Fust and t^ , -, . , o 

« , ff When the greater part 01 

the last page was preoc- 
cupied by the last paragraph of the text, the device 
required a separate page. This led to making full- 
page devices and afterward to the putting of the 
device on the first page. 

There were objections to the device of solid black 
background : it was difficult to print with a full 
color of black ; if the book were bound before the 
ink had dried, the moist ink would transfer color 
to the page that faced it ; it was needlessly conspic- 
uous ; it was in a style not liked by critical Italian 
publishers, who preferred engraving in outline. 

The size of the device gradually increased until 
it had to be put on a full page. Then followed the 



CIMriAIKIOY MerWOY AHACKAAOY 

YnOMNHMAeiC TAC 46KAKATH- 

rOPIACTOYAPICTOTeAOYC- 




Title-page of an early edition of Aristotle. 
Printed by Kalliergi, Venice, 1499. 



24 Bad position of colophon and device 

query, Why should the very important page that 
contained colophon and device be put at the end 
of the book, 1 where it cannot be readily inspected ? 

&pUeh(criptn$tnper tario(mtmti*> 
v im edttum a f ra t re ftwwe m moidi 
t ugfratrum rmog ooetozc fr btUflTiTTg/ 
' W^mumt\y m<^iam^nd^^or 
^eUmtin ittmmT^jbeojogu ooff?",, 
-^^^^um^^S^pcnRetb ari^ _ 
~gfifii otdim efratw Rcfgmfero f ancti 

tamno ozdmarte legcntmnnapma oi 

Ifllfttrfrttm venttifa ad ffpefaa t matt 
yttKjgarmfo oei[dloju§ TUcolaf tat 
ffj^ozuQxomm. (jptrtno oomini 

^•«sJa*^ 

(£UU60CO* 

From the Super Tertio Sententiarum of John Duns Scotus. 2 

The importance of the title in the front of the book 
was generally admitted, but the change from last 

1 One peculiarity of the old 2 "Printedat Venice hy the or- 
colophon is not yet out of fashion der and at the expense of John of 
in England : it is the printer of Cologne, Nicolas Jenson & Com- 
a hook who puts his name at the pany. In the year of our Lord 
end of the work; it is the pub- fourteen hundred and eighty- 
lisher who goes to the front. In one. ToGodthepraise." Inhis 
America, the name of the printer Venetian Printing Press {p. 15) 
is usually on the hack of the title- Brown says that Jenson was then 
page, which also contains the a member of two distinct pub- 
notice of copyright. lishing-houses. 



Imperfections of the device 



25 



to first page, with an improved arrangement of the 
title-page matter, was made slowly and without 
system. 

The printers of France seem to have been the 
most forward in changing the position of the device 
from the last to the first leaf of the book. Their 
devices were usually cut 
on wood, but sometimes 
on soft metal. They 
contained the name of 
the printer in bold let- 
tering, and sometimes 
a pious motto was add- 
ed, but the new form of 
title-page did not al- 
ways name the book in 
which it appeared. The 
device was intended not 
for one but for all books 
of that printer, and for 
this reason it cannot be 
rated as a true title, al- 
though it incompletely 
answered this purpose. 
To adapt it to a changed 
size of leaf, some print- 
ers had it reengraved, 
cutting it larger or smaller ; but it was a com- 
moner practice to add strips and pieces of decora- 
tive bordering to a small device to make it of the 




Device of Jenson. 
(See opposite page.) 



26 



Devices of patchwork 



same size as a page of the text. There are seventeen 
different bits of design around the accompanying 




Device of Felix Balligault, Paris, 1497. From his edition 
of Ludolphi Vita Christi. Reduced facsimile. 

device of Balligault, each bit obviously made for 
a different purpose, but they were put together as 
patchwork to fill out the page. Their impropriety 




Device of Simon Vostre, Paris, 1508. Reduced facsimile. 



28 St Bernard's protest against decoration 

as decorations in a frontispiece to a Life of Christ 
does not seem to have been an offence to buyers 
of the book. 1 

One of the most interesting of early titles is that 
used by Jodocus Badius Ascensianus in his first 
edition of Ausonius, published at Paris in 1513, in 
which he gives us a representation of a part of the 



l In his Lea Heures Gothiques 
(Rouen, 1882) Soleil criticizes the 
ornamentation of the Books of 
Houts in this fashion : 

" The illustrations here shown 
[page 49 of this book] put before 
us, interspersed with a few rural 
sketches, the strange concep- 
tions of the designers of this 
period, who had before their 
eyes as strong motives of inspi- 
ration the grotesque sculptures 
of our old cathedrals. Against 
these creations, which were often 
more than free in the twelfth 
century, the celebrated founder 
of Clairvaux [St. Bernard] elo- 
quently protested. ' What good 
purpose,' he asks, ' do these ri- 
diculous monstrosities, these 
prodigies of beautiful deformi- 
ties or deformed beauties, serve 
in the cloisters, before the eyes 
of the friars during their pious 
readings 1 Why these indecent 
monkeys, these furious lions, 
these monstrous centaurs, half- 
human mongrels, these spotted 
tigers, these soldiers who fight, 
these hunters who blow the 
horn ? Here one head is fitted 
on several bodies; there one 



body has many heads. In one 
figure a beast has the tail of a 
serpent; in another the head 
of a beast is fitted to the body 
of a fish. Sometimes it shows 
a monster with the breast of a 
horse and the hind quarters of 
a goat, and then again the body 
of a horned animal terminates 
with thecroupof ahorse. Every- 
where appeared a variety of 
strange forms of such luxuriant 
and fantastic design that the 
friars must have been more oc- 
cupied in deciphering the sculp- 
tures than in studyingthe hooks. 
More time was spent in the con- 
templation of these figures than 
in meditation on the divine law ! 
Great God ! If you are not 
ashamed at these improprieties, 
at least you should regret the 
enormity of their cost. 7 What 
would St. Bernard have said in 
the sixteenth century if he had 
stood before the bloated satyrs 
and dishevelled bacchantes, pre- 
sented in the most daring pos- 
tures, not only in the alcoves of 
churches, but in the Books of 
Hours intended for the faith- 
ful!" 




Device of Thielman Kerver, Paris, 1525. Reduced facsimile. 



30 Decoration by pictures and initials 

interior of the early printing-office. A pressman 
and a woman compositor are near a printing-press, 
which has on its wood cross-beam the Latin words 
"Prelu Ascesianu," or the printing-press of Ascen- 
sianus. At the foot of the page is the imprint, 
with th^ advertisement, Sold in the printing-house 
of Ascensianus. Here we notice the first steps to- 
ward the fashioning of the modern title-page ; the 
compositor knew the value of paragraphs and of 
white space after their endings, which helped to 
make clear the distinction between different chap- 
ters of subject-matter. 

The printers of books of devotion and romance, 
or of primary education, were quick to notice the 
value of an attractive print on the first page. A 
great initial letter or a startling picture was an 
enticement to the apathetic buyer not to be neg- 
lected. The pictures selected for early titles were 
usually in outline, so made in the belief that the 
buyer would fill up the white spaces with washes 
of bright color after the methods of school-boys. 

Nor could printers who made for scholars serious 
books in black-letter resist the call for a decorative 
treatment of the first page. The sombre gothic 
character then in vogue required some additional 
grace of engraviug. When pictures could not be 
procured, borders and initials were an acceptable 
alternative. 

Gunther Zainer of Augsburg (about 1471) pro- 
vided for important paragraphs in the text of his 



BMnfonii $$onij&ur 

degalenfis Porta: : AugultoruraPraxeptorisiviriqj Confiu 

laris opera diligcntiusircruoftigata,& in mcliorcm ordinc 

per quinq* Tomos rdhruta* 

In quorum primo funt Epigraramara* 

InfecundoEdyIIu« 

In tertioEpiftolar, 

In quarto Grariaruatftion«.I.adus Sapfentum*Catalogiw 

vrbiumnobiIium # LaboresHercuIis.Cs&uaitXii,dcfcriptio 

In quinto Hiados & Odyflc* Homcri infingulos libros Pw 
riochar* 




VanundanturinOfficina Afcenfiana* 




Device of Aldus Manutius, in the Statius of 1502. 




Device of John Daye, London, 1560. 



Initial letters for first pages 33 

books large and ornamental initial letters ? which 
were scattered through the text to enliven the gloom 
of its black print. Like the image prints of the 
period, the initials were often in outline, in the 




ad slum celeberrtme ccdcfic<£bo:3cen(is 

optumscawctecttnistecctct 3mp^zuniaicapmturtlimarirtutffilucubia* 
lionemmtns $plunt>us emaiDatu&i&umpttbus «erpenas 3ooantns ga 
djctmcwatozi6W);ambcncincnrnuiiap«catanicc(JcfiaOTamiifwanfe 
Irmo Dfuoeamofato fup^imiiclMwnaQumffWawlSDttbcrpQamia 
jf«tyuaa«ompletum«t<& pafccwm. 

Initial and device of Olivier, Rouen, 1490. 
Reduced facsimile. 

hope that buyers would fill the blank spaces with 
red ink. Zainer's method was eagerly adopted by 
the printers of all countries. For the first pages 
of books of devotion large initials seem to have 
been regarded as specially appropriate. The dec- 
orative M from the York Missal, printed for English 
readers at Rouen, in 1490, is a pertinent example. 
3 



34 



Other devices of early printers 





3§ T " 


1 11 




J 


BlfiS 


"n«.^f"i 


c 1 \»S«> 


»i 


few 


anmowTVinpUai'! 



Device of Andrew Myllar, Edinburgh. 



Aldus Manutius had for his books the device 
of a dolphin twisting about an anchor ; Anthony 
Gryphius, punning on his name, chose a frisky- 
griffin. Nearly every printer had a device, but 



C%m tegpnnrti) kty fooh of fl* tabtpt Jjiftapca 
anD ^jrablca at Btoip \&tytty vow CianaafeD out 
of ifanafc in to enqlpUty bp topUtam Canton 
at \x>t(tmpn(ixc$nttypwtfQm lort^O). 
>C€CCtyyym # 

B3tp fegpnn^ Kfe c 2 f of <Bfbp TbitQ aRc Qie fttfon* 
fcltofe tuae fuStgff/tbpfQ/cmo fojtie h> 6woz/ttot fttxe 
ftofctojoe tfjcgcamrf h) a Colbue namcty Ttmoneo/ 
tbtycfr Ibae a nong« o«)« opffojme&? ati&z cugttq fSapeij/ ^a» 
$ fVt*2 a gate fr»/ Sarge Sgfa$e/&nge 2)otbee/f5arp eg«»>/a 
ffioif necfte / co:& facfi^/cjwte feeg/ g«te foggee/artty Eatge 
fwt/2lnty get rtjat tb^icfle tbas Ibetfc fe toae OomBe/anb? rou» 
not fpcfte l$ut not XbifSflEon&yngaC tftio fo 0at> a gafc tbpffc 3 
Xbac gtsfctfp 2(ti3*fl£ oue/fu6^ w; axugffaaonc / 2tn^ 3o * 




f£$Qie §iffctpcowtfr2ne#/?)otb ft epeu^ ty>wj of t6at tbas 
Jmpof^ to> fynjjtyat $ f^>eo fttue etep t§e fesgee of $ie ft> a 

Title-page of the Fables of Aesop. William Caxton, 
Westminster, 1483. Eeduced facsimile. 



36 General adoption of the device 



few have artistic merit. In England the device 
most liked was that which conveyed to the reader 
a pun on the printer's name or a suggestion or 
pictorial description of his sign, or of the house or 

the street in which 
he worked. On the 
Continent geomet- 
rical designs or an- 
gular additions to 
the cross were cus- 
tomary. Heraldic 
emblems were pre- 
ferred in Germany. 
In his book Marques 
Typographiques, Sil- 
vestre truly repro- 
duced more than 




Device of Anthony Gryphius, 

Lyons, 1578. 



thirteen hundred devices, yet he confined his illus- 
trations to books in the French language made by 
French printers before the end of the seventeenth 
century. 

In his book on title-pages, Pollard presents other 
illustrations of French initials. All are quaint and 
pleasing, but a frequent repetition of the same ini- 
tial L (for the definite article Le) in many books 
must have been monotonous, for it was uot possible 
to devise new forms of the letter L which would 
be as attractive as a picture or a floriated border. 
Much as it may be admired now, the large deco- 
rative initial for the title-page proved a fleeting 



Insufficiency of the device 



37 




r /ff/mwc^<' 



ILE^S&lli 




^<&<2?<&sb&®ss. 




Device of William Caxton. Reduced facsimile. 

fashion : it was falling into disuse at the beginning 
of the seventeenth century. 

The repetition in different books of the same 
device was another offence to the reader that be- 
came too monotonous to be endured. It did not 
always identify the printer, nor did it specify the 



38 Contraction of the device 

astta omnia pMofo* 

pl?oium * poctarum cum auctott&tfbu* * fentetfc 
aureteeojundein amtejrte* 




C£umbcmteamb»l<?. OTowpcto^pcfltma; 
fcfc vtcre mow aUerw AM cges* 

By an unknown printer of the fifteenth century. 

book. To silence growing objections, printers of 
trivial works began to make smaller devices, and to 
give more prominence to the name of the book and 



|betroni| fl rbttrf tquateims 

extare comperitur,Satyracfragmentum,cuius vel hoc 
ynum diftichon, quodneminf do&iotum non eftm 
orc>f ftimationem indicate precium* 

Quifquis habet nummos.fecura nauiget aura > 
Fortunamq; fuo tempcretarbitrio. 




REGNAV^T'CHAVDIBRE »* 



CVfnundatur in vialacobgaabRegmaldo Chat 
derio/ubfigno fylueftrishominis. 

Petronius Arbiter, Chaudiere, Paris, 1520. 
Reduced facsimile. 



MAXIMI TYRII PHI 

lofophi Platonici Scrmonesfiuc 
DifputationesxLi. 

EX COSMI PACCII ARCHI- 
epijcopi llorentini tnwrpretotioM, 

Ab Henrico Stcphano cjuamplurimis inlocis 
emendau. 




EX OFFICINA HENIUCI 

Stcphani Parifienfis typography 
AN. M. D. LVU. 

Title-page and device of Henry Stephens. 



Decadence of the device 41 

its author. The printers of standard books have 
always resisted the tendency to make a needless 
display of their names or signs : the devices on the 
title-pages of Aldus, Stephens, Froben, Plantin, 
and the Elzevirs were sometimes large, but they 
did not belittle the name of the book. 

With the decline of printing in the seventeenth 
and eighteenth centuries may also be noticed the 
decline of the device. Books of merit were often 
published without a device, yet the need of a deco- 
rative spot on a bleak title-page seems to have been 
felt by the printers of every nation. Some inserted 
on the title-page old woodcuts previously used for 
books of devotion, and they were often inappropri- 
ate ; others made use of hackneyed emblems, or of 
the unmeaning decoration of a basket or pot of 
flowers. Many years passed before the title of the 
book and the name of the author received rightful 
prominence, and the publisher became content with 
his name at the foot of the page, in type of proper 
subordination. 

The revival in England of the device on the title- 
page is largely due to Pickering of London, who 
put it in many of his books after the year 1840. 
Following the ancient English custom, his first de- 
vice was a pun on his own name, a pike around a 
ring. He tired of it soon. Next came a monogram 
of more pleasing form. His permanent device was 
an adaptation of the trade-mark of Aldus, with the 
motto: An English disciple of Aldus. Whittingham 



42 



Revival in nineteenth century 



had many devices : beginning with a monogram, he 
ended with a heraldic lion rampant. The Chiswick 
Press, now under control of George Bell, makes a 




An early device of 
Pickering. 



ALDt 




A later device of Pickering. 



bell the feature. Devices of other printers of note 
will be found in following facsimiles of titles. The 
monogram is a favorite with modern French pub- 
lishers : many of their devices are ingenious and all 
are graceful. 




Ill 

TITLES WITH 
ENGRAVED BORDERS 



RHARDUS RATDOLT, from 
Augsburg, Germany, obtains 
distinction as the maker of 
! the earliest book with printed 
decoration on the title-page. 
This book, the Calendar of 
Johannes Regiomontanus, was 
published at Venice in 1476, 
in which city Ratdolt prac- 
tised his craft for ten years after. The words in 
this graceful border are not in the usual form of 
a title, for they introduce and commend only, but 
they pass for a title because they specify the place, 
date, and names of the makers of the book. 

Ratdolt is also honored for the elegance of his 
initial letters in other books, and for the brighter- 
colored inks he made for their greater decoration. 

43 




44 Earliest book with engraved first page 

The illustrations of books printed by him in Venice 
were finer and more beautiful than those of his 
earlier work in Germany,, but they were in the old 



E 







Vitus ofc liber eft : non eft predbtiof ulb ZJJ* 
L Gen n lulend.1 no : quod dotet iftud opus. V Cf 
Aureuibicnumeru? : lune : folifcjlafcores ^** 1 

Monfttanrur facile : cunctaqj ligna poll : 
Quoc<$rubboclibtocew; per louga tegantut 
' Tenlport : quifcp dies : men (w : fit annus en'c . 
ScVcur in inftanti quetunq* lie bora dici. 

Hunc emat afhrologus qui uelit eflea'co. 
Hoctoannesopus regr'ade monte pvobjcum 

Compotuic : tow nonus in iuIu . 
Quod uencu impicflum fuic in tellute pcpJIos 

InfcnWquotumnomtiupi&aloGo. 



. 14-7*. 




Bemaj;duspi&ocdcAugufh (fj^i 
Fetrusloftein de Longencen ^^(jgs 
EAaidusraodoltaeAugufta *^>D 

Title-page of the Calendar o^ Regiomontanus. Printed by 
Katdolt at Venice, 1476. Reduced facsimile. 

style of pure outline, which required not a little 
labor, for the engraver had to cut away the larger 
part of the surface of the block to make lines in 
high relief. 



Li -^^V^jf , t£*^N^^n^/'j»w** 




t v 71 Jfl'TMl^ a*JP f 


i^yT 


^S*Kf£^^| 


ipigi 


ifeJi 


' Ny^B^flliL Ci 




^ ^ , 

Beuotiflimezl&etutart 


i 


m 


onee&evttatbenefici 




i&erpafttoi&lua* 


SDK 


&M 


to:te 3efttcbfi 






ai gratiaru 


Cut 


l^jK*jR 


actionem 


fH*M( 


f*K 


* 


3 
II 




fe^wssCTs»asif/Ss 




^ 


memmsm 







Supposed to have been printed by Sigismund Brith, 1520. 
Reduced facsimile. 




Printed by Mekhior Sessa, at Venice, 1532. 
Reduced facsimile. 



Decoration made tvith white on black 47 

In the hope of securing an equally good effect in 
the print, and to save apparent waste of labor, 
Ratdolt and other printers of his time afterward 
undertook to have their designs presented as white 
lines on a solid black background. This method 
seemed the shorter way to a better result. It was 
easier to cut occasional furrows in a flat field after 
the method of the copperplate-engravers than it 
was to scalp and entirely remove the largest part 
of that field. Sometimes an engraving so made did 
prove much more effective in print than the older 
method of building up black lines on a white field, 
but the new method brought with it a new diffi- 
culty : it taxed beyond its ability the power of the 
wood-framed printing-press then in use. A small 
initial or device, or a narrow border with a black 
background, might be printed without extra labor, 
but the proper printing of a large black border on 
more than one page was quite impracticable. The 
resistance offered by one large block, nearly solid as 
to its black, was much more than that of the pages 
of type printed with it. 

Although the new style of engraving made hard 
presswork for the printer, it came to stay, for it 
was cheaper. Engravers who sought shorter cuts 
to effective results, and publishers who tried to get 
showy illustrations at the smallest expense, were 
slow to admit its unfitness, and they persisted in 
its practice eyen after repeated failure. The decline 
of the art of engraving on wood, which dates from 



48 Cribbling of the black backgrounds 

the beginning of the sixteenth century, began with 
persistence in the practice of a style of engraving 
that could not then be properly printed. 

Other printers in Italy made use of the black 
background for an ornamental border to illustra- 
tions or to first pages, but many of these borders 
were narrow, like those of picture -frames, which 
seem to have been taken for models. Although the 
borders were often black, the illustrations inclosed 
by them were usually in the outline manner. The 
black borders appear at their best when they in- 
close black gothic letter j the borders in outline, 
when they surround a roman or light-faced letter. 
Dr. Lippmann wisely says that the great charm of 
the books of the early Venetian printers is in " the 
clear and simple style of the illustrations that har- 
monize perfectly with the elegant roman types of 
the texts." 

The black-bordered title-page was imitated- by 
printers in all countries, but nowhere did it have 
greater admirers than in France. In many bor- 
ders the engraver tried to adapt this style of en- 
graving to the weakness of the hand-press by 
puncturing the background with points that would 
show white in the print. This style was known in 
France as crxblfa, or pierced with holes as in a sieve, 
from which the name is derived. 1 The solid back- 
ground had been found impracticable : it called for 

i The initial letters of the chapters in this book 
are the designs of Ratdolt. 




mz&m 



Made for Thielman Kerver, at Paris, about 1501. 



50 Defects of early paper and press 

more ink, and excess of ink choked the close lines 
of the engraving and muddily thickened the print. 




iftomilttsamme 

cumalt'is #plurimtso:3rioni 

bus p:iftiue impzeflioiufit 

peraddittewtabulamiii 

buius calccanneram in 

tu&fp&Wmnmr* 




Printed by Anthony Koburger, Nuremberg, 1514. 

Even when the block had been most intelligently 
inked, the weakness of the press and the roughness 
of the paper prevented a perfect transfer of ink to 




Printed by Simon da Luere, at Venice, 1497. 
Reduced facsimile. 



Solid backgrounds imperfectly printed 



j§&aco:onadonc6paeftapb:el 

Ifamofo poetajuanoe^kna: 

6 otras coplas anadf das ala 

Ifin f ecfras po: el mefmo poeta* 



Ixr; 



La Coronaeion. Jacob Cromberger, Seville, 1517. 

paper. Instead of a solid velvety black, the print 
would reveal in unexpected places patches of gray 




Printed by John and Gregory de Gregoriis, at Venice, 1495. 
Reduced facsimile. 



54 Printing in colors proved impracticable 

that seriously damaged the effect intended by the 
designer. When the solid background had been 
cribbled, the block needed less ink and less force 
for impression. The tone, changed from black to 
blackish gray, could be kept apparently uniform 
in tint, and that tint would be dark enough to give 
a proper relief to the white lines. 

No illustration can be shown of early title-pages 
or first pages with engraved borders printed in two 
or more colors. Schoeffer's experiments in color- 
printing, as exhibited in the great initials of the 
Psalter of 1457 7 could not have been entirely satis- 
factory to him 7 for the few surviving copies of this 
book show that a colorist had to retouch by hand- 
painting occasional feebleness of color and defec- 
tive impression. In the last edition of the book, 
made by his successors in 1519, the initials appear 
in one color only. 

Lippmann writes that the Berlin print-room has 
a print in brown, green, and red, made by one 
Johann Hammen, a German, and that there were 
printers in Italy besides Ratdolt who tried to print 
in colors. We are told that woodcuts for printing 
in colors were made afterward by Albert Durer, 
Bnrgkmair, and Cranach in Germany, by Ugo de 
Carpi in Italy, and even as late as 1754 by John 
Baptist Jackson, an English engraver on wood, 
who had printed at Venice, Paris, and London , but 
all experiments in color-printing were under the 
direction of artists who could not fully overcome 



56 



Unskilful engraving on ivood 



£omment lc ton paintre^ffe 
fat tc contrefatre pewfw 
Xa tree gwot bawlte te nature 
£tce Id painDxnritgttntatre 













f^V 


ffef/> 




ifct^Ili 




J^J* 






n /s^tjSj 




^ 


Ik *""' 1 1 


3 <?A 






If 






IP 





£y commecc k romlc tc la rofc 
0» tout Urt Damours eft cnclofe. 

Le Roman de la Rose. 
Printed by Jean Croquet, Geneva, 1479. 



mechanical difficulties, and all attempts proved 
unsatisfactory. Before the fifteenth century closed, 



Cracking and warping of woodcuts 57 

book printers had reached the conclusion that an 
exact registry of printed color on shrinkable damp 
paper from two or more xmequally shrinking blocks 
of wood was impracticable, and that printing in 
colors could be done safely in the colors of red and 
black only and from types of unshrinking metal. 

The failure of attempts to print illustrations in 
colors did not check the art of engraving in relief. 
In many cities prints of excellence were made that 
showed increasing skill on the part of the engravers 
and an increasing desire on the part of the readers 
for illustrations. The frailty of the pearwood or 
applewood then largely used for engraving was a 
more serious check. The block of wood was softer 
than types of metal and more liable to bruises ; it 
would warp, shrink, or crack with every variation 
from heat to cold ? or from dryness to dampness, 
and no care could wholly prevent these mischances. 
In borders that had been engraved on wood and 
mortised in the centre for the types of the title, the 
shrinking of the wood and the wedging-in of the 
type were sure, sooner or later, to cause unsightly 
cracks in one or more corners that could not be 
entirely concealed. 

To avoid the cracking of the block at the corners, 
the French printers of the Books of Hoars made 
their borders out of the combination of four or 
more detached blocks engraved in the form of strips 
or bands. When the band was not wide enough, 
other bits of engraving were added, as may be seen 



58 Woodcuts often out of square 

in the device of Felix Balligault. An impropriety 
of design in an added bit was regarded as of small 
importance. A bit too long was cut off; a bit too 
short was pieced out with petty fragments. 

Decorative borders for titles were made with en- 
graved designs in small squares of uniform width, 
so that they could be cut apart and combined with 
other squares in the construction of borders of a 
different size, which could be used in any future 
book. The small size of the blocks did not entirely 
prevent the warping of the wood, for in some Books 
of Hours printed before the year 1520 the smaller 
pieces are often painfully out of square. After 
this date the combinations of small bits were not 
frequent ; a new border was made up with fewer 
pieces, and sometimes of one piece only. As these 
smaller pieces are truly square and connect with 
fair accuracy, there is reason for the belief that 
many engravings in relief of that period were cut 
upon blocks of metal. 1 

The combination of detached pictorial designs 
was rarely practised beyond France. It had been at- 
tempted on a larger scale in Holland, but not with 
pleasing results. In Italy the title-page border was 
usually of one piece mortised for type, and the 

1 The facsimile (reduced) on edition of Meditationes de Tur- 

facing page, an exhibit of early recremata, printed at Albi in 

engraving in relief on metal, was France, in the year 1481. This 

made by or for John Nummeis- book has other prints of similar 

ter, a pupil of Gutenberg, and size, but all are surrounded by 

was used by Nummeister in his the same border. 



The Queen Elizabeth Prayer-booh 59 

style most approved was that of an architectural 
interior, in firm outline, or with a little conven- 
tional shading. This was not enough for the en- 




See foot-note on facing page. 

graver in relief. He became euvious of the copper- 
plate-printer, and imitated his elaboration. 

One of the earliest attempts in England at the 
border made by combining detached woodcuts, and 
in imitation of the French manner, is seen in the 
Queen Elizabeth Prayer-booh, printed in 1578 by 
John Daye of London. The greater part of the 
title-page of this book was engraved on one block, 
but the connected illustrations around the pages 
of text were of many pieces. 



60 Borders in Germany 

The very large engravings of Germany were shown 
to marked advantage in folio and quarto books. 
They may be noted in the Nuremberg Chronicle of 
1493, in the Coverdale Bible of 1535, and in Tyn- 
dale's Netv Testament of 1536 ; but in none of these 
books is there any imitation of French or Italian 
mannerisms of engraving. Germans preferred 
large books and large engravings, and often secured 
the services of superior designers for their title- 
pages, which were filled with pictures in panels that 
fitly illustrated the text. One of the most note- 
worthy in this style is that made by Lucas Cranach 
for the translation of the Bible by Martin Luther, 
which was printed in 1541 by Hans Lufft of Wit- 
tenberg. 

To keep within prescribed limits, the engravings 
of many remarkable borders for title-pages must be 
passed by without notice. It will not, however, be 
out of place to attempt an explanation of the early 
separation of these branches of the graphic arts. 
In the earlier part of the sixteenth century great 
masters in design like Durer and Holbein in Ger- 
many, Mantegna in Italy, and the so-called Little 
Masters, like Salomon in France, became cheerful 
contributors to the improvement of the new art of 
typography. With them appeared also in several 
printing-houses incapables who could not design 
correctly or even engrave passably. Many wood- 
cuts of Caxton and of early printers in Spain and in 
the Low Countries are sorry exhibits, and their too 



TMira7Ji)jiJ a MJcat» m BKTiQim»GMj»^ 





lOS EPH . BENJAMIN, MATTHIAS, I VI ? & 



Title-page of the "Breeches" Bible. Printed by Robert 
Barker, at London, 1611. Reduced facsimile. 




ila Trios nobles 
caualieros ©If ue 
rostfccaftilla?- 
artustjalgarbe- 

Printed by Alaman, at Burgos, 1499. 

Reduced facsimile. 



Unsatisfactory printing of tvoodcuts 63 

negligent workmanship was often made worse by- 
bad paper and printing. Every lover of prints who 
scrutinizes a genuine print of the Passion, or the 
Life of the Virgin, must wish that the blocks of 
Diirer in their best state had been preserved and 
could be printed by the German printers who are 
now so successfully reproducing these and other 
early masterpieces. 1 

Educated readers, who had been accustomed to 
the delicacy of the miniatures and illuminations in 
good manuscript books, could not have been con- 
tent with the coarseness and muddy printing of the 
ordinary woodcut. Another class of readers saw 
more merit in elaboration than in design, for there 
were then, as there are now, readers who preferred a 
feeble miniature by a mediocre painter, if minutely 
drawn and prettily colored, to the strong work of a 
great master, boldly printed with a firm line and in 
black ink. To this class of readers the Little Pas- 
sion and the Dance of Death were not satisfactory. 
They craved a delicacy of line, a minuteness in 
finish, and a receding in perspective which had not 
then been shown in any woodcut. 

Nor is it probable that Holbein, Diirer, and other 
masters in design were entirely contented with the 
presswork done for them by any letterpress printer. 

l During the first quarter of the stood stiU or declined. This was 

sixteenth century France was unfortunate, for the engravers 

the only country that showed in- were making blocks that called 

creasing skill in typography ; in for more care from the press- 

every other country printing man. 



64 Title-pages by copperplate process 

The paper then in common use was often coarse 
and always uneven in thickness j the printing-press 
was shackly and too weak for hard pressure ; the 
woolen blankets that diffused impression on the 
overlapping damp paper unavoidably thickened 
and maltreated the fine work of a good engraver. 
These were sad hindrances, but the liability of the 
unseasoned block of wood to warp or to crack was 
the greatest misfortune. The careful designer or 
engraver hesitated to put his best workmanship 
upon the block, which might be irreparably dam- 
aged before a dozen sheets could be printed. En- 
graving upon soft metal was a safeguard against 
cracking, but it made thicker lines and had other 
disadvantages. At its best, the engraving in relief 
was not satisfactory to designer or engraver, to 
printer, publisher, or reader. To printers every- 
where woodcut printing was work of difficulty, of 
unpaid expense and unsatisfactory results. To the 
untaught reader the best woodcut was decidedly 
inferior to the ordinary copperplate. When the 
publishers had beeu slowly and quite unwillingly 
convinced of a growing preference for copperplate, 
the woodcut was ordered mainly for title-pages of 
small and inexpensive books. 

The copperplate title-page, which first appeared 
in Italy, was not common in France or Germany in 
the middle of the sixteenth century. It reached its 
highest development not long after in Antwerp. 
No printer of the period equalled Christopher 




Printed by Daniel Elzevir, at Amsterdam, 1677. 
Reduced facsimile. 



66 Woodcuts supplanted by copperplates 



Plantin in his liberal use of engravings on wood and 
on copper for the illustrations and the title-pages 
of books. 1 

The development of the copperplate title-page, 
which deserves a treatise by itself, must here be 
passed with scant mention, as outside the field of 
strict typography. It is enough to say that copper- 
plate title-pages and illustrations supplanted wood- 
cuts in every pretentious book, and that they kept 



l Plantin's account-books, still 
preserved, show that the engrav- 
ing on copper of title-pages of 
books in folio cost from seventy 
to one hundred florins each. In- 
itial letters engraved on wood, 
some of great size and full of fine 
work, did not average in cost 
more than ten sous each. Some 
cost but one sou. The little fig- 
ures of a missal, admirably cut 
on wood by Van Leest, cost from 
twenty sous each, and larger 
blocks full of figures from five 
to ten florins. 

Mechanical, literary, andartis- 
tic work could then be bought for 
little money. Plantin's composi- 
tors earned from seven to nine 
sous a day ; some of his educated 
readers and correctors were paid 
much smaller sums. Jerome 
Wiericx, his favorite engraver, 
valued his time at eight florins a 
day, but his prints of folio size 
were then sold in Antwerp at six 
or eight sous each . Equally low 
prices prevailed in London for 
a long time after. Wenceslaus 
Hollar, an engraver of high repu- 



tation, offered to work for pub- 
lishers of London at the rate of 
fourpence an hour. 

The reputation of the Plantin 
house as an encourager of en- 
graving was well maintained by 
Plantin's successors, John and 
Balthazar Moretus. Rubens was 
their favorite designer of title- 
pages. His price for designing 
a title-page in folio was one hun- 
dred florins, and he demanded 
three months for its execution. 
The price for engraving a large 
design for a folio varied from 
seventy to one hundred florins. 
For one very large plate Rubens 
was paid one hundred and forty- 
eight florins. For the smaller 
sizes of octavo and duodecimo he 
was content with five to twenty 
florins each. 

The above details are gleaned 
from two books written by Max 
Rooses : Christophe Plantin, im- 
primeur anversois (Anvers, 
1882); Titres et Portraits graves 
d'apres P. P. Rubens pour l'im- 
primerie Plantinienne, folio (An- 
vers, 1878J. 




ANTVEKVIA,, EX OFFICI^A PL A^TINIAtt A 
BALTHASARIS MORXTI. 2*. DC. LIV. 

Printed by Balthazar Moretus in the Plantin printing-house, 
Antwerp, 1654. Reduced facsimile. 




Printed by John Sibereh, at Cambridge, 1521. 
Reduced facsimile. 



Lettering on copperplates 69 

their lead for at least three centuries. They are to 
be* seen in the title-pages of the petty books printed 
by the Elzevirs of the sixteenth and in most of the 
huge folios of the eighteenth century. Beginning 
with plates that fitly illustrated or plainly suggested 
the subject-matter of the text, the fashion neared its 
end with ornamentation that showed the freaks of 
the designer and the engraver. 

The degradation of engraving on wood may be 
inferred from the complete absence of woodcuts in 
the Mechanick Exercises of Moxon (1683), and the 
Manuel Typographique of Fournier (1766). These 
books were written by qualified printers and type- 
founders to explain tools and processes, but they 
contain no neat engraving on wood. Every print of 
value is a copperplate. In some pretentious books 
of the eighteenth century even the initial letters 
were printed by copperplate process. 

The difficulties sure to follow every attempt to 
print movable types within a previously printed 
copperplate border compelled the lettering of some 
title-pages to be engraved on and printed with the 
plate. This lettering was usually done with a good 
taste then rarely shown by the compositor. The 
designer could make his letters fit the space al- 
lowed, which the compositor could not do so well 1 
Title-pages drawn on copper were not entirely out 

1 Christopher Van Dijk, whose architect for the lettering of the 
ahility as a letterer was widely state-house erected at Amster- 
known, was preferred over the dam during his life. 




From a book of the Turlot type-foundry, Paris, 1868. 




Title-page border of William Pickering, London, 1840. 



72 Woodcuts provided for cheap books 

of fashion in England even as late as 1840. They 
can be seen in the Keepsakes, and in annuals sold 
under other titles, for it was the belief of nearly all 
publishers, and readers too, that a book could not 
be rated as sumptuous if destitute of an engraved 
title. The shabby type-printing of the seventeenth 
century had soured critical readers, and had made 
general the belief that typography was an inferior 
art from which high merit could not be expected. 
John Pine, an enthusiastic admirer of fine printing, 
between 1733 and 1737 had an octavo edition of 
Horace, in two volumes, composed in type (to get 
good models of symmetrical letters), and the print 
therefrom transferred to copperplates which, after 
they had been adorned with classical initials, head- 
bands, and illustrations, were etched or engraved 
and printed in much blacker ink entirely by cop- 
perplate process. It was a stinging rebuke to the 
wretched typography of his time. 

Although copperplate title-pages could then be 
made at what we now call cheap prices, they cost 
more and were more slowly printed than title-pages 
of type, and for cheap editions could not be used at 
all. Woodcuts were the unsatisfactory alternative, 
for designers had abandoned the outline style aud 
persisted in overloading their blocks with confused 
shadings that could not be clearly printed. The 
full-sized title-page on wood was discarded. Even 
the printer's device had to be contracted or entirely 
suppressed. For the decoration of his title-page the 




Title-page by Christopher Barker. 
Reduced facsimile. 



74 Small woodcuts used for borders 

publisher had to content himself with the stock- 
piece of the pot or basket of flowers. 

Printing-houses that had accumulated woodcuts 
made them available, as far as was possible, for 
cheap books or for new editions in a cheaper form. 
As early as 1483, John Veldener, then at Kuilen- 
burg, cut up the large blocks of the block-book 
Biblia Pauperum, and after he had separated the 
pictures of each panel, presented them in bits to 
the reader with new matter, in a new book and in 
a new surrounding of type. Famous publishers like 
Simon Vostre and Thielman Kerver of Paris made 
up borders for pages, as they did for titles, by com- 
binations of small woodcuts. The cuts might be 
old and known to the reader, but when they were 
combined with other pieces the arrangement was 
new. For a while this method of utilizing old ma- 
terial was pleasing, but when the blocks were worn 
and made bad joints, and unmistakably showed that 
the decoration was a patchwork of refuse material, 
the title-page so treated lost its attractiveness. 

The engraved title-page border was revived by 
Pickering for some of his best books. With his 
unerring good taste, he forsook copperplate, and 
had his decorative borders engraved on wood, in 
the style of the early Italian printers. The border 
was made to harmonize with the type to be used, 
and did not belittle the work of the printer, but 
gave it more distinction. 



IV 

BORDERS OF 
FLOWERS OR RULES 



OODCUTS of merit for title- 
pages that required expert 
engravers could not be made 
in small towns for the cheap 
books that abounded in the 
seventeenth century. With- 
out their aid, the engraved 
title-page was an impossibil- 
ity. The absence of an en- 
graved design was always regretted, for printers 
then believed that a title-page was unpleasingly 
inferior if it did not have a device, or at least an 
engraved border, to make it properly attractive. 

Some type-founders tried to supply this want with 
the ornaments then known as flowers, which were 
founded in type-metal and made in small pieces 
that could be readily combined to suit any length 




76 Type-founders imitated copperplate 

or width of page. A few of the ornaments then 
made were of good design, but many did not reach 
the standard of mediocrity. Their great fault was 
a "servile imitation of the dense lines of the copper- 
plate-engraver. Ornamentation so made was hard 
to print. When these flowers had not been care- 
fully engraved and founded, and were over-inked 
with foul balls as often happened, the prints pro- 
duced therefrom were muddy ; when lightly inked, 
they were gray and indistinct. Ornamental type 
borders of graceful form were pleasing only when 
they were new and carefully treated, but they were 
real disfigurements when they became worn. The 
border of flowers was a transitory fashion that 
charmed only by reason of its novelty. The critical 
reader soon grew weary of its mechanical monotony, 
and printers gradually abandoned it as unworthy 
decoration. 

The decorative borders of flowers are flagrant 
examples of the debasement of typography that 
followed its unwise imitation of the mannerisms of 
copperplate-engraving. Italian publishers of the 
early sixteenth century had shown that beautiful 
decoratiou could be had from engraving in pure 
outline, and that outline work could be as easily 
printed as types ; but no type-founder tried to make 
the ornamentation of his flowers agree with the color 
or density of the types of the text. He was more 
intent on showing his ability as an engraver, which 
he believed would be most distinctly exhibited by 



FLOWERS. 



II 




W^^^^^^^^^^^^ 




Typographic flowers of the eighteenth century. 
From Luckombe's History of Printing. 




Reduced facsimile. 



Borders made tvith brass rules 79 

niggling his ornament with fine lines that made 
shallow counters. Pleasing as a new ornament in 
this style might appear in the smoke-proof, it was 
sure to be a blotch in the print and at variance 
with the type. The flower borders of the Manuel 
Typographique are imitations of the ornameuts then 
used by French bookbinders, who made elaborate 
designs with few tools. The type-founder was not 
so successful. He lacked the discernment of the 
finisher ; he could uot foresee that a design made 
for glittering gold on sombre leather would be dull 
when it had been printed in black ink upon white 
paper. Light and shade could not be successfully 
reversed. 

Combination borders of flowers soon proved im- 
practicable, but failure did not change the belief of 
many printers that a title-page composed of letters 
only was uneveu, ragged, and unfinished. If the 
pages of the text had a square outline, why should 
not a similar form be given to the title? This 
might be done with rules of metal. Lines ruled 
about every page with a reed or pen were then 
common not only in the manuscript, but in the 
printed book, and printers began to follow the 
fashion by putting rules of brass about the title- 
page as an added grace. 

At the start, this fashion was damaged by the 
unfitness of the material selected. Moxon, the first 
English writer on typography, recommended that 
printing rules should be made of hard planished 




Keduced facsimile. 



M 

Sur un Ouvrage intitule, 

^ Lettrefur COrlgine de VImprimtrk , &c. « 

POUR 

fervir de fuite au Traite 

De rOriginc & des productions de 
V Imprimerie primitive en taille de bois. 

PAR 

j^j M. FOURNIER LE JEUNE. B? 

w 
^9 



W 

• 

De l'lmprimerie de J. Barbou, 
£' M. DCC. LXL 







r^ 







82 Rule borders hard to register 

brass; but most of the books of his period and of 
later date plainly show that a softer metal must 
have been used, or that the good brass selected for 
rules had been roughly treated. It is rare to find 
in any book of the seventeenth century a rule border 
which is straight or right-angled ; nearly all are 
bent, crooked, or gapped. The modern method of 
mitring rules to prevent gaps at angles was not 
practised. The gap was rated a trivial fault. 

The single hair-line rule, oftenest selected, was 
weak and easily bent. To prevent this fault the 
title-page border was made of two or more parallel 
hair-line rules, but uot always with improvement, 
for two thin rules out of parallel were more un- 
sightly than a single rule. Another novelty was 
introduced by giving a broader parallel to the rules 
pu the outer side of each page of text type, with 
intent to provide a wider space for the insertion of 
brief notes or cross-references. 

Rule borders made trouble in another direction 
by increasing the difficulty of register. A little 
variation in the backing of one type-page upon 
another will pass unnoticed, but the slightest devia- 
tion is offensive when two rules on two pages do 
not register exactly. When it had beeu proved by 
long practice that an exact register of rule-bordered 
pages could rarely be secured, the rule borders were 
given up as making needless expense for ordinary 
books. They were used onlv for titles iutended to 
be exceptionally fine. 



CD 




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'■ . e*^ s Iris •tii^s 








iffi<m£6#4 'tSm&rucior v WftW^j 



3 



■ INCLUDING AN ACCOCNT 
of the 
ORIGIN OF PRINTING, 

with 



g:|jf ORIGIN OF PRINTING, K|Hl 

- h w$>~'$#i ma SsSKL 

KflS*** Biographical Notices of the Printers of f..&$$>§J 

OJS^St? England, from Caxton to the close ?£!&•%*■ 

<* ; .B : *3 <l/"*Af Sixteen* ft Century • m «. ffib^S* 

^|*V 4 ASerieaof fSgJi 

fltflx SncinitanttiBo&eni8lp?iat>rts. s*-QigX 



■ ! -B : *¥ 
Bideri A 



DOMESDAY CHARACTERS: 
' Together with 

: ^@*« An Elucidation of every Subject con- 

*w*t 

S****A B? J. JOHNSON, Frintrb. 

v£i : £ < £v B'** 1 1»v*klioD, lo God alone (hi pruhel 

«** y*a For gifiiu* meo thii nofalr An to mite ; 

yflonn»nW y mm tliee whet benefit* do men poMMt T 

O^ 1 ***^ The Pol pit, Bar, ud $Ug« ill now toofrti : 

£<jp.Cj^i£ij[ Tract tha Hitturic page and liew Ibe line, 

ydj'-fci' 4*V Before thou vliitnt cor naiiia clime ; 1 

•Tdt&rfbdjb;* Tba want a/the* k*pt An, and CumrimcTDW, 

IBrdHell. t Without thy aid, how tilUe eooH pi aa*w t 

li&a &£bQ Thou irt tha stent by which we fain redre»i, 

T'B-O -gTV . 0lJ? « tl i 06 .ihnlwark u, T*« SrftiiA JYcn 

|gHe dmml| ■ 



* Toye. s 

torn. 



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Wjrnkr* 
deWorde 



C-i^:»;!*<sisi>r:y.i«».c>s>s:ii:>c:i' 



IXCcplMHlYl 



PuMlitaedhy Messrs. LoDemaD, Hunt,] # *~. 
' Gruo, Pater- hEy 



: >t- 1 Bee *» 0rme > Brown «t 
>Cfi:>» £* I noitcr Bow, London, 



Pynson. 



Borders were reluctantly abandoned 85 

The labored title-page of Johnson's Typographies is 
a fair exhibit of misdirected skill in an attempt 
to combine rules, types, and flowers with no better 
tools than the shears and a file. Imperfect as the 
work is in some points, this title has more merit 
as a design than many forms of twisted rule-work 
recently made with mechanical exactness. 

The publisher gave up with reluctance this sim- 
ple attempt at decoration, and tried to be content 
with the rawness of plain types in titles with their 
usual ragged outlines. French and German print- 
ers tried to decorate the title with the hackneyed 
vase of flowers or some other unmeaning scrap of 
decoration. There was a general belief that a title- 
page was incomplete without engraved work, for 
every title-page with scant wording seemed bald 
and colorless when compared with its following 
pages of text. It needed some black or compact 
gray to give contrast to the bleakness and be a 
substitute for the old device. 

There are printers who still maintain that the 
title-page is like the main entrance to a house, and 
that it needs decoration more than any other part 
of the work. They hold that it should have a 
border to define and inclose its irregularity of out- 
line, but the engraved border of good design is as 
difficult to get now as it ever was. The combina- 
tion flower border is put aside as mechanical and 
old-fashioned; the hair-line rule in single or parallel 
lines is unacceptable for its feebleness and liability 



86 Corners for borders of brass ride 

to show gaps and bruises. Nor is this feebleness 
much strengthened when ornamental corners have 
been added. The hair-line border around title- 
pages, which was in great favor in England and 
America during the middle of the nineteenth cen- 
tury, is now rarely used, for it has proved as in- 
effective as it is troublesome. The hair-line is rarely 
electrotyped without a bend, or printed with uni- 
form firmness, for it may appear thicker in one 
part than in another. In France rounded corners 
and twisted corners were tried, but they have been 
objected to as finical. The thick line is now pre- 
ferred, especially for a border in red ink, for its 
wider face fairly shows the brighter color which 
the hair-line does not. The thicker rule has an- 
other merit: it is more readily mitred or joined 
and can be neatly connected at the corners. 

Improved mitring-machines, introduced about 
1850, have led to attempts at the decoration of the 
corners. Derriey of Paris, in his Album Typogra- 
phique of 1862, showed many extraordinary feats 
of skill in the mitring of flowers on brass and metal 
rules at angles of any degree, and his example has 
been fairly imitated by many printers of Germany, 
and by a smaller number in England and America ; 
but these feats of legerdemain are too wasteful of 
time to be of real service in practical typography. 
Of doubtful value in job-work, they are impossible 
in any good book. Rules crossing and projecting 
at the corners of a title-page, sometimes known as 



<J%EO<PAG IT JCJ; 

A 

SPEECH 

O F 

For the Liberty of Vnlicenc'd 
PRINTING, 

To the Parlament ef ENGLAND. 



XpfffDv It (Siwtp* H* fttW 9*P«|J» • #& 

Euriptd, Hiccticf. 



ThU is true Liberty when fit* born men 
Havingeo advife the public may fpeakfiee, 
Which he whe cart, and wiB 9 defirv's high praife, 
Who neither can nor mil, M*f hold hi* peace; 
What can bejufter in a State then this ? 

Euripid. Hicctid. 



LONDON, V 

| Printed in the Ycare, 1644. .^ g 



Reduced facsimile. 



\%fc- *-$ ^^f 



SIConfiderations and Propofalsg 

^ In Order to the fi» 

| Regulation | 

|g OP the g 

IP R E S S:| 

$| TOGSrHBR WITH £ 

? Divcrfe Inftancer of Treasonous, and 2 

SI Seditious Pamphlets, Proving the •£ 

* Ntcefiity thereof. £> 

$ i 

Roger L'Estrange. g 

f» 

$ 

[LONDON, Printed by if.C.y«w«^| 
M.DC.LX1IL % 



Reduced facsimile 



Suggestions for borders of brass rales 89 

Oxford corners, are occasionally accepted for the 
title-pages of ecclesiastical work, in the belief that 
they are in a correct monastic style, but they are 
seldom used now for any title-page. When properly 
printed in red ink the Oxford corners with small 
projections enliven a bleak page, but there are 
readers who rate them as needlessly fussy. The 
thick rule preferred for red ink by discreet pub- 
lishers usually has plain mitres and no ornamen- 
tation at the corners. A novelty now in fashion 
authorizes the division of the title-page border in 
three or more connected parts — the name at the 
top and the imprint at the foot of the page. It is 
a fashion of doubtful propriety. A series of mated 
or connected rules, making three or more panels, 
is more common in job-work or in advertising 
pamphlets than in the title-pages of standard books. 
Many rules and mauy panels interfere with the 
purpose of a title. The title-page so treated shows 
the skill of the compositor more than the expressed 
thought of the author. 

Exact register for rule-bordered pages may be 
secured by the selection of a brass rule not less 
than five points thick. The two-point rule, once 
in general use, is rarely joined with accuracy, even 
on a good machine : it is liable to bend, and its 
sharp line, cut with a bevel at too acute an angle, 
cannot be properly moulded in wax, or be firmly 
reproduced in the electrotype plate. The line of 
about one point width of face on at least a five- 



A 

LETTER 

TO A 

Member of Parliament, 

Shewing, due a 

RESTRAINT 

On the 

PRESS 

Is inconfiftent with the Proteftant Re- 
ligion, and dangerous to the Liber- 
ties of the Nation. 



LONDON; 

Printed by J. Darby, and fold by Andr. Bell at the 
Crofs-Keys and Bible in CornhiL MDCXCVIIL 



Reduced facsimile. 



t 



&Z 



•»• 



* 




HH^ 



-t- 




Modern rule borders of brass with 
corners. Reduced. 



T* 



92 Suggestions for borders of brass rides 

point body is preferred by all printers, for it is 
moulded with smaller risk of bending, and it is not 
so liable to gap or thicken under repeated impres- 
sions on the press. 

Brass rules are now made for plain thin lines 
that do not need mitring to form the ordinary right 
angle. The face of this kind of brass rule is flush 
with one side ; all the bevel is put on the other side. 
When the rules for a border have been accurately 
cut, and the flush side of one piece is lapped over 
and against the flush side of another piece, the 
junction of the two pieces is as perfect as if each 
piece had been separately mitred to the usual angle 
of 45°, as will be seen in the illustration opposite. 

When a bordered page is planned with two or 
more panels, special side rules need not be cut for 
each panel if the page is to be electrotyped : one rule 
of a length that spans all the panels will be sufficient. 
The finisher of the electrotype plate can cut off the 
bits of rule that are not needed, and make perfect 
joints in any place where junction is imperfect. 

Two and sometimes three sets of nested border 
rules are often devised for the title-page, but not 
always to its improvement. Care should be taken 
not to have these rules too close to each other and 
to the type that is inclosed. A brass rule six or 
more points wide on its face should not be selected 
for a title-page in light-faced two-line letter, when 
type and border are to be printed together in black 
ink. A border of this thickness makes the types 



?ome Account of 

^*< The Orange 
Training School 
for Nurses im* imz i&c i&c 





Orange, New Jersey 
1899 



De Vinne Press. Reduced facsimile. 



94 Rule borders call for exactness 

of the title relatively insignificant. The broad- 
faced border is most acceptable when it is printed 
separately in red ink, but it should never be so 
wide and so prominent as to make the types within 
seem petty. 

Brass-rule borders for one page, or for a full 
form, call for strict attention to all the details of 
perfect workmanship. Rules of proper thickness 
must be exactly cut on a perfect machine, the pages 
must be solid or free from spongy reglet or leads, 
the furniture between pages should be of true and 
solid type-metal in one piece, the chase should have 
its cross-bars tested for squareness, and careful 
loeking-up (against interior cross-bars where possi- 
ble) should be executed by an expert only, always 
slowly and with every precaution. A neglect to 
observe one only of these conditions may be the 
cause of gaping corners and untrue register. 




PARAGRAPH 
AND BASTARD TITLES 



j]N the year 1470 Arnold Ther 
Hoernen of Cologne printed 
a little book with its custom- 
ary introduction at the head 
of a page of which the larger 
portion was entirely blank. 
This introduction, set as a 
paragraph in the small type 
of the text, is unusually ver- 
bose, yet it does not give the name or place of the 
printer. Why this introduction appears on a sepa- 
rate page is not known, bnt it is a permissible sup- 
position that the printer forgot it when he began 
to set the type for the book, and snpplied it after- 
ward, as he would an omission, in the form of an 
added and prefixed leaf before the book was bound. 
This paragraph is not a title, bnt bibliographers 




£>*emfr ab ppulum ptebieabiii* ^n feffo pfot* 
tottom** J&ea ttfTime mam fcmptt turgmw no* 
niter aim magna bi%eaa*abo>mmuncm t>fum 
multo? faoerfotu ptcictttm carats? a>Ucctus.<£t 
ibdtcD pec fmpr^fTotii multiplif afu^*fub l?oc ait' 
eentr^&nno femim^ccrt^.l^^ttiuf^uitem 
collccttonis atqj ettam muldpltcao6mff ctue no 
patat'pm&nba rodo ft placet* fiten p&tettt* )'it 
JoltjTatrorcquctttt 

Paragraph title of Ther Hoernen. 



Early forms of displayed title 97 

consider it as the first step in 
that direction. It seems to 
have been accepted by some 
connoisseurs in printing as a 
model of good style to be imi- 
tated in the making of modern 
books. Why it should be so 
rated is not clearly explained. 
Van der Linde stigmatizes 
much of the printing of Ther 
Hoernen as barbarous, and his 
workmanship on another book 1 
before the writer fully justifies 
this condemnation. He was 
not a master qualified to teach 
good form in typography. The 
new fashion was not readily 
adopted by other printers of 
that period, nor did Ther Hoer- 
nen always repeat it in his sub- 
sequent books. 

The displayed title-page is 
apparently a development of 
the early bastard title, which 
was a repetition in print of the 
name of the book then written 
on the cover. When his books 
were few, the owner laid them 
flat upon an inclined shelf, 

i See facsimile on page 383. 







» 



98 Early forms of displayed title 

and lettered their names on the side. The Proverbia 
Senece of 1486 is the earliest book I have containing 
a printed bastard title, but this fashion in printing 

jSftrar 

Bastard title printed by John Pruss at Strasburg in I486. 

may be much older. Next in date is the Cassiodori 
Chtrissimi Senatoris in Pwtltenum Expositio of 1491, 
by Amerbach of Basle. The much bruised letters 
of this bastard title warrant the supposition that 
the types had been used before for printing on the 
hard parchment of a cover. After 1490 bastard 
titles may be noticed in many books. It should be 
noted, however, that they are mostly in black-letter 
and in the centre, rarely at the head, of the page. 
The paragraph title was often, yet not always, at 
the head of the page, and sometimes it was set in 
types of much larger size than those of the text. 

The letters of the Vamotlorm, apparently movable 
types, are of good design, plainly separated and 
easily read ; those of the Proverbia Senece, engraved 



Colophons preferred to title-pages 99 

in relief , and conjoined after the fashion of early 
copyists, are deciphered with difficulty. It is not 
the least of the many benefits of printing that its 
types for texts, as a rule, have no vagueness or 
uncertainty. The conjoined lettering of many 
early copyists and engravers is bewildering. 1 

The reading world is largely indebted to Italian 
printers for many improvements in book-making. 
Roman and italic printing-types and the new series 
known as small capitals, smaller and more useful 
shapes of books, finer woodcuts, and cheaper forms 
of binding were first made and best made in Italy. 

ORTHOCRApKIA ETFEHXVSDr* 

CTIOMVM CRAECARVM Os 

MNIVM APVD STAnVM 

CVM ACCENTIB.ET GE 

NERIBEX VARUS 

VTRT VSQVEZIH 

C V AE AV= 

IORIB. 

* 

Bastard title to Statins. Venice ; 1502. 

Yet Italy did but little toward the development of 
the displayed title-page. Jenson and the brothers 
Speyer, Ratdolt and Renner, and other printers 
of Venice, as well as those of Rome, adhered to the 
old method of putting at the end of the book all 
information needed by a reader about the edition. 

1 See page 431. 



100 Printers imitated display of copyists 

The title-page, if it can be so called, of an edition 
of Statins printed by Aldus Manutius of Venice in 
1502 is an illustration of the tenacity with which 
the printers of that time clung to established usage. 
The first page of the book contains what we would 
now call a long bastard title, but it was a title not 
for StatiuSj but for the Greek and Latin Dictionary 

which precedes 

VE NET 115 IN ABPIBV; the poem. It does 

ALDt. MEM IE A-V not con tain prin t- 

GV$TO'M;DII- er's name or de- 

vice,date or place, 
C<uitme\tctmhQe,utmc*!iris- noreventhename 

Imprint to Statius. of the Latin poem 

for which the dic- 
tionary was but the introduction. The device of 
dolphin and anchor appears on a full page many 
leaves beyond, at the end of a poetical preface. The 
imprint proper which specifies date, name, and place 
is in its old position on the last printed leaf. Ara- 
bic figures and roman numerals were then adopted 
by many printers for the paging of books, but this 
edition of Statins is not paged. 

The modest titles of Aldus in open small-capital 
letters had but few imitators during his lifetime. 
Those who did imitate preferred larger capitals 
and often began their titles with a bolder type, as 
is shown in the following facsimile of an early edi- 
tion of Caesar's Commentaries printed at Venice. 
In this title and in others of the same period may 



Display the substitute for rubrication 101 

be noted another departure from established usage 
and a new attempt at the displayed title. The old 
manuscript book is noticeable for the general uni- 



COMENTA: 

RJI DI.CIVLIO CESARE TRADOTTI 

PER. AGOSTINO VRTICA DELIA 

PORTA GENOVESE. ET PO/ 

STILLATI DELLI NO/ 

MI MODERNI. 

Bastard title to Commentaries of Caesar. Bernardinus 
Venetus de Vitalibus, Venice, 1517. Reduced facsimile. 

formity of its lettering. The copyist rarely at- 
tempted display, and only by the use of a larger 
letter for the first line of a new paragraph. It was 
not his business, but that of the illuminator, to in- 
sert the large colored initial letters, and to put dabs 
of red at the beginning of sentences and in all other 
places where display was required. The printer 
meekly followed in the path of the copyist. 

Before the fifteenth century ended printers every- 
where knew that but few of their books could be 
rubricated. Illuminators could not be had to do the 
work. The book sorely needed some added grace, 
and the printer himself had to devise a new attrac- 
tion to relieve the sombre text. As colored initials 



102 Early styles of display type 

made by printing were troublesome, the new grace 
needed had to be produced by engraved initials in 
black ink, or by a line of larger type at the begin- 
nings of paragraphs, or by the more frequent use 
of paragraphs, blanks, and engraved illustrations. 
Much ingenuity was shown in substitutes. 

The first attempts at relief or display began with 
the selection of large type for the first lines of 
separate paragraphs. If the words in this first line 
were relatively unimportant, or if they divided 
meanly, the want of adaptability in the types did 
not disconcert the printer. He filled the line with 
as many letters as the measure would hold, and set 
the words that followed for the next lines in smaller 
types. This treatment gave some piquancy to a 
dull page, but it was a poor substitute for the bril- 
liant color-work of the illuminator. Nor was the 
eccentric arrangement of types in half-diamond 
form more satisfactory, for it could be used only at 
the tails of chapters or in titles. The printer needed 
more sizes aud faces of type. 

Then came a variety of new stjies. In Germany 
many strange shapes of black-letter were produced. 
Roman letters of light or bold face, of open or 
compact form, were introduced by different Italian 
printers, but no novelty attracted greater attention 
or was more frequently copied than the italic of 
Aldus. It was used not ouly for texts, but as a 
supplementary variety for the minor lines of title- 
pages. The title-page of the Salhixt of Gryphius was 



C- SALLVSTII 

CR1SPI CON- 

IVRATIO CA- 

TILING, 
E T 

Bellum Iugurthinum. 

Eiuflem /did , qu$ pofi Martuttj ^aliorum^ omnium* 
editions anEiiora > emendattoraque tdunxw : que 
anttm ea fitt > auerjk pagclta indtcabit* 



> 
o 

w 
H 

> 




a 
o 

M 

H 

M 

w 
o 

p 

H 

< 



L Y G D V N I> 

APVD ANTONIVM GRYPHIVM. 



M. D. IXXV III. 



Galcotti Martii 

NARNIENSIS, 

DE DOCTRINA 

PROMISCVA L1RER, 

"yana muhipficiy. erudttib 
ne Ycfevtm } ac nunc 
toYimum in lucent 
edntts. 



ThrentU tfud Laurenttum torrentmum 

M D XLV11J 

Cum pnuilegio Pauli 1 1 1. Ponc.Max* 

Caroli.V. Imp.& Ducfs 

Florcnunorum. 



Title-pages of Robert Stephens 105 

set by a compositor who had been told to half- 
diamond the upper part, and he did so by spacing 
the letters and using four distinct sizes of capitals. 
In the printer's opinion it was no blemish to the 
page to have the Conspiracy of Catiline occupy three 
lines, and the Jugurtliine War one line only, and to 
allow each line to appear in a type of different size. 
Although this book was printed in 1578, and its 
title contains all the information really required 
for the modern title, Gryphius added on the last 
page another cut of the griffin as a substitute for 
the then disused colophon, which seems to have 
been reluctantly given up. 

The title-page which precedes, printed at Basle by 
Oporinus, although published at Florence, is an- 
other illustration of early fondness for diamonding 
lines. By steadily diminishing the size of the let- 
ters and changing their style in successive lines, 
often aided by a generous license in the making of 
abbreviations, it was not difficult to produce the 
shape of the much admired funnel. 

Robert Stephens of Paris was one of a few print- 
ers of the sixteenth century who did not believe 
that the attention of the reader should be diverted 
from the words of the author by an exhibition of 
typographical sleight-of-hand. His titles are al- 
ways interesting. The child's book shown on the 
next page has its full title in foiu- lines of large 
readable lower-case letters, and is a model of sim- 
plicity and good sense. His edition of Herodian, 



Lesmots francois felon lordre 
des lettres,ainfi que les fault 
efcrire: tournez en latin, pour 
les enfans. 




A PARIS 



De L'mprimciie de Rob.Efticnc Imprimeur du Roy . 

M. D. x LI I II. 

Auecpriuilegedu Roy. 

Reduced facsimile. 



HERODIANI H I S T O R I AE DE 

I M P E R I O POST M A R C V M, 
VEL DE S V IS TEMPORIBVS, 
E % G R AE C O T R A N S L A T AE, 
ANGELO POLITIANO IN- 
TERPRET E. 




P A R I S I I S 

Ex offidm Rob-Stepbdru typographi Ksgif. 
M. D. X L I I I I. 



108 Early practice in paragraph titles 

printed at Paris in 1544, is another exhibit of his 
preference for the simplicity of the Aldine title, bnt 
this title is not diamonded. 

The Aldine title was quite out of fashion before 
the year 1600. An attempt to revive it in England 
was made in 1778, by Edward Rowe Mores, 1 in his 
Dissertation upon English Typographical Founders 
and Founder ies. Mores diamonded the composition 
and spaced the letters in the style of Aldus, but he 
separated the different parts of the title with broad 
blanks and added long diamond dashes. 

The paragraph title was frequent during the six- 
teenth century, but mainly in the old half-diamond 
form and for quaint compositions in black-letter. 
When the types for the title were inserted within 
a broad border, or appeared at the head of a large 
device or a woodcut, the paragraph style of treat- 
ment seemed the only one that could give the de- 
sired boldness. 

The long introductions to texts made by Caxton 
are always set as paragraphs. His Aesop, 2 in a 
Flemish style of black-letter, has the mannerisms 

i Mores was an English re- not proper, and for the first let- 
former of had practices in typog- ters of new paragraphs ; bnt he 
raphy. He was not content to did not tolerate capitals for the 
accept all the teachings of Aldus; first letters in the sentences that 
he had a respect for mannerisms followed in the same paragraph, 
of copyists who preceded print- He spaced closely, abbreviated 
ei's which our modern reformers freely, used italic profusely, and 
of printing have hitherto neg- often put the period after a date 
lected. Following some copy- in arabic figures. These manner- 
ists, he selected capital letters isms are shown in a facsimile on 
for the first letters of proper page 36 of / 'or met Composition. 
names, and for some that are 2 See page 35. 



A DISSERTATION UPON ENGLISH 

TYPOGRAPHICAL FOUNDERS 

AND FOUNDERIES. 



By Edward Rowe Mores, A. M. & A. S. S. 



M, DC!C, LXXVIII* ^ f)^ 



Reduced facsimile. 



110 Paragraphs in displayed titles 

of the Flemish printers of that period, and is a fair 
exhibit of the quality of the engraving on wood made 
for early English books. Caxton expected that the 
outlines of each figure in the print would be filled 
in with appropriate colors by the buyer of the book. 
The shoes were not outlined j the labor of repainting 
them in solid black was forestalled by the thought- 
fulness of the engraver. 

The title-page of Silius Italicus is another form 
of the plain paragraph title. As italic lower-case 
letter was then made to mate with upright roman 
capitals, and really constituted a part of a full font, 
the combination of roman with italic was not re- 
garded as a departure from the simplicity of Aldus. 
The printers who continued to use a device found 
it expedient to put the place of printing, name of 
printer, and date in three separate lines as they are 
now in the modern displayed title. Title-pages 
within borders were treated in a similar manner. 

The lettering of the engraved title was seldom 
made larger than that of the text that followed, for 
the designer was determined to have a fair show- 
ing for his workmanship, even if the name of book 
and author had to be made relatively insignificant. 

The paragraph title in its original simplicity was 
not an established form of the seventeenth century. 
The approved title of this period, and for a century 
after, was often verbose; but even when the com- 
positor had to make much display, he always set 
some of its divisions as solid paragraphs. 



SfcjSILII ITALICI CLA* 

RISSIMI POETAE DE BELLO 

punico libri feptcmdecim. 

CVM ARGVMENTIS HERMAN- 
«iB«/cGj;'}&/cfiofi;'i in marline adie£iisyft<eyice 
x&eris commentarijejjepojjwnt. 




PARISIIS 

Apud Simonem Colinsum 
i 5 3 * 



112 Meanness of many early title-pages 

The old-fashioned paragraph title did not reappear 
before the middle of the nineteenth century. The 
faithful reprints of old books made by Whittingham 
and Pickering revived the interest of all book-lovers 
in this meritorious style, and it was soon imitated, 
but not always wisely, in the title-pages of some 
of their rivals. 

A marked deterioration in the appearance of 
titles is noticeable after publishing became a sepa- 
rate trade. When the making of a book was given 
out to the printer at a fixed price, all the cost of 
the experimentation needed for good work had to 
be assumed by the printer. He in turn thought it 
safer to have all the composition and presswork of 
the book done by his jonrneymen by piece-work at 
fixed rates. It was apparently to the interest of 
the men and of the master to have the book pro- 
duced without waste of time or deliberation in 
experiment. There was then (as there is now) a 
wide-spread belief that printing was a mechanical 
craft that did not need a constant exercise of in- 
telligence to adapt means to ends under different 
conditions. The type-setter, then paid by the piece, 
gave no more time or thought to the composition 
of the title than to that of auy other page. He 
did it in a hurry and did it badly. 

Other causes contributed to the production of 
the shockingly mean titles of the seventeenth and 
eighteenth centuries. The lack of the indefinable 
and unreachable mental quality that we call good 



LU 

Plaifantc, & 

I O Y E V S E 
hiftoyredu grand 

Geant Gargantna. 

ProdiainemeDtreueocdt de beaocoap 
augmenteepat l'Autheor tnefme. 




%*4 faience, 
Che's Claode La Ville. 

Title of an early edition of Rabelais. 



114 Why mean titles were frequent 

taste was just as noticeable in the master printer 
and the publisher as in the compositor. If the 
words of a title were made correct in their spell- 
ing, the composition was rated as good enough, 
even if the letters and lines had been badly spaced, 
and absurd prominence given to many insignificant 
words. If the particular type really needed for an 
important line was not at hand, any other type 
would be pressed into service. If the title so com- 
posed was a correct rendering of the words of the 
author, why should any one object if it did contain 
a mixture of big and little capitals, and of italic 
and black-letter f The reader could catch the mean- 
ing of the author, and what more would be needed '} 
The mixing of discordant faces and sizes of type in 
an old title-page is not due, as has been asserted, 
to the vanity of an employer who wanted to display 
his stock, but to the recklessness of workmen with- 
out sense of propriety or real love for their work. 
Compositors arranged titles badly because they se- 
lected the types nearest at hand and easiest to set. 
One of the most uncouth title-pages of the six- 
teenth century is that of the first Booh of Common 
Prayer, printed by Whitchurch at London in 1549. 
Here we see an amusing unconsciousness of im- 
propriety in the selection of words for display, cou- 
pled with a desire to make an attractive page by 
the use of diamond indention and lines colored 
alternately with black and red inks. 



VI 



TITLES IN BLACK-LETTER 



S SOME titles in previous 
chapters are in black-letter, 
additional illustrations are 
not needed to show manner- 
isms of early composition, 
but attention has to be called 
to the various styles of types, 
now grouped under the gen- 
eral name of black-letter, 
that are occasionally and unwisely selected for title- 
pages. It seems proper here to say that black-let- 
ters of age and authority are the acceptable forms, 
and that most of our newer styles are rejected by 
book-lovers as disfigurements to a standard book. 
The style of black-letter used iu the first Bible 
aud in the Psalter of 1457 was the style preferred 
for sumptuous books by all ecclesiastics of the fif- 
teenth century. It has now no generally accepted 




enslpttotjat (0 to rape tfje con* 

tie of al toe Mv tct?ptare,botI> 

of J ol&e,atttmct&eteftamet>tMt j 

a pjologe t&erfnto,maOebp 

t^ew«erenuc father fa 

WJcpbpffljop 
ofCantos 

CTOei Csef tfte Wble apotmtrti 
to tie We of t$e dtatcjietf. 

Type work of the title-page of Cranmer*s Bible, or the Great 
Bible of 1540, inclosed in a border 0.40 X 12.40 inches. 
Every alternate line of this title-page was printed in red 
ink. The border is too full of figures and letters to be 
fairly reproduced on this small page. 



118 Old English black-letter 

name. French bibliographers call it the lettre de 
forme, or the letter of good form ; English writers 
entitle it the Old English black-letter. It is here 
named pointed black-letter, for its thinness and 
angularity differentiate it distinctly from a more 
rounded and more common form of gothic letter. 
Early French printers preferred the pointed black, 
but they added a few graces, chiefly in giving loops 
to some ascending letters, but not enough to change 
its general effect. Tory describes this altered form 
as the framboise bdtarde. 1 

Several Flemish printers adhered with reasonable 
closeness to the old types of the Bible of Forty-two 
lanes, but Colard Mansion, with whom Caxton is 
supposed to have been associated before 1476, gave 
to his types strong Flemish peculiarities. 2 Caxton 
began his work in England with black-letter of the 
Flemish form, but the Norman type-founders and 
Parisian printers with whom he dealt afterward 
gradually induced him to use types of French form. 
His rivals in London and his successors printed 
almost exclusively in this modified French black- 
letter, but the face in which the service-books of 
the Church of England were first printed, and m 
which the official copy of the Laws of England is 
still printed, is a more faithful model of the type of 
the first Bible. This form, which has supplanted 
all others and has merited the preference of biblio- 
philes, is often described as Old English. 

i See page 13."j. 2 See page 35. 




In the original every alternate line was printed in red ink. 
Reduced facsimile. 



Wat Book of 
Common praper 

3n& iJtimimisftration of tftc Sacraments 

&no o$er 3&ite)5 ann Cerentome* of t^e C^urc^ 

accoming to tye u$e of C^e ^JtotcjEftant ©piiseopal C&ur# 

3fn tye SHmteb Stated of America 

Cogcttjo: tout) 

Wt# psalter or $0alm* of Babfo 




&et» gorft : pnntet) for tlje Committee 

In the original, in red and black inks, with a border too 

broad to be properly reproduced on this page. 

Dt' Vinne Press, Reduced facsimile. 



Bound gothic, or semi-gothic 121 

Pointed black-letter Las great merit for its precision 
of form and remarkable stateliness, but it is unde- 
niably gloomy, and not pleasing in every book and 
to all readers. In the Psalter of 1457 Sehoeffer 
tried to enliven it with red ink and large initials. 
As early as 1461 Pfister of Bamberg tried to make 
it attractive by putting engraved pictures in the 
text. Other printers made their books in black- 
letter more pleasing by engraved initials, borders, 
and woodcuts of higher merit, but the conclusion 
was soon reached that although pointed black was 
suitable for the service-books of the Church, it was 
a dismal face of type in the ordinary book made 
for the ordinary reader. 

In the fifteenth century common writings were 
in a rounder and more carelessly formed letter, 
usually described by French bibliographers as the 
lettre de somme, and by others as semi-gothic. It is 
here named the round gothic. This style was pre- 
ferred for the ordinary book by all printers on the 
Continent; with it was printed the Catliolicon of 
1460 and the Bible of 1462, and even Jenson of 
Venice had to lay aside his neat roman and make 
use of a condensed form of this face for his cheaper 
books. Its greatest popularity was in Spain and 
Germany j it found small favor in Italy ; it never 
obtained a fair foothold in England until revived 
by William Morris. 

In his treatise on the proper shapes of letters, 
published at Nuremberg in 1528, Albert Diirer 




mtt ocmSitcfcfDno tic |tpt/ 

in ftmm €&twiofi gan^nCojpmcn/bur&Sfffoccfit 

©flrcriufammgc^gm/^ft^urc^jnrde^catecifttoal 

auff crtm twrxmwf ozfmgefafFm/mfontar* 

mtt c^nar lantuu/fgmffcn/^ccr 
tomn q>n ptwmrfmanarftffm 
MrW/Sftun a&atfunugaltm 
fon#lfc6(>a6m&mfti 
mitfgcfcn. 

osr*38> 




A title by Albert Dih-ei*. Reduced facsimile. 




A title-page by Sylvan Othinar, Augsburg, 1516. 

The name of this book is in round gothic. 

Reduced facsimile. 



124 Variety of form in capital letters 

made models for the roman capital letters that he 
preferred, but his teachings were not fully accepted. 
German publishers then and afterward did use the 
roman character to a limited extent for scientific 
and classic works, but the ordinary German reader 

^r&.frgen vnb ^ejpffamcn favt v&rmtvgtn 3(£ 
rufafcm onb gro£ fo# #e(un&er roirie tmbmercf 

2(BCTibSiC5(5^37KC(OnDp<DA62: 
W?D3a6c$befg$tFPmnopqrfetu»it>£> y$ 

The type of Erhard Rewick, Mainz, 1486. 
Reduced facsimile. 

rejects roman and italic, and will have his every- 
day reading printed in some variety of gothic face 
which, in all the smaller sizes of type, is as dense 
and as forbidding as the pointed black. 

There was no accepted standard of form for the 
round gothic, and German printers felt at liberty 
to change its form to suit their notions. In 1486 
Erhard Rewick of Mainz added loops to ascending 
letters and timidly imitated in some lower-case 
characters the rounder form of the roman letter, 
but he left the capital letters with their old and 
even greater rnggedness. The unknown printer of 
a very early Oithrfkmi (supposed by Mr. G. W. 
Moon to be of 1445) used roman capitals of good 
form for his round gothic text. George Husner of 
Ktrasburg also provided roman capitals for the text 




Title-page of the Luther Bible. Reduced facsimile. 




Title of a German Typographia. Original printed in red 
and black inks. Reduced facsimile. 



German fondness for flourishes 127 

of a book printed in 1472 in round gothic. A few 
German printers reduced the angularities of the 
round gothic to a closer conformity with the roman 
model, but these attempts at simplification were 



gnmtauccn^fttft mf^(^yD 




The type of the Theuerdauk, Hans Schoensperger, 

Augsburg, 1517. The flourishes are additions 

engraved on wood. Reduced facsimile. 

not liked. The tendency of German letter-cutters 
has always been in favor of flourishes and intricacy. 
In the first edition of the Theuerdank of 1517 Haus 
Schoensperger added large flourishes to lower-case 
letters that encroached on the margin. The intri- 
cate initials which soon came in fashion, and served 
as models for the letter now known as German text, 
gave variety and vivacity to an open title-page, but 
they were too large to be used within the text of 
any book. The German letter-cutter of that time 
did what he could in the limited space allowed for 
the capitals of the smaller text letter, and he graced 







State uni> letter Sfjetl 

3n roelc&en nic&t nur em fortgefcete^SBetjci^nig 
t>i>rt Den t>orne^mflcn Stibclfc^rifftcn, fonDern aucf> cine aufr 

f A^cli^e IRacf>ric|>r * n>r*6*f ^ubtiUwt b^ranbba&raangett mot* 

Un, unt>fll«t)<nn N sWc8unflNclBu4)&rucf«J&i0Mw 

wrgefeijefiji 

Wi\t wUn ^ubtlmunjrn , <wd& anfccrn JCupfrrn un& gigurm 
nutfqqiaet, un& mitflfaflitfun o«nb<n. 




'745. 



Reduced facsimile. 



Flourished initials of Germany 129 




German initials of the 

seventeenth century. 

Title-pages in all Ger- 
man capitals are ad- 
judged impracticable 
even by the Germans. 
Whether in the con- 
densed letters of the 
fraktur or in the wider 
letters of schwabacher 
9 



it to his notion with 
many curved and ir- 
regular lines. His 
ideas of correct form 
are still maintained 
in Germany, but Ger- 
man forms have al- 
ways been unaccept- 
able to printers of 
other nations. 



130 Introduction of roman forms 

form, they are not as manageable as capitals in 
roman : they lack openness, roundness, even lining, 
and general symmetry, and this objection applies 
with eqnal force to every variety of black-letter. 
The displayed lines in the title-pages of common 




Engraved title of the Theuerdank. 
Reduced facsimile. 

German books, usually in thin lower-case letters, 
are often too widely spaced. When very bold and 
black titles were in fashion in the eighteenth cen- 
tury, unusually large letters had to be selected to 
fill the page. For classic texts and scientific books, 
and for all treatises intended for the highly edu- 
cated, roman letter is still preferred. 

In England black-letter for texts went out of use 
slowly. Roman types were made and used by John 
Dave in 1572, but roman was not the accepted char- 
acter before the middle of the next century. Eng- 
lish printers then preferred for title-pages the white 



MECHANIC^ EXERCISES: 

Or, the Dottrine of 

Applied to the Art of 



By Jofeph Moxon, Member of the Royal 
Society, and Hydrographer to the King's 
Moft Excellent Majefty. 

LONDON. 

Printed for jfofeph Moxon on the Weft- 
fide of Fleet-ditch, at the Sign of 
Atlas. U 8 3, 

Reduced facsimile. 



ANNALS 

OF 

Parisian &gpograyf)g, 

CONTAINING 

AN ACCOUNT 

OP TUG 

EARLIEST TYPOGRAPHICAL ESTABLISHMENTS 



^ano; 



NOTICES AND ILLUSTRATIONS 



MOST REMARKABLE PRODUCTIONS 



Parisian <Sorfjic Press: 

COMPrLBO PRINCIPALLT TO SHf W 

ITS GENERAL CHARACTER. ASD ITS PARTICULAR INFLUENCE 



fc&f Saris Etiflliafc #ma- 



BY THE REV. WILLIAM PARR GRESWELL. 



PRINTED FOR CADELL AND DAVIES. LONGMAN AND CO.; LACKINGTON AND CO 

R H EVANS. AND J AND W LOWNDES, BOORSELLERS. 



Reduced facsimile. 



Becent forms of black-letter 133 

letter, as roman was called, \mt they never hesitated 
to make use of one or more lines of black-letter for 
words that seemed to require bolder display. 

Titles entirely in black-letter were seldom made 
during the first half of the nineteenth century, and 
not with success, for debased forms were then in 
fashion. The neat styles made by Norman type- 
founders of the fifteenth and by Dutch type-found- 
ers of the sixteenth century had been put aside as 
old-fashioned even before the year 1800, and many 
of the original punches or matrices were then cor- 
roded or destroyed. These were serious mishaps, 
but the perverted taste which demanded improve- 
ments on the old models was a greater misfortune. 
The new faces produced in response to this demand 
overlooked the best features of old black-letter. 
Thorne of London produced a series of blacks of 
greater fatness and blackness, but imitators soon 
overreached him with types that had not enough of 
white in the counters to give a proper legibility to 
the letters. French founders did reform and make 
simpler the capitals, but they made few changes in 
the small letters. German founders put spurs on 
all angles and flourished the capitals until every 
character dazzled and irritated. 

Our new forms of black-letter are more carefully 
drawn and more symmetrical than the letters of 
early manuscripts, but for the most part they are 
frail, delicate, and ineffective. Modern specimen- 
books of types show many of the new styles, under 



Bicarlit tie Burp 

ej: #pttmts Cotuctfcus 3Rr ceitsutt 

^ersione^inglttanecnonetjproles 
gomeiu0&Tmotattonttmsque$uj:tt 
S> antJreasjrifmms^SHest 4& 
in Collegto ^rtncetontse professor 



II ® $ars ^wma^'Cfrtufl ® || 



Monetarist ©rotienanar a9D4r«r<ciif€*if 



Title of the Grolier edition of the Philobiblon. 

Original printed in three colors. De Yinne Press. 

Reduced facsimile. 




JdccS Sate 0a6entert) fuf>mi al 
ISSSSiuo tccfufuit) amoic macia m3=> 
tanaia&eafccnScnefafufat fefftno 

[gtcflruWaticSocecf^a6ct9au8tt 

luftatifaeiStcrocfaup^pgctafma 

I tct bic?e qi crc8ie con cipie t>6il$8fl it taw veuue s fon 
gotamitaau8ige<iSiSeecatie^^ 
twreSSitcteatoii bufcee btis mcfoebonnce^ccputs 
magniftcatbcaaia mcagriapatri^^^ 
»^tfctdggoylauti6H6mei6,gy s te8 Efa^ 

uftauitinfun6i»j8tccomco®lfl)ro»P J 
jl f^^p 6 (q>tfnebc?q ey a6fl5fltia 

fioipgnataSifitatiSc efijafietf} Ifpi: 
tafli:fftaqe;%tqtV$tfitatloni ccfe 
6wm 9 ipf i 9 pciOus it) jjfgtt a6 of 6* a8 
ucrfttat(6«6ft6crcmut:cfitjftituto _ _ 

f$gau8i^ 

vW|^nona*^cii6iij aouttonurneu intent icureenmcu* 
Mlffei8d8iniian8iiify mef#w.£^SS2? 



fiUS foxia patriSSS icitf etat*tc* iftt> 9 * ni9r » c lcur c u °?a 

IE r BBgl 11 oeeciculy. 





From a Book of Hours by Thielman Kerver, Paris (1512?). 
Original in four colors. Note the absence of white 
space between sentences. 



Reduced facsimile. 



136 Proper spacing of black-letter 

the names of Saxon, Medieval, Augustan, Teutonic, 
Borussian, Church text, Italian text, etc., 1 but they 
all have the prolonged and over-sharp hair-lines 
which unfit them for book- work, and for that reason 
they are seldom used for the title-page of a standard 
book. Many of them are of service in job-printing, 
but no book-lover wants them in the standard book. 
To reprint with propriety an old work in black-letter 
the true book-lover has to revert to old faces, even 
when some of the characters show real uncouthness 
of form and imperfect fitting-up. 

The fat-faced black-letter of Thorne was received 
by many printers as a valuable novelty, and it was 
liberally used as a display letter in titles, as will be 
seen in the illustration on page 132, but it never met 
with favor from bibliophiles, and it has gradually 
fallen into disuse. The remodelled French forms 
are occasionally found in the minor display lines of 
good book titles, but the style most approved for 
the reprints of old books, and especially for eccle- 
siastical work, is that of the Bible of Forty-two Lines. 
The first is better than the last. 

To give the proper medieval flavor to a reprint in 
black-letter the compositor should avoid leads and 
put thin spaces only between words. The five-to-em 
space should be preferred. The closer words and 
lines are huddled together, the more closely will a 
medieval reprint imitate a favorite mannerism of 

l For a fuller description of the different kinds of modern 
black-letter, see Chapter X of Plain Printing Types. 





epam t&e 



: » a rmotomJ apologue 
of t&t JfliMrtt 3se, 
reprofcuni m 
astigmt* 




Uonffmand, Hoirtton. 
tft.bcrrilb. 

Original printed in four colors. Reduced facsimile. 



ptero toffhte, 

ptofesscuc au College be 5 rancc * 



be 

3Uustrat!ons 

to BeUcrY'Uesfoutaincs ct Ij. Pogef. 

Grades par jromcui {lis. 




pans, 

(Ebouarb pelletan, (EbHeut, 

125, Soulcoarb Saint'<5ennam, (25* 

18 99 

Original printed in three colors. Reduced facsimile. 



Decorations for black-letter 139 

all early printers. The medieval copyist of black- 
letter showed a strong dislike for white space. He 
made no titles : chapter headings were usually in- 
dicated by a large initial; paragraphs were specified 
with the signs % or 4J, and not by the broken white 
line put at the end of the previous paragraph. It 
was expected that the blanks and outer margins of 
the page would be filled afterward by the decorator 
with ornamentation in bright color. Short lines of 
poetry were often made full with petty ornaments 
in color. When the old practice of illumination was 
in its decline, printers began to provide more blank 
space for their pages, and this relief of white space 
was needed, especially at the endings of paragraphs 
and at the beginnings of chapters. 

In the composition of a black-letter title-page in 
medieval style the compositor is often tempted to 
fill the blank spaces with the stock ornaments of 
type-founders. This is always a dangerous experi- 
ment, for decorations of medieval design that are 
suitable for the work are in limited supply, and 
they should be selected with regard to the color or 
general effect of the ink. If the decoration is to 
be printed with the text in black ink, all the orna- 
ments selected should be of a face much lighter and 
more open than the types of the text. When the 
decoration is to be in red ink, a bolder style of orna- 
ment may be allowed, but it is a serious mistake to 
select decoration that is bolder than the letters. 



Cursive Franchise. 

"bifaU. KjpAtnc- (&ixcnbc- 4, fit) 

t ft CC^MU &u J <CT2uoi 1 
ft- c ^>ti^ntuv^t>u GfiMtau ? 

fit} 3f<*5<— -*> £ <c com^uU. ici ^xck 
rtw |oitr - fotrjijMC- *u cio»<£— <t 

<w^fc>xi-if ( <y /ictfrt— ») * f*c£ 

if /wpm^ ran i 1 &? tfx/tc—* 
fjroxtiptcwicni-^. j<— fwx 4i^om- 
hc ccfwx "Se /vwti*c— QjYIHC^jCttc—- 5 
Cl- /W4*> C^4ltl6l?C- n ^.fifff ;v. Gc 
Iccrci- c(T Gey** tfdE^Cii-^ ^if 

From the Manuel Typographique 
of Fournier. 



VII 



ORNAMENTED TITLES 




RENTING began in a period 
of extravagant decoration. 
To look at the engraved por- 
traits of the magnates of the 
fifteenth and sixteenth cen- 
turies and note the laces and 
ruffs, the silks and velvets, 
worn by men and women, is 
to be convinced that simpli- 
city was not then in fashion. There were some 
printed books of this period which were decorated 
as profusely as the garments, but the decoration 
was restricted to the bindings of the books of the 
wealthy. A sumptuous decoration of books was 
not attainable by typography. If title-pages could 
have been illuminated by any mechanical or semi- 
mechanical process, we may be sure that they would 
have glowed with gold and bright color ; but the 




English engraved title. Keduced facsimile. 



Mxroiaucj, 

Sftux (jrandj dc t&jtat. 
Hark $. r %' gtangouu,. 




CDc L'Jmprimerlt dej nouucaux Card- 

cthercj^ Jnucnftz par £ . JHortau^ 

JVL . £jcrtuain Ourt a fBariJ , 2£ 

Jmprlmeur orcF du 3loy*i6<fjf-* 

sP^uSe fotnufi'go vV Joe JWaulic. 

The script of Pierre Moreau. Reduced facsimile. 



144 Demand for ornamental types 

highest decoration that could be given then was 
that of the engraved copperplate, and the print 
obtained therefrom was in one color only. All 
attempts at many colors had failed. 

Publishers made free use of the copperplate title, 
which is to be seen in every important book made 
by Plantin, and in almost every trivial book of the 
Elzevirs. We find it in works in which ornamen- 
tation of any kind seems needless. No publisher 
of our time would order an engraved title for a 
theological disquisition, but Hooker's Ecclesiastical 
Politic of 1666 has not only an engraved title-page, 
but a floriated border around the portrait which 
faces the title. The engraving made the book at- 
tractive to the early buyer, but the modern reader 
regrets that the money spent on the engraved bor- 
der and title had not been applied to the purchase 
of better paper and print for the text. For more 
than three hundred years the copperplate title-page 
or frontispiece proved a very serviceable cloak for 
a multitude of sins of manufacture in other parts 
of the book. 

The printer who could not afford a copperplate 
title-page, and who knew also that an engraving 
on wood from the hand of a good designer was out 
of reach, must have looked with envy upon these 
unattainable attractions. One resource, and one 
only, seemed available : he might use types which 
would attract by their novelty. Ornamental ini- 
tials were not out of use by good printers. Why 



THE 




(^ENMANSHIR 

Inftructive and Enter tainm 



POCKET-COPY-BOOK^ 
For die PRAC T I CE of You TH in the 

LONDON: 



Reduced facsimile. 



10 



SKE^tf 5&V^ Jfe«o«lportct:4c or atorfe 

crdrffjtmf pfedrfalut: wmfadlulri <tt<ft ptrltdid anilotttionc 
jittriicf ontt tttii'brugtnfisqucifingiUrHm Uitionum ftnti 
tinvd minimis W/forfognipWa ttp ottfctsfyrilailw f4«!« e»o 
tc/amf. 



AVlEElTfrKPOIMT 




'» < OEIllS-»ROCE'8'T 




^enmhntw iWco M "Jfcncohiti interfl 
gnmm faictf 3$utfnf. 



A title by Le Rouge. 



Script type of Robert Granjon 147 

could not a complete alphabet of small ornamental 
letters be made and used for the gracing of a title- 
page or perhaps for the text of the book ? Unlike 
the engraved border, which would serve only for a 
leaf of the same size as that of the book for which 
it was first made, detached ornamental letters could 
be used repeatedly in fresh combinations. Why 
should a printer confine himself to the use of roman 
or black-letter ? Aldus had earned commendation 
for his new italic ; German printers had made many 
new styles of black-letter ; why could not another 
variety be added 1 The capriciousness then allowed 
in written letters seemed to warrant the making of 
new faces and shapes of type. 

The earliest novelty in writing-type known to 
me is au eccentric form of script modelled by Robert 
Granjon in 1556, in imitation of the fashionable 
handwriting of that time, then known in France as 
the cursive francoise. 1 In this new type was then 
published the juvenile book Civilite puerile et JwnnSte, 
to teach boys, as its name implies, civility as well 
as the practice of fashionable penmanship. It is 
a picturesque letter. Perhaps it was not as difficult 
to read then as it is now, but it never could have 
been liked by an undisciplined reader. The King 
of France gave a ten years 7 pateut to Granjon, but 
the new cursive was copied without fear by other 
type-founders. Christopher Plantin of Antwerp 
selected it as a text type for some of his minor 

l For facsimile, see page 140. 



Roach's Beaittifue. Extracts of Pthosaic WainrERS. Jfyr; 




or ^dve/ttieres of a 



On the JfL I A Xl) of Homer 
Oil the £?2)2rSJ r £'2* of Hfcomep 

^ ^ beauties cf 7/irgtl SCo 



^U« y^^^a ^>™*? €7%^* ^^ <*><* "V *?9* 

Reduced facsimile. 



150 Limitations of script types 

books, and required his shopkeeping daughters to 
learn and practise its dashing style. 

In 1640 Pierre Moreau, then a wri ting-master of 
Paris, had types made for a plainer form of script 
that he called bdtarde brisee, in which he printed 
the book illustrated on page 143. It was an un- 
successful venture, for at that period of type-found- 
ing it was not possible to reproduce the sweep and 
swing of expert penmanship on any square body of 
type. Modern French founders have been wiser in 
confining their efforts to set styles of script in which 
letters are not conjoined and but slightly inclined. 




Script types in a similar style are still acceptable 
and pleasing in the titles of dainty books, but uo 
form of typographic script con rival the easy grace 
of an expert peumau. The title-page engraved on 
copper always was preferred for books intended to 
please the feminine taste. Writing-masters found 
it a proper medium for the display of their skill in 
books on penmanship with alternated linesof roman 
and German text profusely flourished. 



D E 



GERMANIC MIRACVLO 

OPTIMO, MAXIMO, 




EARVMQVE DIFFERENTIIS, 

DISSERTATIO, 

QJA SIMVL 

ARTIS TYPOGRAPHIC^ 

VNIVERSAM RATIONEM EXPLICAT 

PAVLVS PATER, PP. 




Proflat L I P S I /F, 
Apud JO.FRIDER. GLEDITSCH ET FIL1VM. 

Adho M.DCCX. 

Reduced facsimile. 



BIBLIOTHECA 
OGUNTIN 

LIBRIS 
SjECULO PR1MO TYPOGRAPHICO 

MOGUNTME 

IMPRESSIS INSTRUCTA, 
HINC INDE 

ADDITA INVENTS TYPOGRAPHIC 

HISTORIA, 

STEPHANO ALEJANDRO 'WXJK.BTWEIKT, 

EPISCOPO HEUOPOLENSr, SUFPRAGANEO WORMATJENSL 







AVQVSTM VINDELICORUM, 

impsnsis CHRISTOPH. FRIDERICI BURGLEN. 

M OCC LXXXVII. 

Reduced facsimile. 



Ornamental types made ivith difficulty 153 

Some of these books were of remarkable merit as 
specimens of calligraphy, but many book-buyers 
thought that a profusely flourished title in script 
was not proper for any serious book. In France, and 
even in England, during the first half of the nine- 
teenth century the engraved title-page in imitation 
of profusely flourished writing was reserved for the 
so-called Annuals, Gift-books, and Keepsakes. When 
the copperplate title went out of fashion, the title- 
page of ornamental penmanship went with it. One 
of the later attempts to rival the fineness of copper- 
plate by engraving on wood appears on page 148. 

I do not know when or where small ornamental 
types which could be used for display in title-pages 
were first made in a full series. An early novelty 
in ornamental type is to be found in the octavo 
edition of Lucan printed by Guillaume Le Rouge at 
Paris in 1512. The text is in a nearly upright italic 
with unusually long ascenders and descenders fitted 
to capitals in the Byzantine fashion. It was not ap- 
proved, and soon went out of use. (See page 116.) 

Ornamental types were known iu the eighteenth, 
and may have been used for display iu titles in the 
seventeenth century, but they were rare, 1 for types 
with frail and delicate lines were not in favor with 
type-founders. The model letter had to be cut 
slowly on a punch of steel ; this punch was liable 

i Early type-makers did not rarely published specimenswere 

issue specimens of their types printed upon one side of a large 

in the form of pamphlets which sheet liable to be broken and de- 

easily could be preserved. Their stroyed by repeated handling. 







O F 

COMPRISING, 
A SELECTION OF THE MOST 

SUB LIME and BEAUTIFUL 

APOSTROPHES, II SON OS, 
HISTORIES, II ELEOIES, &C. 
FROM THE WORKS 

OF THE 



The TYPOGRAPHICAL Execution in a Style entirety New, 

and Decorated with the 45uperb Ornaments 

of the Celebrated CaflOll. 



(Prict Ttn Sbillmgt aid Sixptntt.) 

Reduced facsimile. 



ETFERGREIM, 



W 









/nMiginM, Itaq nob ifrrtfrtnining EwMnn\ 

■ ^^ 

( ((((??™ ) 

"^^^EDITED^Y WILLIAM HT ONDERDONkT^'^^D 



VOLUME 



^SCZ^^^^ 



Reduced facsimile of a magazine title-page. 



156 Former profusion of ornamental faces 

to break when struck in the copper selected for the 
matrix ; not one type-caster in a dozen could per- 
fectly reproduce in the cast type all the finer lines 
of the matrix. 

In the Manuel Typographique of Fournier, pub- 
lished in 1764, are exhibits of fourteen ornamental 
faces, but they are not so finical as those of the 
German book in the illustration on page 151. Or- 
namental letters are also to be seen in the early 
specimen-books of the Enschede and the Caslon 
foundries. Bodoni of Italy seems to have been the 
only founder of note who refused to make them. 
A great obstacle to their manufacture was removed 
when the machine for type-casting was fairly de- 
veloped in 1843, and they were then and afterward 
produced in endless variety, to the neglect of types 
more needed. 

Ornamental types based upon the roman model, 
which seem to have been first produced in Germany, 
were soon found unsuitable for German title-pages, 
for they were in painful contrast to the angled let- 
ters that had to be used for the text and for minor 
lines of the title. They were much esteemed in 
France, Spain, and Italy, and may be found in the 
title-pages of serious books of the present time. In 
England the ornamental types selected for title- 
pages were rarely fantastic, aud they were used 
with greater discretion. 



VIII 



EARLY DISPLAYED TITLES 




HEN publishers saw that title- 
pages decorated with borders 7 
initials, devices, and whimsi- 
cal arrangements of composi- 
tion had ceased to be captivat- 
ing—when black-letter was 
going out of fashion, and or- 
namental types were rated as 
in bad taste— they had to re- 
turn to plain roman letter. This return seems to 
have been made unwillingly. A title-pag'e of few 
lines, and without device, was considered bald. To 
cover the baldness, larger and blacker capital let- 
ters seemed necessary. No one tried to imitate the 
simple title-pages made by Aldus or Stephens. An 
unwritten law was in force, although none can tell 
when it was made or why it should be obeyed, -that 
the words and device of a title must cover a full 



H I S T O IR E 

DE 

LIMPRIMERIE 

E T 

DE LA LIBRAIRIE. 

Ou Ton voit fon origine&fonprogr£s» 
jufqu'en 1689. 

DIFISE'E EN DEVX LfFRES. 



! P$0t 

1 W*£EFfUViM 


ft %W 


1 M*i& r3p9 




1 1 r^§5§= 


rS8 


i E^Vrv. iHa 


t ^/taBK 


- Ir^'l 


fc»W*W 




|g|g 



A PARIS, 

Chez JEAN DE LA C A I L L E , rue Saint Jacques . 
a la Prudence. 

M. DC L X X X I X. 
AVEC Pl^IFI LEGE DV ROT. 



Reduced facsimile. 



D. IV Nil 

IWENALIS 

SATYR*. 




PARISIIS. 
£ TYPOGRAPHIA REGIA 

M. DC. XLIV. 



160 Coarseness of typographic title-pages 

page. To do this in a title with few words, large 
types were needed, and the punches for these types 
were often rndely drawn and carelessly cut. 

The admirable models of letters that had been 
produced in France by Tory, G-aramond, and their 
worthy successors were put aside, and rude faces, 
not always of correct proportion, from unknown 
punch-cutters, began to appear in the title-pages of 
the seventeenth century. Every writer on typog- 
raphy has called attention to the meanness of the 
books and the degradation of printing during this 
period. Type-founding had grown to be a separate 
trade almost beyond the oversight of the printer. 
The parsimonious publisher thought it wise to make 
cheaper books ; to do so he had to get cheaper types, 
paper, and workmanship. From his point of vieAv 
it was not important that types should be of good 
form or gracefully arranged. It was enough that 
the types were readable. To meet this demand for 
cheaper types, incompetent punch-cutters were em- 
ployed, who made the uncouth letters in which too 
many English title-pages were composed. 

One reason why the copperplate title kept so long 
in favor was the coarseness of the typographic title- 
page. A careful publisher cheerfully would pay 
the greater cost of engraving on copper to be pro- 
tected from the hideousness of badly cut and badly 
composed types. Robert Stephens tried to avoid 
the increased expense of copperplate by providing 
woodcuts of half-page borders designed in a new 




Quid in hac editione praeftimm fit , vide in ca quam 
cperi praepofuimus,ad le&orem epiftola. 




LVTETIAE. 

Exofficina Roberti Stephani, typography Regii. 

M. D. XLY. 

CVM PRIVILEGIO REGIS. 

Reduced facsimile. 



DECREE 

OF 

Starre-Chamber, 
CONCERNING 

Printing, 

dAfade tbeekuentb day qffulj 
Uftpaft. i 6 3 7. 




f Imprinted at London by Robert Harker> 
Printer to the Kings moft Excellent 
Maieftie: And By the Affignes 
oflobnBM. 1637. 

Reduced facsimile. 



Badly arranged title-pages 163 

style, but Lis example was seldom imitated. To 
most printers there was no choice between uncouth 
types badly composed and copperplate decoration. 

When there was no device or ornament to fill the 
gap, and the title of few words would not fairly fill 
the page, even when large types had been selected, 
the author was asked to put more words in his 
title and to make it a synopsis of the contents of 
the book. This was often done, but the verbose 
title brought with it a new impediment : if the old 
form of title had been too curt, the new form was 
often so long that the added matter had to be ar- 
ranged in distinct paragraphs. 

Compositors of that time believed that a title 
could not be of good form if it did not have at least 
one line of very large and bold type. It was sup- 
posed that the increased blackness of huge type 
would compensate for the suppression or dwarfing 
of the old device. The relative importance of the 
words selected for lines of display was not properly 
considered. If one line gave the needed blackness 
and other large lines helped fill the page, the word 
THE might be in four-line capitals and the name 
of the author in brevier small capitals, and yet the 
selection would be regarded as proper. There was 
also a general agreement among printers that capi- 
tals must be preferred, but an over-wide spacing 
of the types was allowed. Broad blanks between 
lines, with little regard to the natural divisions of 
the title matter, were also permitted. 



THE ARTE 

OF ENGLISH 

P O E S I E. 

Contriued into three Bookes: The firft of Poets 
and Pocfie, the fecond of Proportion, 
the third of Ornament. 




AT LONDON 

Printed by Richard Field, dwelling in the 

black-Friers, nccrc Ludgatc. 



Reduced facsimile. 




HISTORIE 

OF THE WORLD: 

Commonly called, 

THE NATVRALL HISTORIE OF 

C PLINIVS SECVNDVS. 

TrtnpltdiiitQEmgtifhtyViiii.* uom HoiUHO 
Differ efrfyfoke. 

The Hrft Tome. 




LONDON, 



Printed by ^Adam Mp,and are to be fold by hhn 



Reduced facsimile. 



166 Old preference for capital letters 

Moxon recorded the general belief of the printers 
of his time when he advised the compositor to set 
the types for the name of a person or a place in- 
tended to be dignified, in " all Capitals ; but then, if 
conveniently he ean, he will Set a Space between 
every Letter, and two or three [spaces] before and 
after that Name, to make it shew more Graceful 
and Stately. For Capitals express Dignity wherever 
they are Set, and Space and Distance also implies 
Stateliness. 77 

This advice to space capital letters was carefully 
followed for more than a hundred years by all the 
printers of England and France, and to some extent 
by their rivals in Holland and Germany. There 
was then and there is now a rule, obeyed by some 
printers, that the main display line of a title must 
be a full line always. When the letters are few, 
the types must be widely spaced, and one or more 
of these lines must fill the measure. No printer ob- 
served this rule more obediently than Baskerville. 
Not only in his edition of Catullus, but in his quarto 
editions of Yiwjil, Juvenal, and Persius, the letters 
of the titles are spread over the page as if they had 
been dislocated by explosion. Even in the title- 
page of his Bool- of Common Prayer, for which he 
planned more lines of display than were needed, 
the letters of some lines are wedged widely apart 
to give the lines the desired fullness. 

Although German book-buyers had rejected the 
ronian character for their every-day reading, they 



The BOOK of 

Common Prayer, 

And Adminiflration of the 

SACRAMENTS, 

AND OTHER 

RITES and CEREMONIES 

O F T H E 

CHURCH, 

According to the Ufe of 

The CHURCH of ENGLAND. 

TOGETHER WITH THE 

PSALTER 

o R 

PSALMS of DAVID, 

Pointed as they are to be Jung or Jaid in Churches. 



CAMBRIDGE, 

Printed by JOHN BASKERVILLE, Printer to the Univerfity, 

by whom they are fold, and by B. DOt>, Bookfeller, 

in Ave-Mary Lane, London. MDCC-LX. 

[Price Six Shillings and Six Pence, unbound.) 

Reduced facsimile. 



C A T U L L I, 
T I B U L L I, 



E T 



PR O PER T I I 



OPERA. 



£ I R MI NGHAMI AE: 

Typis JOHANNIS BASKERVILLE. 
MDCCLXXII. 

Reduced facsimile. 



Improprieties of early display 169 

demanded it for all classic texts and for every book 
written in the Latin language. When a Latin word 
or phrase appeared in a text of German type, that 
word or phrase was put in roman type. Some 
printers were so precise that they printed a com- 
pounded word part in German and part in roman 
letter. German title type in roman capitals, as it 
was printed in the seventeenth and eighteenth cen- 
turies, often meanly drawn and coarsely cut, shows 
a marked declension from the fine models of Diirer. 
Not finding a proper appreciation at home, their 
more expert punch-cutters went to England and 
France ; Fleischmann, most famous of all, went to 
Holland, and for years was the mainstay of the 
Enschede" type-foundry. 

The different treatment required for the title-page 
of a book to be held in the hand, and for the poster 
intended to be readable at greater distance, was 
not clearly understood by many printers of this 
period. If the title-page had bold and black lines 
that immediately arrested the attention of a reader, 
it was supposed fully to answer its purpose. It 
did not seem to be important that the name of the 
book or of the author should be reasonably con- 
spicuous. The display of words was not controlled 
by any perception of their relative value. 

During the last quarter of the eighteenth cen- 
tury a new fashion of composing title-pages made 
its appearance. It was the swing of the pendulum 
in the opposite direction. Publishers who had been 



C. D. 

CORRECTORVM 

in 

Typography's 

ERVDITORVM 

CENTVK1A 
Speciminis loco 

col!e6ta 
a 

Johanne Com ado Zeltnero 

Norimb. Paftore Altenchan- 
nenfi &E.A.V. 




NORIMBERGjE, 

Sumtibus&Typis 

Adami Jonathan. Felfeckeri# 

Anno M D CC XVI. 



A 
NEW and LITERAL 

TRANSLATION 

F 

JUVENAL and PERSIUS; 

WITH 

COPIOUS EXPLANATORY NOTES, 

BY WHICH THESE DIFFICULT SATIRISTS ARE RENDERED 
EASY AND FAMILIAR TO THE READER. 

IN TWO VOLUMES. 

By the Rev. M. M A D A N. 



Ardet — Injlat — Aperti Jugutat. 

SCAL. ID JUV. 



VOL. I. 



LONDON: 

PRINTED FOR THE EDITOR. 

AND SOLD AT T. BECKET'S, BOOKSELLER TO HIS 

ROYAL HIGHNESS THE PRINCE OF WALES, 

PALL-MALL. 

M. DCC. LXXXIX. 

Reduced facsimile. 



172 Ornamental dashes formerly in favor 

sated with coarse, overbold types demanded more 
modesty and sobriety in composition, as well as a 
more intelligent grading of display. In response 
came what may be called the humble or feeble style 
of title-page, of which Madan's Juvenal is a proper 
illustration. It was the forerunner of the modern 
displayed title, with its many long lines and catch- 
lines of spaced small-capital letters. The first intent 
of the compositor seems to have been the keeping 
down of overbold display ; next to that appears the 
desire to make lines of unequal length, so that the 
title should have an irregular outline. To do this 
some lines were spaced with hair-spaces and others 
with em quadrats. The separation of the different 
parts of the title by blank spaces of unequal width 
was imperfectly done, for the quoted motto and 
the number of the volume are kept apart by dia- 
mond dashes that are blacker and more prominent 
than any line on the page. 

The German adaptation of this humble style is 
a lower descent in humility. Fischer makes use of 
the roman capital for initial letters only, and sets 
the body of the title all in lower-case. He cuts up 
the matter into long and short lines ; he uses catch- 
lines, and spaces letters unevenly to maintain an 
irregular outline on each side ; but he cannot dis- 
pense with the long dash. He finds at last some 
compensation for this self-imposed simplicity in 
an elaborately ornamented dividing rule, which was 
then rated a real grace to the page. 



Befchreibung 

einiger 

typographii.chen 

Seltenheiten 

nebft 

Beytragen 

zur Erfindungsgefchichte 

der 

BuchdruckerkunfL 

Erfte Lieferung. 

BeiErofnungderUniverfitatsbibliothek zu Mainz 
herausgegeben 

von 

Gotthelf Fischer 

Professor'n und Bibliothecar'n, Mitgliede des phyfikalisch- 
mathematischen Collegiums der Aerzte zu Basel, der phy- 
sikalischen Gesellschaft zu Gottingen und der Linneischen 
Gesellschaften zu London und Leipzig; der philosoma- 
tischen und der medicinisch nacheifernden Gesellschaften in 
Paris, der botanischen Gesellschaft in Regensburg und 
der phyaikalischen Gesellschafc zu lena Corre- 
spondenten 

Mit einer Kupfertafel. 

_ ^ -• 



Mainz, auf Kosten des Verfassers 

und in Ommiffion in Nurnhrg bey 

lob* Leonb. Sixt. Lecbner 

Differtations Handler. 

1800. 

Reduced facsimile. 



NIGHT THOUGHTS; 



LIFE, DEATH, & IMMORTALITY. 

Tc which is added, 

A PARAPHRASE 

ON 

PART OF THE BOOK OF JOB; 

AND 

THE LAST DAY, 

J POEM. 

By EDWARD YOUNG, l.l.d. 

WITH THE 

LIFE OF THE AUTHOR. 



Say, penfive raufe, whom difraal fcenes delight. 
Frequent at tombs and in the realms of night, 
This truth how certain^— when this life is o'er, 
Man die* to live, and Ikes— to die no more. 



LONDON: 

Pritifed for T* W'.lls, Stationers-Court ; 

7. S. yordjrty No. 166, Fttet-Srred ; Altai md \Vtft t 

and H. D„ Sym^ndj^ Paternojltr'Rvw ; 

Champnnte *wd Wittr<m\ Aldgate y 

(UtdL. Wayiand, N<w York. 

Price is. fewed. 
An early title by Whittiugham. 



'Spacing of small capitals 175 

Moxon's advice to space the capital letters of all 
names requiring distinction was gradually applied 
to the small capitals in minor lines that did not 
need display, but did need more surrounding white 
to increase their readability. To avoid this fault, 
type-founders of France are now making their small 
capitals on a wider body, so that they do not need 
the additional space to give the proper relief of 
white within and about each type. This treatment 
makes each letter clearer, but it seriously alters the 
color of the composition. In the page of text con- 
taining many small capitals on the wide set, these 
widely spaced small capitals seem to be of an alien 
style, of a lighter color, and not proper mates for 
the lower-case text in which they are embedded. If 
small capitals were made of a greater height, fairly 
intermediate between the full capital and the round 
letters of the lower-case, they would be more freely 
used. 

In all open book titles which have display lines 
widely spaced, the spacing of minor lines of small 
capitals is to be commended. When they are not 
spaced, the dense small capitals are in unpleasing 
contrast to the openness of larger capitals in the 
display lines, and seriously change the color of the 
composition and make the different lines appear to 
be of different styles. One rule then taught to 
compositors was the need of visible uniformity in 
spacing. If one line of a title-page had to be spaced, 
other lines in that title must be spaced also. This 



176 Neglect of proper display 

rule, which makes no proper allowance for widely 
differing effects produced by wide and by close 
spacing, is too broad for an unvarying application, 
but its tendency is in the right direction : it aids 
uniformity and prevents harsh contrasts. 

The display of words in many title-pages of this 
chapter is not any better than that of older titles 
set in black-letter. The most important words— 
Printing and Poesie— on pages 162 and 164 are in 
the smallest type. The names of the author and 
translator on page 165 are even more insignificant. 
These are serious defects, but the simplicity and 
directness of the old titles have a charm of their 
own, much relished by bibliographers. The use of 
large lower-case letters and the avoidance of feeble 
catch-lines are features to be commended. 

Important words in the title-page were seldom 
properly displayed by the old printers. To most 
of them it was enough to put an author's title mat- 
ter in any types, large or small, that were readable, 
and the types usually selected for this purpose were 
those nearest the hand of the compositor. The 
planning of title-page matter so that it should en- 
force to a hasty observer, by means of graduated 
sizes of type, the relative importance of its words, 
was rarely done with discrimination. 



IX 



CONDENSED TYPES 



GREAT change was made in 
title-pages when the time- 
honored form of roman capi- 
tal letter was supplanted by 
the tall and thin types known 
to English-speaking printers 
as " condensed." 1 The new 
shape, first made for its own 
title-pages at some unverified 
date by the Didot printing-house of Paris, was 
sparingly used by the printers of England and the 
United States before 1840. It came in favor when 




l The earliest compressed form 
of roman lower-case known to me 
was made by Fleischmann of the 
Enschede' type-foundry in the 
year 1734, and this form was then 
favored by all publishers who de- 
sired to put much reading mat- 
ter in a small space without loss 



of legibility. A series of book 
types in this style is to be seen 
in the specimens shown by Four- 
nier in his Manuel Typogra- 
phique of 1776, where they are 
described as "in the Hollandish 
style." In the same book is also 
exhibited a series of still thinner 



12 



177 



178 Condensed letter designed by Didot 



engravers on wood as well as type-founders were 
striving to make lines in high relief which should 
have all the sharpness and delicacy of copperplate. 
Abandoning the traditions of typography, they had 
agreed among themselves, printers and readers 
consenting, that the merit of printing should be 
determined, not by the readability of the complete 
character, but by the delicacy or feebleness of the 
hair-lines. The "stumpy Van Dijks" and the 
" ugly Elzevirs/ 7 as they were then called, and even 
the well-formed letters of Fournier, Caslon, and 
Baskerville, were condemned as too old-fashioned 
for a refined taste. Didot x and Bodoni were the 
teachers in this new school of typography. 



types, labelled the Poetic Face, 
which show that this French 
founder had made a new face 
which proved very much more 
condensed. Fleischmann hut 
slightly compressed his capitals ; 
Fournier not only condensed hut 
dwarfed them. This new Poetic 
Face proved as useful a letter to 
French publishers as the thin 
italic of Aldus had been to early 
Italian printers, for it enabled 
them to put many long lines of 
poetry on a page without break 
or turnover of any line, and to 
print more cheaply in the form 
of an eighteenmoextremelyloug 
lines of poetry which otherwise 
would have been put in octavo. 
The new styles of capitals were 
made equally serviceable in the 
composition of the minor lines 
of display in title-pages or head- 



ings of articles. They seemed to 
be an aid to the compositor who 
was often required to set long 
subheadings in separate lines. 
Their serviceability in this field 
gradually led to the making of 
larger letters for the larger dis- 
play lines of a title-page. 

It is probable that the con- 
densed letter for title-pages was 
designed by Ambroise Firmin- 
Didot, who has distinction at> a 
master of many arts connected 
with typography, for he was a 
punch-cutter and type-founder 
as well as a publisher and printer. 
The new shape was soon copied, 
but with some changes, by other 
founders in France. 

1 As the Didot printing-house 
of Paris, which has the credit of 
introducing condensed two-line 
letters in the titles of its books, 



Novel shapes of condensed type 179 



If the daintiness sought for had been that of the 
general lightness of the larger types of Renner of 
Venice, or of Gran j on of Lyons, who did maintain 
openness of face with visible hair-lines, the change 
would have been of more merit ; but the delicacy 
then attempted was confined to the hair-line of the 
letter. To design types with body-marks sometimes 
thinner but of tener thicker than had been made be- 
fore, to connect the stems with lines almost invisi- 
ble, and to grace their endings with long and weak 
serifs, were regarded as notable triumphs of type- 
founding. 1 Types so designed were hard to cut, 



made types for its own use only, 
and published no specimeu of 
this face, the date of its first ap- 
pearance is not on record. In 
1839 the Didot bouse sold its 
type-foundry to the Fonderie Ge- 
nerate, which published a thick 
volume of specimens in 1843. In 
this volume appeared fifteen 
bodies (corps 10 to corps 56) of 
new condensed two-line types 
with thick stems and sharp hair- 
lines under the name of Initiales 
Serrees. This exhibit was fol- 
lowed by an extra-elongated se- 
ries (corps 12 to corps 56) called 
Initiales Allongees. 

The specimen-book for 1843 ot 
the Fonderie Generate is the first 
in which a, series of condensed 
tetters was exhibited, but the 
reading public had seen them 
occasionally in the titles of the 
Didot books. For information in 
this and next note I am indehted 
to Mr. Henry J. Tucker of Paris. 



i One liherty led to another. 
A French founder tried the ex- 
periment of reducing the angu- 
larity of a few roman capitals by 
giving to their pointed ends the 
curved form of some of the round 
tetters of the lower-case, as will 
he seen in the Italian title-page 
presented on page 187. This new 
fashion had imitators in Italy as 
in France, hut it was not of long 
life in Paris, nor was it ever ac- 
cepted in England or America. 

ings, like these from the foundry 
of G. Peignot of Paris, were first 
made hy Mallet-Heldooru, who 
established a foundry at Paris in 
1825. Sixteen bodies (corps 10 
to corps 64) are shown in the 
specimen-book (dated 1864) of his 
son and successor A. M. Mallet 
fils aine\ Several founders have 
copied them. They are seldom 
used now for title-pages. 



180 Rules observed by type-founders 

cast, and print ; but the vanquishing of these self- 
imposed difficulties was rated as of more impor- 
tance than the eyesight of the reader, who, if not 
sharp-sighted, could not perceive the feeble con- 
necting lines and was compelled to identify each 
character mainly by its stems or body-marks. 

There never has been any arbitrary standard for 
the width of the roman capital, but there is a sub- 
stantial agreement among all founders that the 
proportions and general form of the old roman 
lapidary letters should be preserved, and that the 
width of the M and W, in every font of standard 
form, should not much exceed the square of the 
body, and that the largest number of capital letters 
should be of different widths varying between three 
fifths and four fifths of the type body. The object 
sought by all the early designers was to keep the 
stems at apparently equal distances from one an- 
other, yet not so close or so wide apart as to show 
deformitj r in any letter or eonfusion in the letters 
when combined. 1 Considering the irregularity of 
shapes in the roman capital, this was a difficult 

i The most noticeable depar- a few who attempted to make 
tures from the old forms of ro- letters in exact geometrical pro- 
man letters are the widening portion for all sizes, hut not to 
of the final s and the capital S, the improvement of the letter. 
which are often insignificant in It is now admitted by every type- 
old-style fonts, and the narrow- founder that, to secure proper 
ing of the O, C, and D, which legibility, different sizes of types 
were needlessly wide and out of cannot be made in exact geomet- 
proportion with other letters, rical proportion ; they must be 
Early type-founders had no fixed increased in width as they are 
standard of width. There were decreased in height. 



LEMONS 

DE 

CHIMIE ELEMENTAIRE 

APPLIQUEES 

AUX ARTS INDUSTR1ELS, 

ET FA1TES LE D1MANCHE A L'ECOLE MUNIC1PALE DE ROUEN, 

PAR H. J. GIRARDIN, 

I'vofoseur dc cliiimc a l'Ecole municipal cl \ I'Ecole d'agricullure de Rouen , 

Membie Cbrrcspondanl dc I'ln dlul rojal dc France , de la 5ocilte rojale cL ccntrale ^'agriculture 

dc l.i Socielc d'encouragemcnl , des Academics de Florence , Turin , Moscou , Bruxellcs , 

An-vers, Liege, Kaiserslaulcrn , Rouen, Bordeaux, Marseille, Niocy, 

TROISIEME EDITION, 

HEVUE, CORK 10 E S ET AUCMENTtE, 

avec 200 figures el cchanlillons d'indienne iotercale's daus 1c lexle. 

PREMIERE PARTIE. 
( IIIMIE 1NOKGANIQUE. 



A ROUEN, 

CHEZ I.-S. LEFEVRE, IMPRIMEUR, 

RUE DES CARMES, 20. 
1846. 

Reduced facsimile. 



182 Obscurity of extra-condensed type 

task, but it was well done by many of the old type 
makers. When the stems or thick strokes of meet- 
ing letters are apparently equidistant, each letter 
is easily identified, and the words in which they 
appear are read at a glance ; when some letters are 
wide and others are thin, and the stems are hud- 
dled or show gaps of white space at meeting-points, 
the composition becomes unpleasing and is rela- 
tively harder to read. 

The condensed types first made were about one 
fourth narrower than types of standard form, tall, 
slender, and graceful ; of light face, with thin stems, 
long sharp serifs, and hair-lines unduly protracted. 
They were in marked contrast to the coarse types 
that had been in use for centuries. Publishers 
insisted upon the use of the condensed type for 
the title-pages of all new books, and type-found- 
ers provided it of many sizes. Printers also ap- 
proved the new fashion, for it promised to be of 
good service in the composition of title-pages. It 
was believed that with condensed letter the type- 
setter could readily give greater prominence in one 
line to words that had been put in two lines. The 
compression of letters on bodies about one fourth 
narrower than those of the old form did not ma- 
terially damage their readability, but the greater 
compressions that soon followed did make the let- 
ters much more obscure. This obscurity did not 
diminish their acceptability to French and Italian 
readers. Extra-condensed types were used not only 



HISTORICAL VIEW 



LITERATURE 

OP THE 

SOUTH OF EUROPE; 



BY 

J. C. L. SIMONDE DE SISMONDI : 

OP THE ACADEMY AND SOCIETY OF ARTS OF GENEVA, 

HONORARY MEMBER OF THE UNIVERSITY OF WILNA, OF THE ITALIAN ACADEMY, 

ETC. ETC. 



TRANSLATED FROM THE ORIGINAL, 

WITH NOTES, AND A LIFE OF THE AUTHOR, 
BY THOMAS ROSCOE. 



jFrom tfje %ml 3Lori&on KTrttfon, 

INCLUDING ALT. THE NOTES FROM THE LAST PARIS EDITION. 



VOL. I. 



NEW YORK: 
HARPER & BROTHERS, PUBLISHERS! 

329 <& 331 PEARL STREET, 
FRANKLIN SQVABE. 

1860. 



184 Limitations of condensed type 

in advertisements and job-work, but even in the 
title-pages of serious books, and they were made 
bold and black as well as thin and indistinct. 

The condensed form of bold-face has never been 
tolerated in English or American title-pages, but 
it is not out of use in Prance, and is frequent in 
Spain and Italy. French printers have always used 
bold types for title-pages, but with the incoming of 
condensed letter they began to tolerate whims in 
composition that made the leading line as bold as 
that of a handbill. When the main display line 
was long and was made the first line of the title- 
page it was sometimes eurved. Other freaks were 
tried. The motto might be inelosed in a border of 
typographic flowers. Ornamental letters of fan- 
tastic form were allowed and are not yet entirely 
discarded, but the preference now is for the square 
and bold-faced types known in America as antique. 

Although condensed capitals of light face were 
eagerly purchased by English and American print- 
ers as a ready means for evading some of the diffi- 
culties of display, it was soon discovered that they 
had their limitations. The thin types that served 
for a line of many letters would not serve accep- 
tably for the line of few letters. The difficulty was 
met by the time-honored method of spacing out 
single letters, but it was quickly found that con- 
densed types could not be fitly spaced. When the 
spaces were thin and judiciously placed the title 
was not noticeably marred, but when en and em 



OV BRILLAT SAVARIN, f^ 

iLLCSTRGR T* "* 

Par BERTALL 

rntceocc 

D'UNE NOTICE BIOGRAPHIQUE 

Par ALPH. KARR. 

oesulu* A part du tex*c, arav£s aur aeler par Cb. Cicoflroy, 

Grsvorcasur bols, latereal«» dans le teste, par Uldderlsb. 




GABRIEL UE GONET, EDITEUK. RUE DES BEAUX- ARTS, G. 

Reduced facsimile. 



186 Unwise spacing of condensed types 

quadrats were used as spaces the line showed gaps 
between letters which were as faulty as they were 
unnecessary. Spacing changed the color of the 

JANE EYRE; 

%n 5tiuouiogtopliiti* 

The first lines of a title of 1855. 



type ; the spaced and the unspaced types seemed of 
different faces. The critical reader would ask, Why 
are the large capitals, always easily read, so widely 
separated that their relation to one another is not 
at once apparent, when the smaller capitals of other 
lines, never any too readable, are huddled? The 
reply that the thin letters of the display line had 
to be spaced out to make the line of full width was 
never satisfactory. It did not explain the alleged 
need of this full line. 

Instead of being helpful in the composition of 
titles, condensed type often proved a hindrance. 
There should be in every title an apparent attempt 
to maintain proportion between the types and the 
area covered by the tj'pes. To select small tj'pes 
for a large page is an admitted impropriety. To 
put many words in one line of pinched types, when 
these words need two lines, and to leave broad gaps 
of white blanks between the lines, or to separate 



MANUALE 

DEL 

MAGNETISMO ANIMALE 

• DESUNTO 

DALLE Pl6 ACCREDITATE OPERE MAGNETICHE 

deldott. ANT. MESMER e d*altri, 

CONTENENTB : 

1.° Storia del Magnetismo , — 2.° Sua Teoria # 

3.° Modi di magnetizzare, — 4.° Catechismo magnetologico, 

5.° Fenomeni magnetici* 

6.° Applicazione del Magnetismo alia Medicina, 

7.° Inconvenienti del Magnetismo, 

8.°Gonclusione; 

AGGIUNTOVI 

LE TAVOLE SEMOYENTI 

ED I MIRACOLI DEL SECOLO DECIMONONO, 

orv«ro 

LA MAGI A NUOVA, 

ll $Uria , U Ciulitanerii , ed il modo di operero il lagnetiimi , 

dieei «f«j<nzs, domande a riipoile, il peniicro t Vvmiiu, 

i«ligionff« morala, eee. ttt. 

ton an'^ppcntiict 

IflUrn* ad •Icons plfl rectal! MopertO 
•lUneoll «J Mtgoclifmo. 



QU*TA EOIZIOKB ©ON AGG1CNTE, 



M1LAN0 

MJIGI CIOFFI, CONTR. DE* MORONI, N. 4U8. 

TOBIHO I MltANO 

{(til fi|tiile) U CONTERNO, Libraja I librijd G. CIOFFI (i. Gittftfo, fi, t) 
c presBO 1 prloclpall Libra] dl €ln* « Provlacltt 

1861. 



Reduced facsimile. 



188 A selection of unmatable types 

the pinched letters of a line with wide spaces, are 
even greater offences. The title so treated is always 
too feeble, and even the uncritical reader cannot 
fail to note that types pinched as well as spaced are 
at variance with the waste of space elsewhere. 

A PRACTICAL ILLUSTRATION 

OF 

BAD TASTE 

IN THE 

SELECTION OF UNMATABLE TYPES 



Expanded types, that varied from one tenth to one 
fourth wider than types of standard width, were 
made not long after the introduction of condensed 
types. It was claimed that they would prevent the 
spacing of letters in the short lines of a title-page, 
and that they would promote the harmony that 
should be noticeable between type and space. With 
this end in view, the compositor who set a title-page 
selected expanded types for lines of few letters and 
condensed types for lines of many words. The 
result was always disappointing. When the vary- 
ing styles were in meeting lines, as was often un- 
avoidable, the incongruity produced by this meeting 
of unlike forms was repelling. Even when all the 



BENJAMIN FRANKLIN: 



AUTOBIOGRAPHY; 



WITH A NARRATIVE OF 



HIS PUBLIC LIFE AND SERVICES. 



BY REV. H. HASTINGS WELD. 



WITH NUMEROUS DESIGNS BY J G. CHAPMAN. 



NEW YORK: 
HARPER & BROTHERS, PUBLISHERS, 

82 "CLIFF STREET. 



190 Declining use of condensed types 

types in the title so composed were of roman form 
and not unlike in style, the general effect of the 
composition was that of a shop-bill. The casual 
reader did not at once notice the intent of the 

IS READABLE 

IN PROPORTION BUT NOT SO READABLE 

TOO THIN FOR A TITLE 

NOT USED TO ADVANTAGE WITH TYPES OP STANDARD WIDTH 

FOR JOBS, NOT FOR TITLES 

SQIEEZEO WITHIN THIS SPACE, THE WORDS GASPED IN VAIN FOR VITAL BREATH 
Illustrations of condensed types. 

author ; he did notice the caprices of type-founder 
and compositor. Too much prominence was given 
to manner over matter, and to that extent the object 
of the title was defeated. 

Although types of different shapes in the title- 
page are disapproved by the critical, their use is 
continued to this day in many printing-houses. 



Where condensed types are needed 191 

Condensed type, and even expanded type, are rated 
by some printers as of value. Others think that 
an occasional line of italic capitals or of black-letter 
is of service in a long title. A mixture of types 
may be occasionally noticed in modern title-pages, 
but the dislike of publishers to this mixture is stead- 
ily increasing. It would be difficult to give a good 
reason for the practice of unvarying uniformity of 
shape in the types of a text which does not apply 
with equal force to the types of a title-page. The 
text of a book is always set in types of the same 
size and of the same face. To put one paragraph 
or one sentence in old style and have it followed 
by another in modern cut is too unworkmanlike to 
be considered. Variations in size are necessary for 
notes, subheadings, and extracts ; but when it can 
be done, the same face and shape should be chosen 
for all the lines of a title. What is proper for the 
text should be proper for the title-page: many 
sizes, but one face only. 

Condensed and compressed types are not used as 
freely as they were, but they cannot be entirely 
discarded. They are greatly needed in the lim- 
ited measures of two-column matter, or in narrow 
pages. They are to be preferred when put to use 
as two- or three-line initial letters at the beginning 
of a text, especially for irregular letters like T, L, 
and A, which make ungainly gaps of white space in 
types of standard width. 



PART II 
PRACTICAL 



13 



THE MODERN TITLE-PAGE 

PREPARATION OF COPY 

REGULAR DIVISIONS OF THE TITLE-PAGE 

ESTIMATE OF SPACE REQUIRED 

PLANNING A TITLE-PAGE 



OMPOSITORS of the present 
time who have not entirely 
discarded old notions dislike 
to set title-pages, for they find 
that their best efforts are not 
entirely satisfactory to the 
critic. The time is over when 
the title-page was regarded 
as a bit of easy composition 
to be set much quicker than any page of the text, 
when the proper name of the book might have no 
display, and any word that could be spaced out to 
make a full line was made to serve that purpose. 
The title-page so set was confused, but it seems to 

195 




196 Compositors avoid work on title-pages 

have been acceptable when its types were readable 
and the words were printed as written. 

Title-pages have changed with the times. The 
facsimile of the one made for Madan's Juvenal (page 
171) marks the beginning of a new fashion, wel- 
comed by readers who had been wearied with the 
old poster-like boldness. But the modern fashion 
went to the extreme limit in an opposite direction, 
and, in their approval of its more intelligent ar- 
rangement, readers overlooked its feebleness. 1 The 
merit of the new method was not in smaller types, 
but in its wiser plan. Important words only were 
put in large types, and words closely related were 
kept together. Irregularity of outline was pro- 
duced by alternating long and short lines. Unre- 
lated clauses or phrases were separated by dashes 
or blanks. So treated, the intent of the title was 
understood almost at a glance. 

The piece-compositor disliked the new fashion, 
for it called for much discretion. The title matter 
had to be studied, aud types had to be set slowly, 
to give a proper expression of its words. Nor did 
he willingly change iu proof types improperly se- 
lected in his thoughtless haste. AVhen he failed, 
the composition of title-pages had to be given to 
time-compositors, who were supposed to have su- 
perior skill and taste, but they were not always 

l This feeble style was in fash- publishers as late as the middle 
ion for many years. The fac- of the nineteenth century. It is 
similes ou pap^s 197 and 222 ohsolete now, but some late fan- 
show that it was approved by cies are not betterments. 



INTRODUCTION 



LITERATURE OF EUROPE 

IN THE FIFTEENTH, SIXTEENTH, AND SEVENTEENTH CENTURIES. 
BV 

HENRY HALL AM, F. R. A. S., 

CORRESPONDING MEMBER OF THE ACADEMY OP MORAL AND POLITICAL SCIENCES 
IN THE FRENCH INSTITUTE. 



" Dc modo a tit cm hujusmod) hiatone conecribends, tllud Imprimis monemun, ut materia et copla ejus, non 
mnt am ab hi at or us et crilicie pelalur, venirn el'am per oingulaa annornm centnnas, nut etlam minora iotrn alia, 
seriatim libn prxcipui, qui «o temporie ep&uo eon script! mint, in conallium adhiboantur ; at ex eoram non 
perfections (id enim Infinitum quiddam easel), sed degustaiione, et observations argument!, styll, meinodi, 
geaiua illtus tampons liierarma, vsluit incarnations qosduco, a mortals eToci-tilr."-— Bacoh, de Augm, Srimt. 



IN TWO VOLUMES. 

VOL. I 



NE W-YORK: 
PUBLISHED BY HARPER & BROTHERS, 

NO. 82 CLIFF-STREET. 



1841 

Reduced facsimile. 



198 Alleged bad taste of compositors 

successful. There were critics in 1800 who said 
that the new style was much too feeble, and they 
insisted that the fault was in petty types more than 
in belittling arrangement. They demanded larger 7 
bolder, and blacker letters. 

To meet this demand, the London type-founder 
Thorne made two-line types of great boldness and 
blackness, which had temporary popularity. Rival 
type-founders copied and exaggerated the Thorne 
face (see page 199), but their corpulent types soon 
went out of fashion, and the light and open letters 
made by Bodoni and his imitators were preferred 
by the majority of readers. For many years book- 
buyers had to accept title-pages in types of thin 
stems with almost unseen hair-lines, with indistinct 
small-capital catch-lines, and broad blanks between 
lines of display. What should have been the clear- 
est was made the feeblest page of the book. 

The orderly methods now observed in the com- 
position of title-pages are not enough to appease 
the critical book-reviewer, who may object to title 
types as discordant, as too small or too meagre, 
to blanks between lines as too wide, and to what 
he calls the frequent bad taste of the compositor. 
These objections deserve consideration. 1 

i Bad taste is an offence which he appeal I The good taste of the 

in this note may he passed over last is the bad taste of this ceu- 

quickly, for it is not confined to tury, yet there are mannerisms 

printers. Who is the judge of of early printers, subsequently 

good taste? When the critic discarded for their gross impro- 

says that a title is in bad taste, priety, that are now in favor 

to what court of last resort can as exhihits of the highest taste. 



A 

NARRATIVE 

OF 

THE CAMPAIGN 
I]V RUSSIA 

DURING THE 

YEAR 1812. 



BY 

SIR ROBERT KER PORTER. 



HARTFORD: 

PUBLISHED BV ANDRIS, STARR & CO. 

LOOMIS & RICHARDS, PRINTERS, MIDDLETOWN. 

1814. 



200 Why title-pages do not please 

The selection of disliked types is a common fault, 
and it is one not easily remedied, for each printing- 
house has its own assortment, which may be unlike 
that of other houses. Nor can every face or size 
that seems to be needed be had of the type-founder, 
whose assortment of different sizes of roman capi- 
tals is incomplete. The printer has to be content 
with the types he has or those that he can buy. It 
is the inadequate supply of the type-founder that 
compels him sometimes to put unmatable faces of 
type on the same page. 

The unpleasing title-page oftenest comes from 
neglect of plan and of proper direction. No page 
in the book may be slighted more by the writer, 
but none needs more forethought. Before the copy 
is sent to the printer these questions should be re- 
solved : Has the title matter too few or too many 

An old proverb speaks despair- who are not agreed as to meth- 
ingly about the uselessness of ods. The author wants it ac- 
disputes concerning taste, but cording to his notions of good 
the disputes go on. and will go taste ; the publisher wants it in 
on forever. It is the frequency the fashion then prevailing; the 
of these complaints about had printer wants to make it con- 
taste that makes compositors form somewhat to traditionary 
avoid the setting of a new title- rules of the trade. There are, 
page. It may have few words then, differences in plan from 
and seem easy to compose, but the beginning. The notions, 
after great care and much time fashions, and rules are at vari- 
have been spent on its elahora- ance, and attempts to reconcile 
tion, the author or publisher them after composition are sel- 
may condemn it as the worst dom satisfactory. This difficulty 
page in the book. The new title should be foreseen and avoided. 
is always an experiment, for it To plan the title in the manu- 
is usually the joint work of script will often prevent expen- 
anthor, publisher, and printer, sive changes in the proof. 



Plan needed for every title-page 201 

words for the desired orderly arrangement? Have 
the words marked for display in one line too many 
letters for proper prominence? Has proper allow- 
ance been made for the space needed about display 
lines and for the publisher's imprint and device, 
or for a possible motto or engraved illustration ? 

It is the privilege of the publisher to put on the 
title-page few or many words, and in any form that 
to him seems proper, but he should give some heed 
to the inflexibility of types, which cannot be had 
always in desired combinations of height, width, 
and boldness. When copy has been written with- 
out regard to the rigidity of types, its words will 
be arranged in an orderly manner with difficulty. 
It is the considerate arrangement of words by the 
author, as well as the good taste of the type-setter, 
that makes the comely title-page. For the writer 
to postpone this consideration, that he may see, as 
is often said 7 " how the title will show in the proof," 
is a mistake. Words and phrasing are not easily 
amended in the proof : to add or to cancel in the 
proof may compel the rejection of every line pre- 
viously composed, and the beginning of the com- 
position with a changed plan. It is the persistent 
alteration in the proof of words as well as of types 
that makes title-page composition the dread of the 
compositor. 

A plan is needed for every proposed title-page, 
whether it has very much or little matter. Verbal 
direction is not enough. Whether the title is to 



202 Special instructions are needed 

be set in displayed roman capitals, or in a plain 
paragraph of lower-ease, in black-letter with old 
mannerisms, or in any other style, to the general 
verbal instruction should be added a rough pen- 
sketch of the style desired. The orders or wishes of 
the author may not be entirely practicable in type, 
but the sketch is a guide always welcomed by the 
compositor. Without it, he gropes in the dark. 

It is a common practice to write copy for a title- 
page as a plain paragraph using vertical dashes | , 
as is done by librarians, to indicate distinct lines. 
The name by which the book will be called is under- 
scored with three lines ; some other words have two 
lines j but underscoring may be so frequent that 
nearly every line has one underscoring. Accept- 
ing them as directious for a similar graduation of 
display, the compositor plans for too mauy lines 
and selects types too large for the space, or too 
small for the prominence desired. In either case 
the author is disappointed. 

A precise author can avoid this error by writiug 
in print-letters the words aud hues he intends to 
be displayed, makiug his letters high or low, aud 
lines long or short, to suit his own notions. When 
lie has so treated a very full title, he may, and prob- 
ably will, fiud that his lines occupy too much of the 
page iu length and width. Without waiting to see 
the general effect in proof, he is warned by this ex- 
periment that he must restrict display and make 
proper allowance for the rigidity of type. 



Title-pages may he too crowded 203 



The attractiveness needed in a title-page can be 
made or marred by the author : if words are scant, 
the page will be bleak j if it has too many words, 
the lines mnst be huddled. The title-page matter 
of few words is easily manageable. It is the hud- 
dled title 1 that gives most trouble to the compositor 
and displeasure to the reader. Facsimiles of three 
crowded title-pages of the eighteenth century are 
appended. The Art of Printing was written by Le- 
moine, a bookseller of experience, and the Printer's 
Grammar by Smith, 2 a practical printer — men sup- 
posed to be properly qualified to write a title-page. 



1 The crowded title-page is an 
inheritance of the seventeenth 
century. When the publishing 
printers claimed nearly all the 
space for their huge devices, 
little could be allowed for the 
name of the book. When the 
device went out of fashion, 
the printer had to fill in the va- 
cated space, for it was then 
understood that the title-page 
must be full always, either with 
an emblem or with large types. 
When these were not to be had, 
the author was encouraged to 
write a, long title which would 
serve as a synopsis of the con- 
tents of the book, or to use odd 
phraseology to provoke the curi- 
osity of a listless reader. For 
these titles, see Timperley's En- 
cyclopaedia of Printers and Print- 
ing, and Dibdin's edition of Ty- 
pographical Antiquities. Many 
of these titles seem to have been 
made purposely indescriptive. 



2 Smith intended to say that 
his book was a manual for 
printers and authors; but, in 
his desire to be comprehensive, 
he put in his title more words 
than were needed. He did not 
foresee how much space these 
words would occupy in print. 
Printer's Grammar is the only 
line of full display. The capital 
letters needed to give distinction 
to some words are incorporated 
in plain paragraphs of types of 
different sizes, and they are not 
properly separated by a white 
space or even by catch-lines. 
It is a jumbled title-page, not as 
attractive as a page of text. 
The next illustration shows that 
the purpose of the hook could 
have been specified in the old- 
style and black-letter types then 
in common use with fewer 
words and more directness. So 
treated, it would be more quickly 
read and longer remembered. 



THE 

Printer's Grammar: 

Wherein are Exhibited, Examined, and Explained, 
THE 

SUPERFICIES, GRADATION, 
and PROPERTIES 

O F 
The different Sorts and Sizes of Metal Types, 

call by Letter Foinoers: 

Sundry ALPHABETS, of Oriental, and 
fome other Languages; 

Together with the Chinese Characters : 

The Figures of Mathematical, Aftronomical, 
Mufical, and Phyfical Signs; 

Jointly with Abbreviations, Contractions, and Ligatures: 

The Conftru&ion of Metal Flowers — Various Tables 
and Calculations — Models of different Letter-Cafes; 
Schemes for Calling off Copy, and Impofing; 

And many other 

Requisites for attaining a more perfect Knowledge both in the 
Theory and Practice of the Art of Printing. 

WITH 

Directions to Authors, Compilers, &c. 

how to Prepare Copy, and to Correct their own Proofs. 

The Whole calculated for the Service of All who have 
any Concern in the Letter Prefs. 

By John Smith, Regiom. 

LONDON. 

Printed for J. Scott, ai the Black Swan^ in Paicr-noJier-Rotv. 

f'755] 

Beduced facsimile. 



THE 



printer's (Grammar 

A DESCRIPTION OF THE SORTS, SIZES AND USES OF 

METAL TYPES 

MADE FOR MANY LANGUAGES, INCLUDING 

VARIOUS TABLES AND CALCULATIONS, SCHEMES 
FOR CASTING-OFF COPY AND THE IMPOSITION 
OF PAGES, MODELS OF DIFFERENT CASES, AND 
OTHER INFORMATION OF IMPORTANCE ABOUT 

practical printing 

WITH DIRECTIONS TO AUTHORS HOW TO PREPARE 

COPY AND TO CORRECT THEIR OWN PROOFS. 

FOR THE SERVICE OF ALL WHO HAVE 

ANY CONCERN WITH PRINTING. 



BY 

JOHN SMITH, Regiom. 



LONDON 
PRINTED FOR J. SCOTT, 

AT THE BLACK SWAN IN 
PATER-NOSTER ROW. 



Cppogtapftual Bntfquitfaf. 



HISTORY, ORIGIN, AND PROGRESS, 

OF THE 

ART OF PRINTING, 

FROM ITS 

FIRST INVENTION IN GERMANY 

TO THE END OF THE SEVENTEENTH CENTURY} 

and from 

ITS INTRODUCTION INTO ENGLAND, 

BY CJXTON, TO THE PRESENT TIME; 

Including, Among a Variety of curious and interfiling Matter* 

ITS PROGRESS IN THE PROVINCES; 

with chronological Lifts of 

EMINENT PRINTERS 

In ENGLAND, SCOTLAND, and IRELAND: 

TOGETHER 

With Anecdotes of feveral eminent and literary Character^ *hd 
have honoured the Art by their Attention to its Improvement! 

ALSO a PARTICULAR AND COMPLETE HISTORY OP THt 

WALPOLEAN PRESS, 

ESTABLISHED AT STRAWBERRY HILL; 

With an accurate Lift of every Publication iffued therefrom* 
and the exact Number printed thereof. 

AT THE CONCLUSION 1> GIVEN 

A CURIOUS DISSERTATION ON THE 

ORIGIN OF THE USE OF PAPER ; 

Alfo, a complete History of the Art of 
WOOD-CUTTING and ENGRAVING on COPPER, 

From its firft Invention in Italy to its latelt. Improvement 

IN GREAT BRITAIN J 

concluding with the Adjudication of 

LITER ART PROPERTr ; 

Or the Laws and Terms to which Authors, Designers, and 

Publifliers, are feparately fubject. 
With a Catalogue of remarkable BIBLES and COMMON PRAYER- 
BOOKS, from the Infancy of Printing to the prefent time. 



EXTRACTED PROM THE BEST AUTHORITIES, 

By HENRY LEMOINE, Bibliop. Lond. 

■ . ^ ■ ■ ■- 

LONDON, 1797: 

Printed and Sold by S. FISHER, No. 10, St. John's Lane, 
Clwkenwcll j alfo fold by tee and Hurft, No. 3*j Paternofter Row. 

Reduced facsimile. 



MEMOIRS 

O F 

Philip de Comines : 

Containing the HISTORY of 

LEWIS XL and CHARLES VIII. 

of FRANCE, 

A N D O F 

CHARLES theBold,Duke diBwgundy, 

To which Princes he was Secretary : 

As alfo the HISTORY of 

EDWARDIV.and HENRY VIL 
of ENGLAND; 

Including that of E V R P E for almoft half 

the Fifteenth Century : 

With & Supplement, as alfo feveral Original 

Treaties^ Notes and Qbfervations. 

AND 1ASTLY, 

The Secret Hiftory of Lewis XL out of a Book 
calPd The Scandalous Chronicle^ and the Life 
of the Author prefixW to the whole, with 
Notes upon it, by the Famous Sleidan. 

Faithfully Tranflated from the late Edition, of 
Monfieur GODEFROT, Hifto'riographer 
Royal of France. 

To which are added Remarks on-all the Occur- 
rences relating co England, 



By Mf. UvEDAt'E 



VOL. L 



LONDON: Printed for John Phillips at 
the Black Bull in Cornbtll. 17 12. 



Reduced facsimile. 



208 Instructions must not be too minute 

The compositor needs general direction, but it is a 
grave mistake for the author to direct too minutely, 
and to select the types for every line of display, 
for he has not the practice that will enable him to 
foresee the space that his selected types must oc- 
cupy. Not even the expert compositor can do this, 
or be certain that the types he may select will be of 
a proper height and width, or in good taste when 
they have been put near other types on the page. 
What he cannot safely undertake should not be at- 
tempted by the author. Too many lines will huddle 
the page ; types too black and bold will make it as 
coarse as a poster ; types too small will make it 
weak and insignificant. The types he may desire 
for a line usually prove too large. Twenty types 
of a prescribed height and width cannot be squeezed 
iu a measure that will be filled with eighteen only. 1 
The compositor must comply with an arbitrary 
order to select condensed type for a line of many 

1 A verbose title-page set forty but he would not be convinced. 
years ago by the writer of this His directions were obeyed to the 
note was criticized by the author letter, but not to betterment, for 
as " Weak and insignificant ; im- the original title-page, on a leaf 
portant words are in types too of six by nine inches, was uua- 
small, and the general arrange- voidably increased by his selec- 
ment is inartistic." He was tions to a page of eight by twelve 
bent on having the title-page re- inches. The types in the new 
setin bis way. Taking the print- proof were larger and bolder, tbe 
ing - house specimen - book of lines were huddled, and the gen- 
types for bis guide, be marked eral effect was that of a poster, 
ou the proof tbe types that must An experiment of tbis kind is 
be used for each line. He was sometimes needed to demon- 
warned that his inteuded ar- strate the limitation of space aud 
rangement was impracticable, the inflexibility of types. 



Regular divisions of the title-page 209 

letters, or to thin- or thick-space a too short line, or 
to widen the measure for too many words, yet all 
these methods are unpleasant alternatives. The 
author who is fastidious about his title-page will 
save time by conferring with the master printer 
about the feasibility of his requests, for they are 
sometimes impracticable, or may be disfigurements 
when they are practicable. 

KEGULAR DIVISIONS OF THE TITLE-PAGE 

Title-pages are made now in too many styles for 
an arbitrary classification. The commonest form is 
the displayed title, in which words are usually set 
in types of different sizes and in separate lines, 
some lines close together and others wide apart, 
but each line is centred, and the entire composition 
is made to fill the page, whether the words are few 
or many. In its simplest form it has three divi- 
sions, of name, author, and imprint, but a long title 
may have ten or more divisions. It is the first duty 
of the compositor to understand these divisions and 
to arrange types so that they shall be apparent to 
the reader. In the Art of Printing and the Memoirs 
of Philip de Comities, the relative importance of the 
information in their divisions will be a puzzle to the 
educated and a bewilderment to the printer. In 
the brief title of Poems by Thomas Hood (page 211) 
the distinction of divisions is readily perceived, 
and their separation can be easily made. 
14 



210 Title-pages need tvhite space 

This title-page of scant words does not fairly fill 
the page. Poems is properly set in the largest type, 
but the word is too short to fill the line. Nor does 
Thomas Hood have letters enough for a full line. 
The temptation to select types too big for these 
words must be resisted, for it is not always neces- 
sary to have any line in the title-page the full width 
of the measure. A line of display of fair promi- 
nence may be short of full measure if other lines 
are made subordinate. In this line the difiiculty 
may be overcome by thin-spacing the letters or by 
putting the catchword By before the name. I 
prefer the former expedient, but if this line has to 
be spaced, Poems should be spaced, and the words 
of the imprint also. 

When too much blank space has been left be- 
tween the three divisions of name of book, name 
of author, and imprint, the publisher may fill this 
blank with his own device or with a portrait. An 
inexperienced compositor may be tempted to fill 
the blank with chance decoration culled from a 
type-founder's specimen-book, but the decoration so 
selected is always a risk. If it is appropriate it 
will be a grace, but if it is larger, blacker, and 
bolder than the types, or if it is gray and feeble 
with too closely engraved lines, the intended im- 
provement will be a disfigurement. 

When blank space between divisions cannot be 
properly filled, and the page shows more blank 
above and below the line of the author's name than 



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212 Title matter not easily displayed 

there is in the margin at the head of the book, the 
page should be made shorter. This is in violation 
of an old rule that every title-page should be as long 
as its page of text (not reckoning the line for run- 
ning title); but a scant title-page is often improved 
by making it shorter. A critical reader is usually 
offended when he notes that the blanks within the 
page are wider than the blank in the head margin. 1 
There are title-pages that do not need display. 
Here is an illustration : 

The | 8. P. Avery Collection | of Prints and Art 
Books | in the | New York Public Library | A 
Handbook | New York | MCMI 

The words *v. P. Avery Collection seem to be proper 
for largest display, for they are so arranged in the 
copy, and it is by this name that the book will be 
called; but Prints and Art Books call for as much 
prominence. It is practicable to make two lines of 
each clause, but this treatment would bring lines of 
prominence too near each other. They would be too 
bold, for the request had been made that show-bill 
display should be avoided. This difficulty was over- 
come by running together all the clauses in the half- 
diamoud form preferred by Pickering and Aldus, 
and the blank at the top was appropriately filled 

iThe scant title-page of few compels the i-ecoin position of 
linesof type may be improved by every line that may have been 
inclosing the type in a plain rule previously composed. Rule- 
border. This may be a trouble- bordered pages are more fully 
some amendment, for it often treated iu another chapter. 




A HANDBOOK OF THE 



S. P. AVERY COLLECTION 



OF PRINTS AND ART 



BOOKS IN the NEW 



YORK PUBLIC 

LIBRARY 

MCMI 



214 Hindrances to title-page composition 

with the head of Minerva. Plain capitals and the 
generous provision of blank between lines gave all 
the prominence that was needed. 

The different divisions of a burdened title that 
seem easily distinguishable in the manuscript may 
not be made clear in type by the compositor. He 
is often perplexed by excess of words : to the name 
of book, author, and imprint are sometimes added 
a long summary of contents, the causes that induced 
publication, the number of the volume and of the 
edition, the names of editors, artists, and transla- 
tors, the publisher's device, or his warning against 
unauthorized reprints, and sometimes a motto or 
quotation. It is not in the province of the com- 
positor to change the order of the words written in 
copy, but he may warn the author that excess of 
words hiuders the making of an attractive title- 
page. He can suggest that the motto or quotation 
may be placed on the leaf facing the title-page, or 
that the names of editors, artists, or translators, or 
other extraneous matter, may be put at the top of 
the page, over the dash that separates it from the 
name of the book (see page 229). The prominence 
desired for these contributors will be had by then- 
superior position, even if the names so treated are 
set in small type. The subtitle, or summary of the 
contents of the book uuder its name, is auother 
hindrance, but it is too common to be put aside, 
and is often unavoidable. There are books with 
titles that do not fairly indicate their purpose: 



Estimate of space required 215 

they require an explanation of the name, and this 
explanation must be inserted as the author directs. 1 



ESTIMATE OF SPACE REQUIRED 

An estimate of the space that will be required for 
a title in manuscript should include the space for 
blanks between lines as well as the space for types. 
The comely appearance of a title-page depends as 
much on the proper apportionment of its blanks as 
on a graduation in sizes of type. When the com- 
positor has to decide that too many words have 
been underlined for display, he must restrict dis- 
play and consolidate the divisions that are akin. 

The widest blank should be above the imprint. 
A title-page seems huddled when the matter written 
by the author crowds the imprint, and this fault is 

1 The name of a book as it is fined to the making and the pe- 
printed in its title-page does not culiarities of types should say so 
always describe it clearly. It clearly in its subtitle. A book on 
may be made vague in a whim, Correct Composition should not 
or to provoke the reading of the leave one in doubt as to the mean- 
subtitle or summary which f ol- ing of the words, which could be 
lows. The words selected some- properly applied to the selection 
times may convey an unintended and phrasing of words in literary 
meaning. According to many composition, to the arrangement 
dictionaries, the word typogra- of types in print, to the grouping 
phycanbeproperlyappliedtothe of figures and other objects in 
fourentirelydistinctprocessesof painting, and to the mixture of 
type-designing or punch-cutting, materials in the making of ink- 
type -casting, type -composition, ing-rollers. The reader should 
type-press work. The word com- know (not guess at) the purpose 
position has eleven distinct ap- of the book, and it is for this rea- 
plications. A book on the Prac- son that the subtitle is often a 
tice of Typography that is con- summary of its contents. 



AN OUTLINE 

HISTORY OF ORANGE COUNTY, 

WITH AN 

ENUMERATION OF THE NAMES 

OF ITS 

TOWNS, VILLAGES, KIVERS, CREEKS, 

LAKES, PONDS, MOUNTAINS, HILLS AND 

OTHER KNOWN LOCALITIES, 

AND THEIR 

ETYMOLOGIES OR HISTORICAL REASONS THEREFOR; 

TOGETHER WITH 

LOCAL TRADITIONS 

AND SHORT 

BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES 

OF 

EARLY SETTLERS. ETC. 



BY SAM'L W, EAGER, ESQ., 

MEMBEK OF THE HISTOMCAL ASSOCIATION OF NEWBURGH, AND 

CORRESPONDING MEMBER OF THE HISTORICAL SOCIETV 

Of THE STATE OF NEW VORK. 



NEWBURGH: 
S. T. CALLAHAN, 

1846-7. 

Reilueeil facsimile. 



AN OUTLINE HISTORY 



OP 

ORANGE COUNTY 

WITH 

AN ENUMERATION OF THE NAMES OF ITS 
TOWNS, VILLAGES, RIVERS, CREEKS, LAKES, 
PONDS, HILLS OR MOUNTAINS, AND OTHER 
KNOWN LOCALITIES AND THEIR ETYMOLOGIES 
OR THE HISTORICAL REASONS THEREFOR 

TOGETHER WITH 

LOCAL TRADITIONS AND 
SHORT BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES 

OF EARLY SETTLERS, ETC. 



BY 
SAM'L W. EAGER, ESQ. 

MEMBER OF THE HISTORICAL ASSOCIATION OP NEWBUKGH, AND CORRESPONDING 
MEMBER OP THE HISTORICAL SOCIETY OP THE STATE OP NEW YOKK 



NEWBURGH 
S. T. CALLAHAN 

1846-7 



218 Openness needed for proper display 

not mended, but made worse, by the use of a dash. 
A portrait, an engraved device, or an appropriate 
decoration clearly marks the needed separation, but 
that also should have proper relief and not crowd 
the types above and below. What has been selected 
by the publisher for this purpose must be inserted 
whether it is large or small, black or gray, but the 
color of the decoration that may be selected by a 
printer should be carefully considered. If of small 
size, it may be fairly black and bold, especially when 
this blackness counterbalances lines at the head 
that seem overbold. It should be light, with many 
open lines, or in the outline style, when it is to be 
placed upon a page of light-faced display type. It 
is a mistake to make decoration the most noticeable 
feature of a typographic title-page. The significance 
of the title is in words, and not in decoration. 

The title-page should not be treated as a hand- 
bill or advertisement by putting an equal amount 
of space on each side of display lines. Its blanks 
should be of unequal width : quite narrow when 
they separate name of author from that of editor, 
and much wider when they separate the divisions 
not closely related. It is the wider blank as well as 
the larger type that warns the reader of the relative 
importance of each transition in subject-matter. 1 

1 The faults of over -display apprentice trying to follow old 
and of equal spaces between dis- printers' rules, which made but 
play lines are fairly presented in little distinction in their treat- 
the title on page 216, which was ment of title-pages and posting- 
set by the writer when he was an bills. 



■* Impropriety of old methods . 219 

The simpler style that is now in fashion is shown 
in the recomposition of this title with fewer display 
lines. 1 The grouping by diamond indention of the 
words in the summary of the book gives a fair 
prominence to all words, which are as readable and 
more comprehensible than they were in many dis- 
tinct lines. The added bit of decoration that sepa- 
rates the title proper from the imprint is not needed 
and could properly be omitted. It is inserted to 
show that when the words of a summary have been 
compactly arranged a fair space can be secured for 
a separation of title matter from the imprint. 

Another illustration may be of service, for the 
many members of a verbose and really indescrip- 



i It was once taught that the 
words for a title-page could he 
cramped in a becoming manner 
within the general outline of a 
top, a wedge, or a cornn ; but the 
words of this title did not lend 
themselves to arbitrary arrange- 
ment. Nor was the author flexi- 
ble, for he insisted on greater 
prominence for the line Biogra- 
phical Sketches, and the length- 
ening of that line marred the 
wedge-form intended. As was 
customary then, and sometimes 
is now, the rules of printers were 
opposed to those of the author, 
and words might be selected for 
display with small regard for 
their relative importance. In 
this title-page too much space 
was taken for display lines and 
catch-lines, and but little could 



he allowed for the name and 
honors of the author, which had 
to be fenced off with dashes. 

The text of this book was in 
small-pica, but the seven catch- 
lines of the title were set in in- 
significant small capitals. The 
petty catch-line was then rated 
as a grace. Theabsurdity of set- 
ting seven lines of the most im- 
portant page of the book in the 
pettiest letters was not then per- 
ceived. This fashion is near its 
end. It is required now that 
catch -lines be sparingly used, 
and that they be of readable size. 
The only lines in the title-page 
of an ordinary octavo or duodeci- 
mo that maybe putin very small 
capitals are those that give credit 
to a motto or contain the honor- 
ary titles of the author. 



220 The Anatomy of Melancholy 

tive title are always perplexing to every young 
compositor. For this purpose the 1847 reprint of 
Burton's Anatomy of Melancholy is selected. In 



THE 

ANATOMY OF 
MELANCHOLY 

What it is, %vit/c a& the kinds, causes, 
symptoms, prognostics h several cures ofilt 
la three Paxtittaos "with, titieir several 
Sections. nxraibers Sc siib sections., 
ffiUosopJiitxilhf , JfedicinoMy, 
JSstorically open&Lfc cut up. 
BY 

Detrwcrilus J'ttnion 

Witfi u Satyrical Ire/ace^ conducing 

to the fvUowing Discourse. 

T/ie Sucth, Eddxorv, corrected arid 

ozupnentied by the Autftor^ 

Omne adit punaum,. aid miscuit iUd& didri/ 

London.. 

Prin&d, 2c are>w be sold/ty 

Rerv. Oips Jb Lodo- Lloyd at> 

their shop w Fdpes-Ttead \dU&f, 

l6$z. 



the first edition of the book nearly five sixths of 
the title-page was taken by the artist for a pictorial 
border engraved on copperplate. The lettering had 



Faults made in following fashions 221 

to be contracted and made much smaller than an 
ordinary paragraph of the text. 

A comparison of the first edition with that of 1847 
shows that the later composition was not improved 
by the selection of many sizes and faces of type. 
Many of the earlier reprinters set the words in plain 
lower-case letters, paragraph style, and the reprinter 
of 1847 should have followed their example. 1 

The difficulty of composing this title was largely 
self-imposed : it was not in its verbosity or in its 
phrasing, but in the futile attempt to make words 
conform to improper rules. The compositor dis- 
played words where display was not required ; to 
cover space he spread the words in too many lines j 
to produce irregularity of outline he made some 
lines longer by thin-spacing condensed types ; and 
he squeezed the words of a long line with indis- 
tinct condensed letters. The title so arranged is 
feebleness itself ; it is an exhibit not of the author's 
intent but of the compositor's notions. 

This title has many divisions— the name of the 
book, the humorous amplifications of that name, 
the fictitious name of the author, the notice of the 

i In other books, lettering in chanical. Perversion of taste 
outline or in hair-line, indistinct- takes the opposite direction now : 
ly engraved on copperplate, was the symmetrical types of the 
sometimes provided to please the competent type-makers of our 
effeminated tastes of the readers time are disdained, and prefer- 
of the first half of the nineteenth ence is given to malformed let- 
century. Fortheirfeeble graces, ters designed by amateurs, who 
the shapely types of Caslon, fail to see that there is a plain 
Baskerville, and Jackson were distinction between virility and 
rejected as too coarse and me- barbarity. 



ANATOMY OF MELANCHOLY, 

WHAT IT IS, 

WITH 

ALL THE KINDS, CAUSES, SYMPTOMS, PROGNOSTICS, AND SEVERAL CURES OF IT. 

IN THREE PARTITIONS. 

WITH THEIR SEVEEAL 



SECTIONS, MEMBERS, AND SUBSECTIONS, PHILOSOPHICALLY, MEDICALLY, 
HISTORICALLY OPENED AND CUT UP. 



BY DEMOCRITUS JUNIOR. 



A SATIRICAL PREFACE, CONDUCING TO THE FOLLOWING DISCOURSE 



SI &eto ETifUon, 

OQMteCTED, AJW KNKICHEO SV TRANSLATIONS OF THE NUMEROUS CLASSICAL E IT R ACTS. 

BY DEMOCRITUS MINOR. 

TO WHICH IS PREFIXEO AN ACCOUNT OF THE AUTHOR. 



Odim inlit punctmn, qui mixuit oiilo JuleL 

Ha ilni |utoi instnicUun wiih dflifhu, 
Pmfii *ith plcuure, um«i ill lha *uus. 



PHILADELPHIA:. 

J. W. MOORE, 193 CHESNUT STREET. 

NEW YORK: 

WILEY & PUTNAM, 161 BROADWAY. 

1847. 

Reduced facsimile. 



BY ROBERT BURTON 



THE ANATOMY OF 

MELANCHOLY 

WHAT IT IS 

WITH ALL THE KINDS, CAUSES, SYMPTOMS, 

PROGNOSTICS, AND SEVERAL CURES OF IT. IN THREE 

PARTITIONS, WITH THEIR SEVERAL SECTIONS, MEMBERS 

AND SUBSECTIONS PHILOSOPHICALLY, MEDICALLY, 

HISTORICALLY OPENED AND CUT UP 

BY DEMOCRITUS JUNIOR 

WITH A SATIRICAL PREFACE CONDUCING TO THE FOLLOWING DISCOURSE 



A NEW EDITION 

CORRECTED AND ENRICHED BY TRANSLATIONS OF 

THE NUMEROUS CLASSICAL EXTRACTS 

BY DEMOCRITUS MINOR 

TO WHICH IS PREFIXED AN ACCOUNT OF THE AUTHOR 

Omne tulit punctual, qui miecuit utile dulci. 



Sf 



PHILADELPHIA NEW YORK 

J. W. MOORE WILEY & PUTNAM 

193 CHESTNUT STREET 161 BROADWAY 

1847 



224 Simple arrangements most acceptable 

new edition and of its fictitious editor, the motto, 
the imprint,— each needing some distinction from 
its fellows. The name of the book, Amdomy of 
Melancholy, must be the leading line, but it has too 
many letters for one line of suitable prominence. 
Condensed type that would be allowable in one line 
of an octavo page would make the words too small 
in a duodecimo. If the leading line were made 
small, other lines would have to be still smaller. 

The amplification of the title (which takes the 
place of a subtitle) requires no display, and can be 
set to best advantage in types of uniform size and 
face. Nor does the fictitious name of the author 
need display, for it does not reveal his real name. 

A New Edition, with the matter that follows, is 
of importance, aud may be displayed, for it gives 
notice about additions of probable value. 

The Latin motto needs no prominence. Its Eng- 
lish paraphrase is but a pointless perversion, whieh 
should be omitted. The double imprint may be 
put in two columns to save space needed elsewhere. 

If the words Anatomy of Melancholy had been 
placed, as first written, at the top of the page in two 
lines of bold type, the page would be top-heavy, for 
there are no other words in the title matter that 
will justify the use of a bold line to counterbalance 
this top-heaviness. Here we find the utility of the 
old device, which supplies the needed blackness and 
forestalls the criticism that the title-page is u all by 
the head." 



Planning a title-page 225 

Even with this modification, the placing of two over- 
bold lines at the head is not altogether sightly j the 
title would be more pleasing if these lines conld be 
placed lower on the page. Permission should be 
asked from the publisher to place the real name of 
the author at the head of the page. Democritus 
Junior carries with it no meaning to the unschooled 
reader, but Robert Burton does, and it should be 
printed in full to prevent its possible confusion 
with Richard Burton, the Oriental traveller and 
translator, or John Hill Burton, the book-collector. 
When this has been done, the composition will not 
be troublesome ; the arrangement will seem easy 
and unpretentious, even to the inexpert. It is a 
great merit in any title not to be arranged in an 
apparently fussy or artificial manner. It is at its 
best when it seems to have been composed without 
effort or a straining after effectiveness. 

PLANNING A TITLE-PAGE 

Composition on a title-page is too often attempted 
before the compositor has planned in his mind its 
general effect in print. He usually begins compo- 
sition, as is proper, by selecting a certain size and 
face of type for the main line, but he unwisely 
thinks that he can develop a plan, without waste 
of time, as he proceeds with the setting of other 
lines. A title of few words may be properly set 
without a plan, but the arrangement of intricate 
15 



226 Value of a preliminary sketch 

title matter cannot be developed during the process 
of composition. The compositor who begins work 
without a plan may select types that are disappoint- 
ingly large or small, and group words or lines of 
display in one division that must interfere with 
arrangements in another division which cannot be 
changed. He will set twice as many lines as are 
needed, and will be bewildered as he proceeds with 
the profusion of lines underscored in his copy— 
underseorings that cannot be properly displayed 
within the fixed limits of the page. 

Much of this waste of time in useless experiment 
can be prevented by drawing with a lead-pencil on 
a piece of paper of proper form a sketch in lines 
only of the title he has to set. To make this sketch 
requires little facility with the pencil, but it does 
require a careful re-reading of the copy and some 
deliberation. He may reject his first plan before 
he forms one that is practicable, but its intended 
form will be more quickly plotted with the pencil 
than it can be arranged in type. The ease with 
which it can be done is shown in the following 
illustration of a line sketch of the rearrangement 
of Boswell's Life of Johnson as it appeared in a title- 
page of the last century. 

Iu the edition of 1826 this title had many lines 
of petty display and six catch-lines in small capi- 
tals of nonpareil As the imprint (ten lines of non- 
pareil lower-case not necessary to repeat) occupied 
nearly one fourth of the page, little room was left 



THE 

LIFE 

OF 

SAMUEL JOHNSON, LL.D. 

COMPREHENDING 

AN ACCOUNT OF HIS STUDIES AND WORKS, 

IN CHAONOLOGICAL OROEft J 

A SERIES OF HIS EPISTOLARY CORRESPONDENCE, 

CONVERSATIONS WITH MANY EMINENT PERSONS; 

AND 

Original Hirer* of f)i* Composition: 

THE WHOLE EXHIBITING A VIEW OF LITERATURE AND LITERARY 

MEN IN GREAT BRITAIN, FOR NEAR HALF A CENTURY 

DURING WHICH HE FLOURISHED. 



By JAMES BOSWELL, Esq. 



WITH MALONE'S NOTES AND ILLUSTRATIONS! 

A NO, FOR THE Fid ST TIME, 

PIOZZI'S ANECDOTES OF DR. JOHNSON. 



1 Quo fit ut omnis 

Voliva patcat veluti deacripta tabella 

Vito unit Horat, 



IN FOUR VOLUMES, WITH A PORTRAIT, &c. 

VOL. I. 



LONDON. 

Printed for Baynea aod Son, Paterooster Row; Cowie, Low, and Co. Poultry; Smith, 
Elder, and Co. Corahilt; J. Dowding, Newgate Street; R. Baylies, Paternoster 
Row; J. Bain, Mews' Gate, J. Arnould, Spring Gardens; B. Iley, Somerset 
Street; W. Meaon, Pickett Street; P. Wright ood Son, Broad Street, Bloomsbury ; 
H. Steel, Tower Bill; J. F. Setchel, King Street ; E. Wilson, Royal Excbaoge \ 
C. Rice, Mount Street; W. Bootb, Duke Street; T. Lealer, Ficsbury Place- 
M. Doyle, High Holborn ; J. Poynton, Knigbtsbridge ; J. Vincent, Oxford; 
R.Nowby.Cambridge; R.Wrigbtson, Birmingham; A. Barclay, York ; H.Mozley* 
Derby, Waughaod Innes, Edinburgh ; J.Cumming, M". Keene, C. P. Archer, and 
R.M.Tims, Dublin jChalmeraaod Collins, Glasgow; arm 1 H.S. Bayne*. Edinburgh. 
1826. 

Reduced facsimile. 



BY JAMES BOSWELL, Esq. 
THE LIFE OF 

SAMUEL JOHNSON, LL.D. 

COMPREHENDING AN 

ACCOUNT OF HIS STUDIES AND WORKS 

IN CHRONOLOGICAL ORDER, A SERIES OF HIS EPISTOLARY 

CORRESPONDENCE, CONVERSATIONS WITH 

MANY EMINENT PERSONS 

AND 

ORIGINAL PIECES OF HIS COMPOSITION 

THE WHOLE EXHIBITING A VIEW OF 
LITERATURE AND LITERARY MEN IN 
GREAT BRITAIN FOR NEAR HALF A 
CENTURY IN WHICH HE FLOURISHED 

WITH 

MALONE'S NOTES AND ILLUSTRATIONS 

AND, FOR THE FIRST TIME, PIOZZI'S ANECDOTES 

OF DR. JOHNSON 

Quo fit nt omnis 

Votiva pateat veluti descripta tabella 

Vita senia fforace 

IN FOUR VOLUMES, WITH A PORTRAIT, ETC. 

VOLUME I 

LONDON 

PRINTED FOR BAYNES & SON 

1826 



230 Explanation of the remodelling 

for bold type. The matter written by the author 
was so close to the imprint that it had to be sepa- 
rated by a dash, and four dashes more had to be 
used to show a needed separation between other 
divisions. This title was carefully and tastefully 
set up, but it was unavoidably huddled with many 
lines, that made it not so easily comprehensible as 
a page of its following text in leaded small-pica. 
Modern taste requires that it should be treated in 
the simpler manner attempted in another example, 
about which the following remarks may be needed. 

Samuel Johnson, LL.D., is, of course, the leading 
line. Next in order of importance comes Original 
Pieces of his (■opposition. The notices of his studies 
and works, of his correspondence and conversations, 
and the editor's proposed review of Literature and 
literary men, are bits of information that can be 
properly displayed in distinct lines only when there 
is room for display. On a duodecimo page there 
is none. In the edition of 1826, where display was 
attempted, types had to be used that were small 
and huddled, and the hues had to be separated by 
indistinct catch-lines of small capitals. 

In the remodelled title Nalone's Xotes and Illus- 
trations and PiozzPs Anecdotes nve grouped together 
to prevent the making of an unnecessary catch- 
line. By James Bos well is another line that needs 
display. In the ordinary title-page the name of 
the author is put in the middle of the page, follow- 
ing the name of the book j but Boswell is so closely 



Value of a preliminary sketch 231 

associated with Doctor Johnson that he seems to 
demand a place of almost equal prominence. The 
practice of putting the name of the anthor before 
the name of the book, which is adopted by librarians 
in their catalogues and by many printers of Paris, 
has the further advantage in this instance of allow- 
ing the leading line of display, Samuel Johnson, 
LL.D. f to be pnt lower down on the page, thereby 
preventing top-heaviness. The motto and the im- 
print need no special consideration. The words 
The Life of need large but not too bold capitals ; po- 
sition over the main display line gives them enough 
distinction in a short line. 

The important features of this title matter are 
fairly brought out in the few display Hues specified, 
and they are enough to make the page attractive. 
Other parts of the title have to be pnt together 
closely. The words that follow comprehending are 
arranged in diamond form, in five lines of small 
capitals. The clanse that promises a retrospect of 
literature and literary men is also in small capitals, 
but it is varied by a squared outline. 

The compositor who pencils a plan of the in- 
tended shape of a proposed title may not be able 
to carry it ont in all its details, but the sketch will 
give him a better notion of the limits of the space 
to be filled, of the sizes of type that are most needed, 
of the varying lengths of lines, and of the widths 
of blank that must be put between lines. He may 
not find in the printing-honse every line of type that 



232 Value of a preliminary sketch 

he needs for the development of his plan, and he 
may have to remodel it more than once in a new 
form, bnt the labor of making a new sketch is a 
trifle as compared with the resetting of type. The 
pencilled sketch will save useless experiment in the 
composition of lines that have to be rejected for 
unfitness or for disagreement with other lines. 

The planning and composition of a new title-page 
may be made difficult by the author or publisher 
who insists on a close imitation of the title-page of 
some other book. Attempt at imitation is a hope- 
less task when the words in copy are more or less 
than those of the model, or when the lettering de- 
sired is unlike that of any types that are available. 
The general effect of an old-fashioned title cannot 
be fairly reproduced by any compositor who is not 
provided with the types and engravings of its time. 
Nor can the medieval or Puritan effect intended be 
secured by types or engravings only. An intelligent 
selection of the paper on which the title is to be 
printed, and a close adherence to the old methods of 
presswork which gave vigor and distinction to the 
original, are of equal importance. 




XI 



THE SELECTION OF FACES 



A REVIEW OF TOLERATED TYPES 

OR nearly four hundred years 
roman capitals have been pre- 
ferred by English-speaking 
peoples and the Latin races 
for the title-pages of books as 
well as for the lettering of 
medals and coins, for inscrip- 
tions on buildings, on the 
pedestals of statues, and on 
memorial tablets. The preference is justifiable, 
for roman letters are simpler, more compact, and 
more easily read than those of any other language. 
It may be assumed that they will be acceptable in 
any title-page for which special instructions have 
not been given. 

In every book-printiug house the compositor will 
find enough of roman capitals for ordinary title- 




2,34 Many varieties of the roman face 

page composition, but they may not be in a graded 
series, of pleasing design, or of harmonious face. 
There may be too many faces, and their superabun- 
dance, a recent trouble, makes selection difficult. 
Even as late as 1860 there were in regular use but 
three distinct styles of roman letter: the fat-face 
of Thorne (then in decadence) ; the Caslon face, or 
old style (then a novelty) ; and the modern cut, with 
its rounder curves and more graceful form, longer 
serifs, and much sharper hair-lines. Other styles 
of roman letter are of later date. Of the old-style 
types we now have the Caslon and its counterfeits, 
the modernized old style, the Elzevir or Cadmus, 
and the Ronaldson. To these four varieties may 
be added also the Jenson, the fifteenth-century, the 
MacFarland or Bradford, and the old-roman face, 
all made since 1890, and all bolder and blacker than 
the standard forms. 1 Of modern-cut types we have 
many varieties, with peculiarities not so easily de- 
scribed. Type-founders define them with numbers, 
but they are classified by printers as types of bold 
face or light face, condensed face or broad face. 

When definite instructions have not been given 
as to the face of type to be selected, the compositor 

1 1 do not mention here the Nor have we yet reached the end 

Golden types of William Morris, of invention : we are warned to 

and other types made for the expect in the next decade other 

amateur presses of England and new faces based on the old-style 

America (all of them of old-style models. For special illustrations 

character), for these types, made and remarks on the peculiarities 

for special occasions, are not to of the old-style face, see pages 

be had of regular type-founders. 188-190 of Plain Printing Types. 



Title-pages not always in same face 235 

should take his cue from the text of the book A 
text in old style or in modern cut should have its 
title-page in the same or in a similar faee of type. 
The printer should look upon the copy of any new 
title-page he is asked to set up as a proposed archi- 
tecture of words in types, and this architecture 
should be controlled by the rules that in all times 
and places have governed good construction. The 
types to be selected must differ in size, but they 
should not differ seriously in style or shape ; they 
should have orderly arrangement and be in har- 
mony with one another and with the types of the 
text that follows. Words carefully selected by the 
author to please the ear should be put in type with 
equal care to please the eye. 

Yet there are obstacles in the way. The uni- 
formity desired by the critical is not always pos- 
sible. Not even in the most-used styles of roman 
capitals can there be found in any type-founder's 
specimen-book a series so perfectly graded that it 
will fully meet every requirement. It is difficult 
to set a verbose title calling for many sizes in types 
of precisely the same face. The compositor often 
has to put lines of modernized old style with lines 
of Caslon old style on the same page. When the 
types are very small, differences in their cut are not 
perceptible to inexperts ; but their differences are 
noticeable to every one when types of large size but 
of different faces are contrasted. The peculiarities 
of the styles need explanation. 



236 Caslon face, or real old style 

The old-style face in most favor is known as the 
( 1 aslon old style, and it is provided by a few found- 
ers on all the regular bodies from pearl to six-line. 
The face should be alike in all sizes, but there are 
series called Caslon not fairly entitled to the name. 
In early type-founding days it was common to piece 
out an imperfect font of type with matrices of capi- 
tals, italic, small capitals, or points made by differ- 
ent punch-cutters for another font which had its 
own distinctive peculiarities. A small lower-case 
might be mated with large andblack capitals ; small- 
pica italic might be fitted on pica moulds to mate 
with pica. Other clumsy expedients were employed 
to save the expense of cutting proper punches. Cu- 
riously enough, these patched-up fonts are some- 
times esteemed by undiscerning amateurs in typog- 
raphy. Letters of irregular height, out of line and 
much unlike their mates in many ways, have been 
accepted as evidences of genuine quaintness and 
superior merit. 

Noticeable defects in the Caslon old style are the 
leanness of the s in lower-case and capital, and the 
exceeding width of round capital letters like 0, C, 
D ? and G. Some varieties of old style are deficient 
in the double letters required by the long s, and the 
kerned characters are cast on too wide a set. Com- 
position from types so made may be disappointing, 
for they lack the old-time snugness and close fit- 
ting. The Caslon type shows its merit most in the 
larger sizes ; the smaller sizes are thin and weak. 



TRAVELS 

INTO SEVERAL 

REMOTE NATIONS 

OF THE WORLD 

IN FOUR PARTS 

BY 

LEMUEL GULLIVER 

First a Surgeon and then a Captain of Several Ships 

To which are prefixed 

Several Copies of Verses Explanatory and Commendatory 

Never before Printed 

Volume I 

THE SECOND EDITION 



LONDON 
PRINTED FOR BENJAMIN MOTTE 

AT THE MIDDLE TEMPLE-GATE IN FLEET STREET 
M DCC XXXII 



238 Modernized old style 

The modernized old style, as shown on the opposite 
page, is more frequently used than the Caslon for 
title-pages. It was first made in 1851 for the type- 
founders Miller & Richard of Edinburgh, but it 
did not find general favor before 1860. Some of 
the peeuliar features of the Caslon old style have 
been fairly preserved in its modified angularity and 
in its protracted thick strokes, but noticeable de- 
fects in the shape of a, w, s, g, and other characters 
have been corrected. It is a more comely letter, 
but the general appearance of the remodelled type 
has been seriously changed by narrowing the thick 
strokes and sharpening the hair-lines. This treat- 
ment has made print from it gray instead of black. 
To use the pressman's phrase, modernized old style 
" does not carry color." It is probably for this good 
reason that it has been preferred, by all those who 
consider engravings the most important feature in 
a book, as a proper type to be selected to surround 
engraved illustrations in the text. Grayness in the 
face of type gives increased distinction to the cut, 
but it makes print on the page monotonous to the 
reader. Many varieties of this old-style face are 
made in the United States : some have large round 
letters and short ascenders and descenders ; in other 
styles these features are reversed ; others bristle with 
angles. It is also provided in condensed and ex- 
panded shapes and on many bodies. Some of these 
bodies frequently have to be selected for title-pages 
to supply deficiencies in the Caslon series. 



THE 
FIFTIETH ANNIVERSARY 

OF 
THE FOUNDING OF 

THE CENTURY 

AND 

THE ADOPTION OF ITS 
CONSTITUTION 



January 13, 1897 



NEW YORK 

THE CENTURY ASSOCIATION 

1897 



240 Antique old style 

Antique old styles are made with thick and with 
thin stems to produce different degrees of black- 
ness in the print. Those that have thick stems are 
used by job-printers only, but the antique old style 
of relatively light face may be accepted as a proper 
title-page type for some books. 1 It is a fair rival to 
the Jenson in its nice adaptability to title-pages or 
pamphlet covers intended to be bold and impres- 
sive, or to have one or more lines in red ink. The 
angularities and uneven figures of the old roman 
model are fairly repeated in this style, but the 
more pronounced defects are measurably corrected. 
Its greatest deviation from the true model is the 
protracted serifs of the capital letters, which compel 
them to be fitted wide apart, but the added clear- 
ness given to each letter renders this not so se- 
rious a defect in the capital as it is in the lower- 
case. It is rarely selected for inner titles, but for 
title-pages of quarto or folio size it has been pre- 
ferred to the Jenson and other eccentric forms of 
old style. In its condensed form, and in lower-case, 
it is a general favorite for sub- and side-headings. 

l As the more approved forms types on the body of 5 -point, 
of the antique old style have no that are more readable than they 
marked eccentricities in the would have been from 7- point 
shapes of their letters, it is in types of the regular roman face. 
marked favor as a text letter for The Book of the Courtier (print- 
books intended to have more of edforCharles Scribner's Sonsby 
legibility than can be found in the De Vinne Press), set in an- 
the ordinary faci- of roman type, tique type of 12-point body, is 
Quantin, a publisher of Paris, more legible than it would have 
has printed, in 24mo form, a been if printed from Caslon old- 
series of booko from antique style types of 18-point body. 



A JOURNEY 

FROM ALEPPO 

TO JERUSALEM 

At Easter A.D. i6g7 

THE THIRD EDITION 

To which is now added an Account of the Author's 

Journey to the Banks of Euphrates at Beer 

and to the Country of Mesopotamia 

BY 
HEN. MAUNDRELL, M.A. 

Late Fellow of Exeter College and Chaplain to the 
Factory at Aleppo 




OXFORD 

PRINTED AT THE THEATER 
AN. DOM. M DCC XIV 



JOURNEY 

FROM 

Aleppo to Jerufalem 

AtEafter,y4'D.itfp7. 



TheThird Edition, To which is now added an Account 
of the Authors Journey to the Banks of Euphrates 
at Beer, and to the Country of Mefopotamia. 

By HenMaundrtUjA.h. lace Fellow of ExeterQoW* 
and Chaplain to the Fa&ory at Aleppo. 





■iltesgF^ --"S 


^^jl 


:= ==-"-^ 


/ri\ — ■ " 




__-r^m—.- ___ 


fcgj| , 


-^^_ 








-^£^S^ fgSSfi 


feSi^lBiiSlSL 




lyUtiffl 


Li 11' ' 


BI 






^^I^^l^B 




JES 






[pi r m [ ftMjffljr 


iftff 


■ 




— " .( If /"M^ >*r# 



X i? H, D, 

Printed at the Th e a t e r, An* Z)om. MDCCXIV. 

Induced facsimile. 



AREPORTE 

OF THEKING- 

dome of Congo, a Re- 
gion of Africa. 

And of the Countries that border 

roundc about the fame. 

1. Wherein is alfo fhewedthatthetwo Zones,Torrtda ScFrigida.arenoc 

oncly habitable , butinhabired^and very temperate, contrary to the 

opinion ofthcolde Philofophcrs. 
j t That the blacke colour which is in theskinnes of the Etb'to plant & 

Nrgrott &c.proceedethnot from theSunnc. 
j. And that the Riuer Nifat fpnngeth not out ofthe mountains of th e 

Moonc,as hath beenc heretofore bclecucd; Togethcrwith the true 

caufcof thcryfingand increafc thereof. 
4. Befidesthcdelcription of diner* plantes, Fifhcs and Beaftei, that are 

foundc iothofc Countries, 

Drawen out of the writinges and difcourfesof 
Odoardo Lopes a Portingall, by 

Phihppo FigafttU. 

TranjUtcdeut of Italian by Abrthtm FlArtwtff* 




LONDON 

Printed by Iohn Wolfe. 1597. 

Reduced facsimile. 



244 The Jenson face 

Jenson is the American adaptation of the Golden 
type of William Morris, provided by the American 
Type Founders 7 Company on many bodies from 
6-point to 72-point ? and in standard, condensed, and 
extra-condensed shapes. Its boldness and black- 
ness are not suitable for the title-page of the ordi- 
nary book, when that book is followed by a text in 
ordinary roman letter, but it is selected frequently 
for the title-pages of catalogues and advertising 
pamphlets. The height of all capital letters and 
the thickness of the stems on bodies of the same 
size in the three series of different widths have 
been made uniform, so that letters of at least two 
proximate series can be used together in the same 
line with a proper effect. This new feature is much 
approved by compositors, who have no little diffi- 
culty in choosing a type that will enable them to 
get the required number of letters iu a line of 
display. The Jenson will be too bold for the ordi- 
nary title-page of roman printed in black ink, but 
it is of value when used as a line of display marked 
for red ink. It carries color much better than any 
light-faced roman with sharp lines, and its superior 
effectiveness in print justifies its selection for this 
purpose. 

In the reproduction of old title-pages not in- 
tended as strict facsimiles of the original copy, the 
Benson capital is to be preferred to roman types of 
modern cut, but this remark should be applied only 
to titles that are not crowded. 



A REPORTE 
OF THE KINGDOME OF 

CONGO 

A Region of Africa, and of the Countries 
that border rounde about the same* 
CL Drawen out of the writinges 
and the discourses of Odoardo 
Lopes, a Portingall, by Phi- 
lippo Pigafetta. Trans- 
lated out of Italian by 
Abraham Harttvell 




LONDON 

PRINTED BY JOHN WOLFE 
1597 



246 Eteevir or Cadmus face 

The form of roman type known in America under 
the names of Elzevir, Cadmus, or French old style is 
the reproduction of an old type by Gustave Mayeur 
of Paris, who labelled it " Sixteenth-century style.'' : 
This face is remarkable for its simplicity and legi- 
bility : there is not a needless stroke in any char- 
acter. The thick strokes are narrower than those 
recommended by early theorists, but the hair-lines 
are thicker. Like other old styles, some of its capi- 
tal letters are of unusual width, but the lower-ease 
letters are much compressed. The shortness of 
their serifs favors a close fitting which has not been 
fully imitated by all its copyists, for it has been 
found that too close fitting is sometimes an annoy- 
ance. Capital letters with vertical lines, like I, H, 
M, approach one another too closely, and they often 
require an added space between them. 

The beauty of the capitals is most noticeable in 
a title-page that allows the use of large types with 
wide blanks between lines. When the types are 
small and are separated from one another by very 
narrow blanks, the effect is not so good. It needs 
strong impression to develop its characteristics. 
When printed on dry and shiny paper with little 
ink and feeble impression, the meagre title con- 
demned by book-reviewers will be produced. 

i It was copied by him from cutter Granjon of Lyons, who 
one of the books of the Elzevirs, did make punches of remark- 
but not from any face designed able lightness of face for the 
by a Hollandish punch-cutter. Lacolange foundry of his city. 
One French writer thinks it was and for some Roman and Vene- 
first made by the French punch- tian type-founders. 



HOW TO GET ON 
IN THE WORLD 

AS DISPLAYED IN THE 

LIFE AND WRITINGS 

OF 

WILLIAM COBBETT 

A NEW AND ENLARGED EDITION 
BY 

ROBERT WATERS 

PRINCIPAL OF THE WEST HOBOKEN (n. J.) PUBLIC SCHOOL J 
FORMERLY TEACHER OF LANGUAGE AND LITERA- 
TURE IN THE HOBOKEN ACADEMY 




NEW YORK 

R. WORTHINGTON, 77O BROADWAY 
1885 



248 Fifteenth-century style 

The fifteenth-century style is a reproduction of an 
early aud rude form of roman type made by some 
German printer who practised his craft in Italy 
before the year 1475. Books in the broad form of 
blaek-letter type then made in Germany were dis- 
liked by Italian scholars, who insisted on the use of 
their own round and clear roman character. To 
meet this demand, and to produce a compact letter 
for use in books of small size to be sold at a mod- 
erate price, this early form of compressed roman ' 
type was produced. But little can be said in praise 
of the design, cutting, casting, or printing of some 
of the tentative types devised by printers in Italy 
before 1470, for each process is plainly the work 
of an unskilled workman. As the first roman types 
were supplanted by more readable romans made by 
Jenson and Renner before 1476, it is therefore a 
mistake to consider this adapted fifteenth -century 
type as a proper exhibit of the generally good ro- 
man letter used by the printers of that period. 

This whimsical face finds its greatest admirers 
among advertisers and the designers of advertising 
pamphlets, who desire to attract the listless reader 
more than to exhibit really good forms of early 
letter. It is never selected by a discriminating pub- 
lisher for the title-page of any standard book, but 
it can be used to advantage not merely for a title- 
page, but as a text type for books or writings in- 
tended to convey to the reader a better notion of 
oecasional medieval mannerisms. 



A 
COLLECTION OF SEVENTY-NINE 

BLACK LETTER 
BALLADS AND BROADSIDES 

Printed in the 

Reign of Queen Elizabeth 

Between the Years 

I 559" I 597 

Accompanied with an 
INTRODUCTION AND ILLUSTRATIVE NOTES 

Second Issue 




LONDON 

Joseph Lilly, 17 and 18, New Street 
And 5A, Garrick Street 

1870 



250 Bradford and MaeFarland faces 

The face of type on the opposite page is known in 
America by many names. Genzsch & Heyse, type- 
founders of Hamburg, Germany, introduced it as 
Roniische Versalien for the series of capital letters, 
and as Romisehe Antiqua for the full series of capi- 
tals and lower-case. It is better known in America 
under the name of the Bradford face, and can be 
had in man}' sizes of capitals and lower-case from 
8-poiut to 72-point. A closely resembling style, 
made by the Inland Type Foundry of St. Louis, is 
known as the MaeFarland face, which is also fur- 
nished in a great variety of sizes. These faces are 
fair copies of the old roman lapidary letter, and are 
much bolder than an} T other variety of old style. 
They are admirably adapted for printing title-pages 
marked for lines in red ink, as well as for leaves in 
quarto or folio. Hitherto this type has found most 
use in title-pages of a large size ; but it is as well 
adapted for title-pages of duodecimos and octavos, 
with which fault is often found for their feeble- 
ness and ineffective presentation of words. The 
nice graduation of the thickness of stem and hair- 
line for different bodies has been more intelligently 
maintained than has been attempted in the series of 
Cadmus or Elzevir fares. They increase in width 
as they increase in size, not too weak for the small, 
nor too bold for the large page. As the MaeFarland 
and the Bradford have no eccentricities of shape in 
any character, they may be regarded as classic types 
to be used with propriety in any standard book. 



CERTAINE 
SELECT DIALOGVES 



OF 



LVCIAN 

TOGETHER WITH 

HIS TRVE HISTORY 

Translated from the Greeke into English 

BY 

MR. FRANCIS HICKES, 

Whereunto is added the Life of Lvcian gathered 

out of his veritable Writings, with briefe 

Notes & Illustrations on each Dialogue 

& Booke, by T. H., M. of Arts of 

Christ Church in Oxford. 




OXFORD, 
Printed by William Tvrner, 1634. 



252 Two-line letter of bold-face 

The f at-f aeed two-line letter which exaggerated the 
bold-face, made about the year 1800 by the type- 
founder Thome of London, has been shown on 
page 199. It was a disappointing type, for it could 
seldom be used to advantage in more than one line 
of a title-page. Yet there were printers who were 
not fully content with the weak and thin faces then 
accepted as proper substitutes. They insisted on 
having a modified form that should preserve some 
of its boldness without its offensive blackness. For 
this taste the two-line letter shown on the opposite 
page l was made soon after, and it ever since has 
had some degree of favor. Its great defects are the 
flatness of its long serifs and its over-sharp hair- 
lines. Another face of useful two -line letter with 
narrower stems, slightly bracketed serifs, and of a 
eompacter form, is more fully shown in many of the 
remodelled title-pages of the following chapter. 

1 It found so little use as title- ability of the hold-face for books, 
page letter that I had some dim- a recent puhlisher has issued a 
culty in finding an illustrative prospectus for a new book in a 
title-page. It seems to havo text entirely of pica bold-face, 
been admitted, even in the days This is one of many evidences 
of its fashion, that it could be of mistaken notions concerning 
used with propriety for a title- the features which give read- 
page only when its excessive ability to type. Nor is this the 
blackness was relieved by many only confounding of blackness 
lines of lighter -faced roman with legibility. Other amateurs 
capitals. This limited use of try to direct attention to the 
bold-face may he noticed in the printed page by the use of ex- 
facsimile of the title of Han- cessively thick double rules he- 
card's Typographia and in other tween paragraphs, which serve 
books, hut the experienced book- no better purpose than to divert 
printers of that day refused «o the eye from the thought of the 
use it lu muss. Disregarding writer to this caprice of the 
this experience of the unsuit- printer. 



THE 

ANABASIS 

OR 

EXPEDITION OF CYRUS 

AND THE 

MEMORABILIA OF SOCRATES 

LITERALLY TRANSLATED FROM THE GREEK OF 

XENOPHON 

BY 

REV. J. S. WATSON, M.A., M.R.S.L. 

WITH A GEOGRAPHICAL COMMENTARY BY 

W. F. AINSWORTH, ESQ. 

F.S.A., F.R.G.S., F.G.S. 



LONDON 

BELL AND DALDY 

YORK STREET, COVENT GARDEN 

1873 



254 The "Saturday PosV\face 

The Post type, of recent introduction, is the fair 
mate of two other styles devised on a similar 
plan that are known as Plymouth and Blanchard. 
These types are noticeable for their studied care- 
lessness of shape, for wide fitting, and for a general 
disregard of the canons of propriety that have pre- 
vailed among punch-cutters for the last four hun- 
dred years. It finds its most frequent employment 
as a display letter in the newspaper advertisement, 
and as a title-page letter for advertising pamphlets, 
and occasionally, but not wisely, as a type for the 
subheadings of articles set up in standard roman 
letter. The object sought in its design seems to 
have been an eccentricity of form that will compel 
instant attention ; and this object has been effectu- 
ally attained. Useful as a display letter for these 
purposes, it is of small value as a text type. Bold 
as it seems, it is not clear : a paragraph of 8-point 
of this face is not so easily readable as a paragraph 
in any cut of ordinary roman text type on 10-point 
body, which occupies the same space. Its greater 
blackness does not give greater clearness. 

Like all types, it has its proper field of service. 
It is a modern adaptation of the chap-book style, 
of which further mention will be made in another 
chapter. It seems specially appropriate as a type 
for any book intended to please the illiterate and 
credulous, but its grossness and careless form will 
prevent its empl< ivment as a title-page letter for any 
serious or standard book. 



The 
PLEASANT ART OF 

MONEY-CATCHING 

Treating' of 

The Original and Invention of Money 

The Misery of Wanting it, etc. 

How Persons in Straits for Money may 

supply themselves with it 
A New Method for ordering Expenses 
How to save Money in Diet (Sfe. Apparel 
How a Man may Keep money in PocRet 
How to pay Debts without Money 
How to Travel without Money 

To which is added 

THE WAY HOW TO TURN A PENNY 

OR THE ART OF THRIVING 

with several other thing's 

Pleasant and Profitable 

FIFTH EDITION 

Corrected and Much Enlarged 

GLASGOW 

Printed for Robert Smith at the sign of 

the Gilt Bible, opposite to the Entry 

to the New Church Saltmercat 



256 Two-line letter of light-face 

The light-faced roman made and sold in America 
under a variety of names is a title letter much ap- 
proved for the title-pages and the texts of dainty 
books intended to cover a large space on the paper, 
for it does not provoke the thought that it was 
selected for its nice adaptation to the filling up of 
space. It is necessarily a fat letter, yet it does not 
have the appearance of obesity. The lower-case 
alphabet on the body of 10-point measures about 
seventeen ems of that body, which is nearly one 
fourth wider than the accepted standard for that 
size. It shows to best advantage when it is wide- 
leaded and printed on a leaf with wide margins. 

In a title-page the light-face is most suitable 
when followed by a text of the same face, but it 
can be used with propriety for any light-face of 
modern cut. It is not a proper selection for any 
form of old style, or even for any form of modern 
cut that has marked boldness or distinction. A 
title-page in lower-case characters only, which more 
clearly show the graces of its good design and 
careful cutting, is often preferable to one in capi- 
tals only, as may be seen in the illustration on a 
following page. When the title-page has too many 
words and lines, neither capitals nor lower-case can 
produce a proper effect : wide blanks between lines 
are needed to show its merit. The defect of this 
style is its too scant supply of sizes : to produce a 
comely title-page the alien faces of Celtic or Nor- 
man may be needed, but they are not in entire 
harmony. 



ENGLISH 
WAYFARING LIFE 

IN THE MIDDLE AGES 

(XIVTH CENTURY) 

BY 

J. J. JUSSERAND 

CONSEILLER D'AMBASSADE, DR. ES LETTRES 
TRANSLATED FROM THE FRENCH BY 

LUCY TOULMIN SMITH 

Editor of "Ricart's Kalendar," "The York Plays," etc. 
ILLUSTRATED 

SECOND EDITION 



NEW YORK 
G. P. PUTNAM'S SONS 

LONDON 

T. EISHER UKWIN 
1890 



North End Union, Boston 



Outline of the 

Course of Instruction 

in the 

School of Printing 



Fourth Term 
1901-1902 



The Tuckerman Press 

North End Union, 20 Parmenter Street 

Boston, Mass. 



Faces seldom used in title-pages 259 

There are a few other faces that show but slight 
departures from the regular model of roman let- 
ter, and are sometimes tolerated in a title-page. 
They are seldom selected, but they need mention. 

THE CELTIC FACE 

round, clear, and unusually plain, is often chosen 
to fill the gap caused by a deficient size in some 
imperfectly graded two-line letter of roman face. 
For pamphlets and ephemeral work it passes as a 
fair substitute; but another variety, slightly ex- 
panded and with lower-case, is not so pleasing a 
choice, for the characters seem distorted when they 
appear by the side of the regular roman. 

THE NORMAN FACE 

is a favorite with compositors who prefer a light 
face for a title-page. It seems at its best when 
shown in the large sizes and in titles of few lines. 

THE GOTHIC FACE 

simplest of all styles, for that reason is often se- 
lected for pamphlets and catalogues. It is not a 
comely type, and is never used for a standard book. 

THE RUNIC FACE 

is equally readable, although much condensed. In 
the larger sizes it is often used exclusively by some 



260 Faces seldom used in title-pages 

reputable printers of France. Another variety, not 
so condensed, and with lower-case characters, has 
much thicker steins, but it is a type for job-work, 
and is not generally acceptable in a title-page. 

THE DE VINNE FACE 

designed for job-work only, is another unaccepta- 
ble type for the title-page of an ordinary book, for 
it is overbold, and has some eccentricities of form 
that are not graces. All the boldness needed for a 
title can be found in the MacFarland or the Bradford 
face, the letters of which meet with more approval. 

Outline romans and eccentric forms of italic and 
script are occasionally noticed in the title-pages of 
a few well-printed books : nor does the capricious 
taste for novelty end here. Many faces of merit 
may be found in the specimen-books which can be 
used for the purpose of attracting the attention of 
a listless reader, but they never find a place in the 
standard books of discriminating publishers. After 
an experience of more than four hundred years 
with types of strange form, readers have decided 
that there are no faces more fit for the purpose 
than those of approved roman letter. 

Uniformity is as important in the composition of 
a title-page in any of these faces as it is in roman. 
When two or more radically unlike faces of type 
appear on the same page, an amateurish stamp is 



Italic and condensed capitals 261 

given to the workmanship, which is sure to provoke 
the remark, not always warranted, that the printer 
is trying to show his assortment of types. 1 

Should italic capitals he used? A title-page may 
be acceptably set entirely in italic capitals or in 
italic lower-case, but a single line of italic capitals 
in a title-page otherwise of roman capitals only is 
not to be recommended. Inclined lines among up- 
right lines make nnpleasing incongruity. The rule 
that allows italic to be selected only for marking 
words in a text that need distinction (as for the 
names of books, for scientific terms, for credits at 
the end of extracts, and for side-headings) should 
be applied to title-pages. It should not be selected 
as a new shape of display letter for a line that does 
not demand special emphasis. It may be used with- 
out offence for a motto, for an additional description 
of the edition, or for a warning against unauthorized 
publication. A different shape of letter may be of 
service for words not a part of the title proper. 

Should condensed capitals be used f For more than 
three centuries printers. set titles in roman capitals 
of usual width only, for there was no other form. 

l These remarks should not he tifiable. Even the uncouth types 
understood as disparagement of now in fashion for advertise- 
new faces of letter, for each one ments are appropriate forrepro- 
has a merit of its own, but that ductions of the chap-hooks of the 
merit is best shown when it is seventeenth century, or for the 
properly selected. A title-page text written by relatively illiter- 
entirely in Jenson or fifteenth- ate men, hut they are sadly out 
century, or in similar style, is of place as the subheadings for 
proper when it is followed by a modern-cut type or for modern 
text that makes its selection jus- writings. 



262 Condensed faces and black-letter 

Pickering and his disciples made admirable title- 
pages with types of regular width only. As title 
matter is sometimes sent to the printer with positive 
orders to set in one line only the name of the book, 
the selection of a condensed type may be unavoid- 
able. An order like this must be obeyed, but an 
expert compositor should be allowed to show that 
the name of the book in one line of condensed type 
may belittle the intended display. 

Condensed types have been used too freely, but 
they do not deserve unsparing condemnation. A 
compressed type about one tenth narrower than 
types of standard width is seldom objectionable (in 
the larger sizes this compression may be a real im- 
provement), but extra-condensed types are never fit 
for any book title-page. The contrast on the same 
page of types of standard and condensed shape is 
always unpleasant. 

Should blacJ* •-letter be used for one or wore lines in 
a title-page ofroman capitals f Black-letter is often 
selected for the imprint of the publisher, for a short 
line like illustrated, and sometimes for a minor 
display line in the text proper, but the greater dis- 
tinction attempted by the selection of a harshly con- 
trasting type makes a discord in the composition. 
As a general rule, the title-page of the serious book 
is at its best when set in one face of type. 1 Petty 

i Exceptions may be made, letter, for any medieval word 

There is occasional need of a line or phrase made the subject of 

of black-letter for the name of a the book, or for any treatise that 

book originally printed in black- deals largely or mainly with Old 



Lower-case of old style 263 

lines of black-letter selected £or subtitle display 
because the thin black-letter enables the compositor 
to put many letters in one short line are never pleas- 
ing. Another caution may be needed : under no 
conditions should black-letter be spaced. 

For ecclesiastical or liturgical service-books a 
title-page in black-letter should be of the face ap- 
proved by churchmen and frequently called in the 
United States priory-text. The rounder gothic T 
known to American printers as Tudor black or old 
black, and the Flemish black are sometimes accep- 
table ; but the faces known as church-text, com- 
posite, Borussian, chapel-text, German text, and 
other forms of black-letter, many of them admir- 
able in design and cut, were made for the use of 
job-printers. Book-lovers object to them for their 
needless delicacy. The larger sizes may be used 
occasionally in a title-page with good effect, but 
the smaller sizes, especially when printed in red 
ink, make mean reproductions of the impressive- 
ness of the black-letter of old books of devotion. 
The Satanick type, modelled after the Troy type of 
William Morris, and made by him for reprints of 
old books, should be selected for similar reprints 
only. In the title-page of a modem book on a 
modern subject it seems out of place. 

Lower-case types of old-style roman or italic 

English literature. The appro- with discretion will be effective 

priateness of black-letter for in a title-page even when it is 

these subjects is apparent. A surrounded by plain roman capi- 

large line of black-letter selected tals. 



The Morall 
Ho/op hie of Doni: 




"TDrawue out of the auncient writers. *A work first 
compiled in the Indian tongue, and afterward es 
reduced into divers other languages ; and 
now lastly Englished out of the Ital- 
ian by Thomas U^orth, "Brother 
to the ^BJgbt Honorable Sir 
%ogerU^orth, Knight, 
Lord U^ortb of 
Kyrtheting. 



The IVisdom of this IVorlde 
is Folly before God. 

f[ Imprinted at London 

"By Henry T>enbam 

1570. 



Printers' Marks 

A Chapter in the History of 
Typography by W. Roberts 

Editor of " The Bookworm " 




London : George Bell & Sons, York Street, 
Covent Garden, & New York. Mdcccxciij. 



266 Subject-matter a guide in selection 

should not be selected for a title-page of few words 
unless large sizes can be used. Nor is it well to 
use large type in any title where the lines have to 
be crowded to the dwarfing of the needed relief of 
white space. The title-page in old-style type on a 
small body is unsatisfactory, for the mannerisms of 
the character need large letters to show fairly their 
quaintness. It is not so well presented in the form 
of a plain paragraph, or even in hanging indention j 
it is most effective in the half -diamond indention. 

The subject-matter of a book should indicate the 
type that is most fitting for the title-page. For 
poetry, fiction, travels, and all books of so-called 
light reading, a two-line roman capital of modern 
cut and of light face is in present favor. When the 
title-page has few words and broad blanks, and the 
larger sizes can be properly used, the light-face is 
acceptable, but it is never a wise selection in any 
title-page that contains many lines of display with 
narrow blanks between these lines. The lighter the 
stem of the letter, and the more open its form, the 
greater the need of wide blanks. English and 
American critics condemn compacted title-pages 
set in meagre types. 

For the title-pages of sober, scientific, and argu- 
mentative books a two-line letter of bolder face 
should be preferred for lines of display. Yet cau- 
tion is needed in making a selection. The two-line 
letters of many type-founders are largely those of 
types designed before 1850, when long and un- 



Boldness needed in hvo-line type 267 

bracketed serifs and disproportioned letters were in 
fashion, and when all book-printing was done on 
well-dampened paper impressed against woollen 
blankets that thickened both stem and hair-line of 
the type. When large flat-serif ed two-line types are 
printed on dry and smooth paper with light impres- 
sion against an inelastic surface ; they will appear 
mnch lighter and weaker than was intended by the 
old punch-cutter, who foresaw and provided for the 
future thickening of lines when they were forced 
not on but into damp paper. 

In avoiding the faults of weak faces, care must 
be taken uot to go too far to the other extreme. 
The thick faces of the Thorne style, now regarded 
as suitable for bold job-printing only, are entirely 
unfit for the title-page of any good book. 1 

1 The proper medium between reputable Parisian printer is 
a light and a bold face is made more pleasing in its clearness 
by many French type-founders, and boldness than the average 
but their flat serifs with too title-page of his English or Amer- 
sharp hair-lines and the manner- ican rival. Its impressiveness is 
isms of a few characters make due to the greater thickness of 
French capital letters distasteful the stems of the large capital let- 
to all English-speaking peoples, ters selected for the main lines 
Yet the average title-page of a of display. 




typographia: 

AN HISTORICAL SKETCH 

OP 

THE ORIGIN AND PROGRESS OF 

THE ART OF PRINTING; 

WITH 

PRACTICAL DIRECTIONS FOR CONDUCTING 
EVERY DEPARTMENT IN AN OFFICE: 

WITH A DESCRIPTION OF 

STEREOTYPE AND LITHOGRAPHY. 

ILLUSTRATED BY 

(f njjrnbm<j$, JSiograpIiirfil #otirc$, aiiO ^Dortrnit*. 



BY T. C. HANSARD. 




PRINTED FOR 

BALDWIN, CRADOCK t AND JOY: LONDON- 

182S. 

Reduced facsimile. 



XII 



THE DISPLAY OF WORDS 



ANY compositors who set up 
title-pages received their first 
lessons in the display of type 
through composition of bold 
newspaper advertisements. 
Long practice and expertness 
in this branch of type-setting 
may not have qualified them 
for this more difficult work. 
The difference between any advertisement and a 
title-page is radical. The advertiser usually asks 
for greater prominence than that allowed to his 
f ellows, and is most pleased when his matter is set 
up in very large type and is made bold, black, and 
staring. Designers and compositors are encour- 
aged to indulge in extravagances of lettering and 
in fantastic arrangements that are sure to attract 
instant attention. 




270 Bold type needed for name of book 

In the title-page of the standard book these freaks 
are prohibited as unnecessary, for each title-page is 
examined apart and is not at that time put in con- 
trast with other title-pages. It does not need ex- 
cessively bold types, profuse ornament, or eccentric 
arrangement. It does need enough of display in 
its main line to enable the reader to catch its in- 
tent at once, but display must not be offensively 
bold. Modern taste inclines to simplicity. A hun- 
dred years ago the author thought that he could 
not be clearly comprehended if he did not in his 
text matter make profuse use of italic for emphasis 
and of capitals for the first letter of important 
words; but the modern reader is better pleased to 
have his text without italic. This plainness should 
appear in the title-page as well as in the text. 

The title-page of type only has these reasons for 
its general preference : it has been found acceptable 
in the greatest number of books ; it can be quickly 
and cheaply composed ; it is easier to read than the 
engraved title, 1 for it has many distinct lines of 
irregular length (usually in different sizes of type), 
and its important divisions are kept apart as aids 
to greater perspicuity. Unequal blanks, large let- 
ters, and projecting lines compel attention. 

The line in the typographic title-page that re- 
quires great boldness is the one that gives name to 

i Title-pages photo-engraved than in standard books. They 

from special designs have ad- need not be considered here, 

mirers, but they are more fre- It would be useless to offer sug- 

quent in advertising pamphlets gestions about their treatment. 



A HISTORY OF 

GREECE 

FROM THE EARLIEST TIMES TO THE ROMAN 

CONQUEST. WITH SUPPLEMENTARY 

CHAPTERS ON THE HISTORY OF 

LITERATURE AND ART 

BY 

WILLIAM SMITH, LL.D. 

EDITOR OF THE DICTIONARIES OP GREEK AND ROMAN ANTIQtTITIES, 
BIOGRAPHY AND MYTHOLOGY, AND GEOORAPHY 

REVISED, WITH AN APPENDIX 

By GEORGE W. GREENE, A.M. 

ILLUSTRATED 
BY ONE HUNDRED ENGRAVINGS ON WOOD 



NEW YORK 
HARPER & BROTHERS, PUBLISHERS 

FRANKLIN SQUARE 

1870 



272 Title-page should hare irregular outline 

the book. As a general rule, one line of very bold 
display is enough, but the title matter is sometimes 
written so that it may require two or more lines of 
display. (See pages 253 and 299.) 

Continued practice in title-page composition led 
to an early establishment of rules or traditions that 
have been preserved in an unwritten form. 1 Many 
are obsolete, but others, still observed in all print- 
ing-houses, may require further explanation. 

Openness, produced by blanks of different widths 
between lines and divisions, is the first requisite. 
When many lines of different types are put together 
closely, the title-page is not so readable as a para- 
graph of the text. Compactness makes confusion. 
The compositor of a title-page will soon learn that 
it is the relief of white space, as much as the large- 
ness of type, that produces the needed readability. 

Irregularity of outline is of equal importance. 
When many lines fill or nearly fill the measure, the 
title-page has the shoppy appearance of an adver- 
tisement or a poster. 2 When its lines have a straight 

l Title-page composition is but 2 This peculiarity of the un- 
slightingly noticed in all the old skilled English compositors of 
and in some of the more recent old time is proper in all exact re- 
grammars of printing. The dif - prints of their work, but it seems 
ficultyoflayingdownrulesforti- sadly out of place in a modern 
tlesthatdifferinform,inamount hook that closely observes pres- 
of matter, and in typographic ent methods of type-setting in 
fashion is the cause of this con- its text. The title so treated is 
tinued neglect. Lefevre's Guide an anachronism. For remarks 
Pratique {see Chapter XVIII) on the seventeenth-century title 
was the first book to treat the and the ragged title, see the chap- 
subject with illustrations. ters so headed. 



THE HISTORY 



OP 

PAINTING IN ITALY 

FROM 

THE PERIOD OF THE REVIVAL OF 

THE FINE ARTS TO THE END OF 

THE EIGHTEENTH CENTURY 

TRANSLATED FROM THE ITALIAN OF THE 

ABATE LTJIGI LANZI 

BY 

THOMAS ROSCOE 



VOLUME III 

CONTAINING THE SCHOOLS OF BOLOGNA, FERRARA, 
GENOA AND PIEDMONT, WITH THE INDEXES 

NEW EDITION, REVISED 



LONDON 
HENRY G. BOHN 

YORK STREET, COVENT GARDEN 

1854 



2i± Xantes need not make fall lines 

and regular outline on the left, but are irregular 
on the right, the ragged title is produced, which is 
not symmetrical and is not bookish. Purposely to 
imitate the unavoidable mannerisms of a twelfth- 
century copyist or a modern type-writer is a prac- 
tical degradation of orderly typography. 

The symmetrical arrangement of lines and the 
proper graduation of blanks between the lines are 
much more feasible with movable types than with 
the immovable letters of engraving. Lines of type 
intended to be short can, without distorting letters, 
be put in the centre of the measure, with equal 
indention on each side. A displayed title-page is 
pleasing in arrangement when a straight pencil- 
mark drawn outwardly from the ends of the short- 
est line to the ends of the longest line also touches 
the ends of one or more of the intermediate lines. 
A trained eye recognizes that inequality is of pur- 
pose, and that the seeming irregularity of lines of 
unequal length produces a well-balanced regularity. 1 

As the line of boldest display, always the name 
of the book, may have three letters or thirty, a 
positive rule for its length cannot be laid down. 
According to old practice, the name should be the 
longest as well as the boldest line in the title-page. 

i This peculiarity gives charm irregularity by the use of con- 

to the half-diamond titles of the densed types in one line and 

early printers. It should be un- spaced letters in another line. 

derstuod, however, that in the Symmetry is destroyed when 

displayed title of alternating types are fussily treated by a too 

long and short lines it is not plain exhibitof themethodsused 

wise to produce this balanced to produce this result. 



LECTUEES AND NOTES 

ON 

SHAKSPERE 

AND OTHER 

ENGLISH POETS 



BY 

SAMUEL TAYLOE COLERIDGE 



NOW FIRST COLLECTED BY 

T. B. ASHE, B.A. 

OF ST. JOHN'S COLLEGE, CAMBRIDGE 
AUTHOR Off "SONGS NOW AND THEN," "THE SORROWS OP HTPSIPTLE ' 



LONDON 
GEORGE BELL AND SONS 

YORK STREET, COVENT GARDEN 

1885 



276 Names spaced and condensed 

It is not a good rule, for the display line of few 
letters is not improved by its wide spacing to full 
width. In most instances the name in an unspaced 
or slightly spaced short line will prove more effec- 
tive. It is only in the title-page of scant lines, in 
large types, and with broad blanks between lines, 
that the wide spacing of letters is an improvement, 
but this is always an experiment of risk. 

A S S O S 
ASSOS 

Another drfficidty will be met when the name has 
too many letters to be properly conspicuous in one 
line, about which remarks will be made on a fol- 
lowing page. For the present it is enough to sug- 
gest that, under proper restrictions, the name of 
many words may be put in two lines. 

ENCYCLOPEDIA 
BRITANNICA 

ENCYCLOPMA BRITANNICA 



JOHANN WOLFGANG VON GOETHE 



WILHELM MEISTER'S 
APPRENTICESHIP 

A NOVEL 

TRANSLATED FROM THE GERMAN OF GOETHE 
BY 

R. DILLON BOYLAN, ESQ. 



COMPLETE IN ONE VOLUME 



LONDON 
HENRY G. BOHN 

YORK STREET, COVENT GARDEN 

1855 



278 Treatment of names and subtitles 

When it can be prevented, the first line on a title- 
page should not fill the measure. A full and bold 
line is well placed as the second or third in the up- 
per quarter, but it is not so pleasing in the centre. 
The word the, which often introduces the name, 
should be the first line. Yet this may not be enough. 
Superior position should be enough to give the 
words a proper prominence. 

GESTA KOMANOKUM 

OR 

ENTERTAINING MORAL STORIES 

The Subtitle, or Amplified Xame or Title, of the book 
is always in a smaller type. When the name fills 
the measure, the subtitle should be a short line ; 
when the name has been made a short line, the 
subtitle should be the full line, but always in small 
type. When the name is the long line, the subtitle 
should not be in a type so small or so condensed as 
to belittle the author's intent. It should have its 
proper prominence even if it becomes necessary to 
arrange the words in two lines. The word OR, which 
connects the two titles, must be made a catch-line. 

GESTA ROMANORUM 

OR 

ENTERTAINING MORAL STORIES 



MY COUNTRY IS THE WORLD: 
MY COUNTRYMEN ARE ALL MANKIND. 



WILLIAM LLOYD GARRISON 



1805-1879 



THE STORY OF HIS LIFE 



TOLD BY HIS CHILDREN 



VOLUME I. 1805-1835 




NEW-YORK: THE CENTURY CO. 
1885 

Reduced facsimile. 



280 Catch-lines should be readable 

Lines of Minor Display may be selected from words 
in the amplified title or summary of contents, but 
only when they are of importance and need display. 
To display unimportant words for no other reason 
than the supposed need of one line of bolder or 
blacker types to counterbalance a bold line else- 
where will be a mistake, for it favors the making 
of useless catch-lines. It is better practice to avoid 

CINQ-MARS 

ou 
UNE CONJURATION SOUS LOUIS XIII 

the display of specialized words in a long summary, 
and to arrange them in squared, diamond, or half- 
diamond indention ; but when a display of under- 
scored words is positively ordered by the author, 
the compositor must obey. 

Catch-lines, selected from the particles that con- 
nect the lines of minor display, must be sparingly 
used. In all pages of octavo or larger size they 
should be in capitals that are plainly readable. 
Why letters almost unreadable were rated a grace 
in old title-pages has not been explained. A large 
title-page is made finical when its catch-lines are 
put in indistinct type, but in small title-pages the 
catch-lines in small type are unavoidable. 



LE C TE ALFRED DE VIGNY 

DE l'aCAOEMIR HIANCAISB 



CINQ-MARS 



UNE CONJURATION SOUS LOUIS XIH 



Le Roi 6toit tacitement le chef de cette con- 
juration. Le prund-ecuyer Cinq-Mars en elait 
Y&me ; le nom dont on se servait etalt celui du 
due d'Orleans, frere unique du Rot, et leurcon- 
seil (Unit le ducde Bouillon. La Reine sut Pen- 
treprise et les. noms des conjures... 

MeuoiflEs o'Anne o'Autmche, 
par Mm< de Mottevitle. 
Qui trompe-t-oo done ici ? 



Quinzi6me 6di*tion 

PRECEDEE BE REFLEXIONS SUR LA V^RITE DANS L*ART 
ACCCMFACHE'e DE DOCOMENTS H1STOR1QUES 



PARIS 

MICHEL LEVY FRERES, LIRRAIRES fiDITEURS 

RLE VIVIENNE, 2 BIS, ET BOULEVARD DES 1TALIENS.1S 

A LA LIKRAIRIE NOUVELLE 

1865 

Tous droits reserve's 

Reduced facsimile. 



282 Treatment of honorary titles 

Thp Authors Name is usually put in a separate line. 
When the title is crowded, or the name has few- 
letters and makes a short line, the word by may 
be prefixed. 1 When title matter is meagre, by may- 
be put in a separate line over the name. When a 
book has two authors, and space is scant and names 
are short, the two names may be put ill one hue, 
but this should not be when two names make the 
line too long and the page too square. It is better 
that each name should have a separate line. The 
connecting and may be at the end of the first or 
at the beginning of the second line, as will be gov- 
erned by the length of the words in each line ; it 
may be made a catch-line when there is abundance 
of space, but not otherwise. When the title is very 
crowded and the author is well known, the name 
of the author may be put at the top of the page, as 
is elsewhere illustrated. 

The Honorary Titles of the author, when of abbre- 
viated initial letters only, follow the name in the 
same line and in the same size and face of type. 
When there are many titles of initials only, smaller 
capitals can be used to prevent the line being made 
too long, but small capitals in this position make 
the line uneven in height. Spaces should not be 

i The size of type to be select- short and small in one title, or 

ed for tbe names of author and large and long in another. It 

of translator or artist cannot be will be large enough when it is 

predetermined by any arbitrary reasonably perspicuous and is 

rule. It must be governed by fairly separated by a proper 

the length aud size of other lines blank from other parts of the 

above or below, which mav be title. 



CAESAR'S 
COMMENTARIES 

ON THE 

GALLIC AND CIVIL WARS 

WITH 

THE SUPPLEMENTARY BOOKS 
ATTRIBUTED TO HIRTIUS 

INCLUDING 

THE ALEXANDRIAN, AFRICAN 
AND SPANISH WARS 

LITERALLY TRANSLATED 
WITH NOTES AND A VERY ELABORATE INDEX 



LONDON 
GEORGE BELL AND SONS 

YORK STREET, COVENT GARDEN 
1885 



284 Different methods for the motto 

inserted between the abbreviations ; the period is 
enough. F.R.S. seems better than F. R. S., which 
should be treated as one word. When there are 
many abbreviated titles, set the words in full with- 
out abbreviation, but in separate lines of very small 
type, under the name. Small capitals are customary 
for full honorary titles that have to be set in one 
line or more, but when these honorary titles make 
three or more lines, pearl or nonpareil lower-case 
letters will be a better choice, for they are more 
readable and will be more clearly printed. 

Reasons for Publication, or a minute specification 
of the lecture or address, or of the early book or 
manuscript, which may have been the occasion for 
the making of the book, are also frequently set in 
lower-case of roman or italic, and sometimes in a 
narrowed measure. This matter is often inserted 
after the name and honors of the author, but in the 
crowded title-page it is always a superfluity. 

The Motto of many lines in small lower-case of 
roman or italic is another troublesome adjunct to 
a title-page. French printers set it in half measure, 
in very small lower-case letter, and put it on the 
right side of the page, leaving blank the other half. 
This treatment gives it distinction, but it makes 
the unbalanced and unsymmetrical page not ap- 
proved by English readers. In a narrowed measure 
of small type, and in the centre of the measure, the 
motto can be inclosed in a hair-line rule; but this 
treatment (once common in German books) may 



THE COMEDIES OF 

PLAUTUS 



CONTAINING 



AULULARIA, TRINUMMUS, BACCHIDES, CURCULIO, 

ASINARIA, PSEUDOLUS, STICHUS, CAPTIYI, 
MILES GLORIOSUS, AND MENiEOHMI 



LITERALLY TRANSLATED INTO 
ENGLISH PROSE, WITH NOTES 



BY 

HENRY THOMAS RILEY, B.A. 

LATE SCHOLAR OF GLASS HALL, CAMBRIDGE 



IN TWO VOLUMES 
VOLUME ONE 



LONDON 
HENRY G. BOHN 

YORK STREET, COVENT GARDEN 

MDCCCLII 



286 Numerals preferred in title-pages 

be objected to as finical. When the motto follows 
the name of the anthor or translator, it may need 
before it a short hair-line dash. A motto of one 
or two lines only may be put at the top of the page 
in small capitals. (See page 279.) In the crowded 
title-page the addition of a motto, or of reasons for 
publication, or of specifications by the publisher of 
some peculiarity in the edition, is a hindrance to 
orderly composition. It makes the title huddled 
and harder to read quickly. 

The Xante of an Editor or Translator often follows 
the name of the author in a separate line and in 
type a little smaller in size ; but when the name of 
the author is made a part of the name of the book, 
as in The Bucolics of Virgil, translated l>y John 
Drytlen, the name of the translator should have the 
prominence usually given to the author. 

THE CRITICAL PERIOD OF 
AMERICAN HISTORY 

I783-I789 

Roman Xuntemh should be preferred in lines where 
numbers must appear, dates only excepted, by the 
side of roman capital letters. 1 Arabic figures on 

1 The defects of the regular in these illustrations. To give 

figures provided with old-style them proper prominence in «. 

fonts and with some modern-cut line of display, types of a larger 

two-line letters are fairly shown hody have to be used. 



Contrast of figures and numerals 287 

the en body are too weak by the side of capitals 
on a much wider body, but there should be no ob- 
jection when figures can be had on a body as wide 
and of a face as bold as that of the mating capital 
letter. Words spelled out are better thau either. 

THE i 9 th CENTURY 

THE I$)th CENTURY 

THE XIXth CENTURY 

THE 19th CENTURY 

THE 19th CENTURY 

THE NINETEENTH CENTURY 

The Number of the Volume and the specification of 
the entire number of volumes should be in separate 
lines when there is space for two lines ; but wheu 
the title is crowded, the compositor may have to put 
two items in one line, as in ten volumes, vol. i. 
The disliked abbreviation of Vol. for Volume will 
prevent too long a line, yet its choice is unfortunate. 

IN TEN VOLUMES 
VOLUME SIX 

IN TEN VOLUMES. VOLUME EIGHT. 



288 Useless additions to the title-page 

The Name of the Artist who contributes a design or 
an engraving to the book is also put in a separate 
line, and usually in types a little smaller than the 
name of author or editor. It may happen, however, 
that the publisher will order that the name of an 
eminent artist shall appear in type larger than that 
prescribed for author or editor. 1 

ILLUSTRATIONS 

DE GRANDVILLE 

HEfoRTEES SUB BOiS 

PAR A. DESPERET 

GR A V &ES 

PAR BRENDAMOUR 

QIRECTEL'n OE L'nSTITVT ItlOGRAPHlQUE DE Dl'SSELDORr 

Other adjuncts are sometimes added, as seventh 

EDITION, THREE -HUNDREDTH THOUSAND, or a warn- 
ing against unauthorized reprinting. To put each 
one of these and other incongruous items in types 
of just the right size and in just the right place, 
to make them "hang together/ 7 so that the com- 
position shall seem to be in all its features the 
most suitable expression of the words, symmet- 
rical as well as harmonious, is a task that calls 

1 The great artist of his time ample here presented, from an 

may be discontented when the illustrated edition of the Fables 

names of fellow-contributors to of La Fontaine, is an attempt to 

a book are set in types as large show degrees of artistic merit 

as those used for him. The ex- by graduation of types. 



THE 

HOLY BIBLE 

CONTAINING 

THE OLD AND NEW TESTAMENTS 

ACCORDING TO 

THE AUTHOKIZED VERSION 

WITH THE 

MARGINAL REFERENCES AND THE USUAL VARIOUS 
READINGS. ALSO NOTES, REFLECTIONS, QUESTIONS, 
IMPROVED READINGS, IMPROVED DIVISIONS OF 
CHAPTERS, THE CHRONOLOGICAL ORDER, MET- 
RICAL PORTIONS DISTINGUISHED, AND VA- 
RIOUS OTHER ADVANTAGES, WITHOUT 
DISTURBING THE USUAL ORDER OF 
THE BOOKS, VERSES, AND CHAPTERS 



THE REV. INGRAM COBBIN, A.M. 

ILLUSTRATED WITH NUMEROUS 
DESCRIPTIVE ENGRAVINGS 



NEW YORK 

SAMUEL HUESTON, 150 NASSAU STREET 

1850 



290 Different methods of treating a title 

for a combination of discernment, taste, and skill 
not often found in one compositor. It some- 
times happens that an author, dissatisfied at the 
incoherence of squeezed, expanded, and unmatablc 
types unavoidably put in the first proof of the title- 
page that he has overcrowded, rejects the conglom- 
eration, and orders all the title matter set as a plain 
paragraph in one face only, following the usage 
of some of the early printers. A compositor may 
be at fault for bad taste or poor skill, but the fault 
begins with an author who orders too many lines 
on one page. Xo art can teach one to put a quart 
in a pint measure. 

The written copy for* a title-page, even when it 
has few words, may not specify with sufficient clear- 
ness the name by which the book or pamphlet will 

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294 Needed transpositions of title matter 

be commonly known. This oversight is common 
in municipal and government documents, which 
are known by numbers in the office where they are 
prepared, and by more definite names to the reader. 
The foregoing different treatments of the same title- 
page for a large quarto represent the notions of dis- 
play exhibited by seven compositors. To govern- 
ment officials the book was known as Bttlleiin Xo. 17 
of the Census Department; to the ordinary reader it 
is known only or mainly as statistics of Domestic 
Animals, for which reason domestic animals should 
have had the largest line of display. Bulletin No. 
17, Twelfth Census of the United States, and Sta- 
tistics of Agriculture are insufficient!} 7 descriptive. 
These facsimiles illustrate the mechanical way in 
which many compositors obey the old rules. Con- 
densed two-line types of thin face and small size, 
apparently selected to keep a certain number of 
words in one line, have made two of these title-pages 
weak and ineffective. Jobbing types, selected for 
their greater boldness, have given to other titles the 
appearance of a newspaper advertisement. 

As the matter for this title-page is much unlike 
that of the ordinary book title, it should be treated 
in a different manner. It is believed that the lines 
at the head have been transposed with better effect. 
The prominence sought for in display should be 
confined to the words by which the publication 
will be known to the public. This can be done 
properly in plain roman capitals of standard width. 



THE TREATISES OF 

MARCUS TULLIUS 

CICERO 



THE NATURE OF THE GODS ; ON DIVINATION; 

ON FATE; ON THE LAWS; ON THE 

REPUBLIC ; AND ON STANDING 

FOR THE CONSULSHIP. 



LITERALLY TRANSLATED 
CHIEFLY BY THE EDITOR 

C. D. YONGE, B.A. 



LONDON 
HENRY G. BOHN 

YORK STREET, COVENT GARDEN 

MDCCCLIII 



296 Old rules about meeting lines of display 

According to an old rule, two lines of large type of 
same size and face must not be put close together. 
To prevent this supposed fault, condensed type was 
frequently selected for a line of long words, as may 
be seen in. Encyclopwdia Britannica (page 276); but 
condensed type made the words inexpressive by 
huddling together letters that should have been 
round, open, and distinct. Nor was this the only 
error : it increased the amount of blank space be- 
tween the lines, in places where blank space was not 
needed, making the page much too bleak. The im- 
practicability of the old rule is made clearer in the 
titles of Wilhelm Meister\s Apprenticeship (page 277) 
and Cessans Commentaries (page 283). To compose 
these lines in different sizes and faces of type, as 
was prescribed by rule, and is sometimes done now, 
would not make the page more comely. It would 
break the connection of inseparable phrases, and 
in some degree muddle the meaning of the writer. 
Composition so treated shows that old rules of dis- 
play have been regarded as of more importance 
than the perspicuity of phrases and the convenience 
of the reader, which are to be considered first. 

The old rule did permit two meeting lines in the 
same face of type wheu they were separated by a 
catch-line, as is imperfectly shown in the title of 
Heshtl, Call imavlnts, and Theognis (page 297) ; but 
the putting together of three or four lines of the 
same face in large display type, without any inter- 
vening catch-lines, as they appear in the title-pages 



THE WORKS OF 

HESIOD 
CALLIMACHUS 

AND 

THEOGNIS 



LITERALLY TRANSLATED IN ENGLISH PROSE 
WITH COPIOUS NOTES BY 

THE HEY. J. BANKS, M.A. 

HEAD MASTER OF LUDLOW SCHOOL 
TO WHICH ABE APPENDED 

THE METRICAL TRANSLATIONS OP 
ELTON, TYTLER AND FRERE 



LONDON 
GEORGE BELL AND SONS 

YORK STREET, COVENT GARDEN 

1879 



298 Meethifi lines need tvide separation 

of Photo-fHf/mrinff, Photo- etching, 1 etc. (page 299), 
and of the Dictionary of Miniaturists, etc. (page 301), 
will be regarded by many compositors as a very 
unnsual and improper arrangement. 

A frequent cause of disappointment in the effect 
produced by putting together two lines of the same 
size aud face is too narrow an allowance of blank 
between these lines. When space will permit, this 
blank between the lines should not be less than the 
height of the letter selected. Lines need a gener- 
ous relief of white space to make them properly 
couspicuous. Fair illustrations of the fault of al- 
lowing the tops of letters to come too close to the 
foot of the letters in a preceding line may be seen 
on pages that follow. The lighter the face of the 
letter selected for two meeting lines, the more is the 
need of a generous space between the lines. 

i In the original title-page of the arrangement here madevio- 
the work on Photo-engraving lates all the old rules of display, 
the names of the different arts and that it will be regarded by 
are in two lines of spaced and many compositors as heterodox, 
condensed two-line letter, with will be conceded, but the re- 
an intervening catch-line. In modelled titles are more comely, 
the original of the Dictionary of more symmetrical, and more 
Miniaturists the names of the readily comprehensible by the 
four craftsmen occupy three reader. It should be further 
lines — one in types of regular noticed that all these remodelled 
width and two in condensed titles are of severest simplicity, 
types. Although these originals and are so made without the aid 
(one in quarto, one in octavo) of condensed letter, black-letter, 
have larger leaves and more or italic capitals, and with little 
room for a larger display, the lower-case. The object intended 
types selected for the speciflca- is to show that a fairly graded 
tions of the arts and the crafts- series of shapely types of roman 
men are not so distinct as they face may be enough for the corn- 
are on this small page. That position of the ordinary title. 



PHOTO-ENGRAVING 
PHOTO-ETCHING and 
PHOTO-LITHOGRAPHY 

IN LINE AND HALF-TONE 

ALSO 

COLLOTYPE andHELIOTYPE 

BY 

W. T. WILKINSON 

OF LONDON 
REVISED AND ENLARGED BY 

EDWARD L. WILSON 

EDITOR OF THE PHILADELPHIA PHOTOGRAPHER, AUTHOR OF 

WILSON'S PHOTOGRAFHICS, WILSON'S QUARTER CENTURY 

IN PHOTOGRAPHY, PHOTOGRAPHIC MOSAICS, ETC. 

AMERICAN (SIXTH) EDITION 



NEW YORK 

PUBLISHED BY EDWARD L. WILSON 

No. 853 Broadway 

1895 



300 Proper widening of measure 

Feebleness in the main line of the title-page is a 
frequent fault. To select for the name of the book 
a type too small, because it is the only type that will 
keep the words in one line and within the measure, 
may destroy the boldness that is needed in the title. 
A type slightly condensed should not be an offence, 
but a type visibly pinched and without a proper 
relief of white space within its body is in painful 
contrast to the round, clear, and open smaller letters 
which must be used for many other lines. It has 
already been shown (on page 190) that some of the 
condensed two-line letters in common use are too 
compressed for the clearness and openness required 
for a book title. The compositor who desires har- 
mony of face in his title-page should begin by try- 
ing to secure harmony in the shape of type. A 
title-page entirely in types of standard width is al- 
ways more pleasing than one with several lines of 
condensed letter. 

It often happens that the only type in the print- 
ing-house that will make the main display lines of 
the needed height and boldness cannot be forced 
to come within the measure ; but that type is 
unwisely rejected when it has no other fault than 
the projection of one or two letters over the mea- 
sure. To remedy this fault, the measure should be 
widened to take in the crowded-out letters. As the 
back of the title-page is always blank, this slight 
increase in the width of a long line cannot be de- 
tected by the register. If the ordinary reader does 



A DICTIONARY 

OF 

MINIATURISTS 
ILLUMINATORS 
CALLIGRAPHERS 
AND COPYISTS 

WITH REFERENCES 

TO THEIR WORKS AND NOTICES OF THEIR PATRONS, 

FROM THE ESTABLISHMENT OF CHRISTIANITY TO 

THE EIGHTEENTH CENTURY. COMPILED FROM 

VARIOUS SOURCES, MANY HITHERTO INEDITED 

BY 

JOHN W. BRADLEY, B.A. Lond. 

AUTHOR OF A MANUAL OF ILLUMINATION, ETC. 

IN THREE VOLUMES 

VOLUME III 



LONDON 
BERNARD QUARITCH, 15, PICCADILLY 

1889 



302 Wide spacing of display lines 

notice its greater width, he will approve the wide 
measure in every instance where the title-page 
has a fairly wide margin. The objection that this 
method gives some trouble to the maker-up and 
the imposer of the form deserves consideration, but 
their convenience is of minor importance when the 
line of proper size is needed for a comely title- 
page. In the facsimile on the following page the hne 
Thomas Carlyle is nearly half an inch wider than 
the regular measure of text on its following pages j 
but this extra width is not noted, for it does not 
seem to encroach on the margin unduly. The next 
smaller size of this face would have made a short 
and feeble line ; and if that smaller size had been 
selected, each type in it would have required spacing 
to fill the line. The proper appearance of the title- 
page depends largely on the size, shape, and spac- 
ing of the line that may be selected for the boldest 
display. This line should be bold enough to arrest 
attention at a glance, yet not so bold as to make 
other lines insignificant. 

Error may be made in the opposite direction. To 
select a type too large because it fills the measure 
may make the title-page as pompous as a posting- 
bill. It is not at all necessary that this main line 
should fill the measure. The license once given to 
space the separate types of a short line with en or 
em quadrats can be exercised now only in title- 
pages purposely composed in the style of the sev- 
enteenth century, when English typography was at 



TWO NOTE BOOKS 

OF 

THOMAS CARLYLE 



FROM 23D MARCH 1822 
TO 16TH MAY 1832 



EDITED BY 

CHARLES ELIOT NORTON 




NEW YORK 

THE GROLIER CLUB 

M DCCCXCV111 



304 Wide spacing not an improvement 

its worst. For the modern book over-wide spacing 
of types is generally eondemned as in bad taste. To 
space widely a type of proper height and boldness 
should compel the spacing of many and sometimes 
of all other lines, and the insertion of additional 
blank between all the lines. When the minor lines 
have not been spaced, the color of the print will be 
altered seriously ; the types of the same font, spaced 
and not spaced at all, will have the appearance of 
two distinct fonts, to the damage of a symmetry 
and harmony 2 that ean be restored only by a wiser 
selection of types. 

It is true that the name of the book may have 
but three or four letters that will not fill the mea- 
sure, but its scant letters do not constitute a suffi- 
cient reason for over- wide spacing. The facsimile 
title-page of the Bodoni book (page 305) seems to 
be that of a narrow octavo, but it is really that of a 
broad quarto. Its long display line is half an inch 
narrower than the pages of the text, but the types 
of this line seem sufficiently large. This title-page 
would not have been improved by putting wider 
spaces between the types. Every line is readable 
and seems of proper size. 

In this title Giambattista, the baptismal name, is 
in as large type as that selected for Bodoni, aud 
this is the usual practice of English and American 

1 This remark should not be irregularity of outline, bat this 

appliedto all liues, for some lines spacing should be slight and al- 

of type often have to be spaced most imperceptible to the inex- 

a little to maiutain the needed pert. 



VITA 



DEL CAVALIERE 

GIAMBATTISTA 
BODONI 

TIPOGRAFO ITALIANO 

E 

CATALOGO 

CRONOLOGICO 
DELLE SUE EDIZIONI. 

TO MO L 



PARMA 

DALLA STAMPEMA DUCALE 

MDCCCXVI. 



30G Treatment of names that are too long 

publishers, who direct that each word in the full 
name of a person should be set in the same type. 
This is not practicable when the name is very long. 
Freneh eompositors have a better method, for they 
give the prominenee to the family name only. This 
enlargement of the family name and diminution of 
the baptismal name is not confined to title-pages ; 
it is observed in many other forms of printing, and 
is especially notieeable in eeremonious announce- 
ments of weddings and funerals. The man of a 
world-wide reputation is known by family name 
when his baptismal name is forgotten. 

DON DIEGO DE SILYA 

VELAZQUEZ 

BARTOLOME ESTEBAN 

MURILLO 

Disregarding their excellent method of displaying 
the names of persons, French compositors make 
too free use of extra-condensed types for the long 
name of a book. The impropriety of pinched let- 
ters in any title-page that has abundance of white 
spare above and below the line has already been 
pointed out, but other examples may be useful. 



Limitations of condensed type 307 

Condensed type is selected to good advantage in 
compact printing where space above and below is 
limited, but it is improper in very open title matter 
that allows the use of wide blanks between lines. 

NEW YORK LIFE INSURANCE COMPANY 

NEW YORK 

LIFE INSURANCE 

COMPANY 

In this illustration the name in three lines is more 
readable, not merely because it is larger, but be- 
cause it has a proper relief of white space above, 
below, and between lines, and on the sides of the 
words. It should never be regarded a fault to put 
an over-long name in two or more lines of readable 
type on any title-page that has abundance of space. 
Long names of persons and long titles of books 
are common. Sometimes they contain from six to 
twelve words, and each word seems to require equal 
prominence. As it is impossible to display all the 
words in one line, the compositor is hampered by 
the other rule that two lines of the same face and 
size must not meet, and he will be perplexed in 
every attempt to give a proper prominence to each 



308 Treatment of very Jong titles 

word. The old rule was to select changed sizes and 
faces of type for each display line, as appears in The 
History of the Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire. 

THE HISTORY 

OF 

THE DECLINE AND FALL 

OF THE 

ROMAN EMPIRE 

In this illustration Roman Empire is too large for 
other words in the name; the words The Decline 
and Fall, made short, are in a condensed and dis- 
cordant face of type, and the words The History 
are needlessly small. The words Roman Empire 
are of most importance, but they are so qualified by 
the words The Decline and Fall that the title can- 
not be presented as it should be without giving to 
the latter equal or nearly equal boldness. When 
Roman Empire has been made the largest and the 
longest line, Jheline and Fall has to be put in a 
shorter line and in smaller type. This treatment 
compels The History to appear in a shorter line 
and in still smaller type. This arrangement of the 
long title is unpleasantly artificial and suggestive 
of the methods of the newspaper advertiser. It 
could be treated in a much simpler manner. 



Catch-lines falling into disuse 309 

If the words Roman Empire in the illustration on 
the previoiis page had been made a short line, and 
The Decline and Fall had received the prominence 
of a full line, all the words, catch-lines excepted, 
would have had proper display. 

THE HISTORY 

OF 

THE DECLINE AND FALL 

OF THE 

ROMAN EMPIRE 

A much more compact and quite as readable an ar- 
rangement of this matter could be made by putting 
all the words in three lines only — a method not to 
be recommended for a title-page, but useful for an 
advertisement or a book circular. 

THE HISTORY OF 

THE DECLINE AND FALL OF 

THE ROMAN EMPIRE 

The catch-line is now not in as much favor as it 
has been. There are publishers who prefer that the 
connecting particles of the should appear in full in 
the same type that has been selected for the other 
words, as appears in the previous illustration. 



310 Method for avoiding catch-lines 

Objection may be offered to one feature in a few 
previous illustrations of title-pages : two meeting 
lines of display are occasionally of the same length 
and of the same size and face. That they are not 
so comely as they would be when of unequal length 
will be admitted, but how can the arrangement be 
amended ? The title-pages will not be bettered by 
spaciug one line and leaving the other unspaced, or 
by composing one line in a condensed type and the 
other in type of ordinary width. The new method 
gives equal prominence to each line where equality 
is needed. It is not improper because it is unusual. 
It does not offend the eye by harsh contrasts of size, 
shape, and color ; it does show the purpose of the 
writer more clearly, and this should be the object 
that should override the old rules. 

Another novelty will be an occasional justification 
of particles in the short lines of a long connected 
name that has to be put in three or more lines and 
in the same size and face of type. (See page . . .) 
This method is offered as a substitute for the space- 
wasting catch-lines, which too often prevent the in- 
tended symmetry of outline that could be made by 
the use of more appropriate types. Particles justi- 
fied in display lines are common in job-work aud 
advertisements, and this practice could be imitated 
with real advantage in some compacted title-pages. 
Catch-lines are often unavoidable, but they should 
be selected with much discretion. Display is most 
effective when the needlessly wide gaps made by 



THE 

CYROP^DIA 

OR INSTITUTION OF CYRUS 

AND 

THE HELLENICS 

OR GRECIAN HISTORY 
LITERALLY TRANSLATED FROM THE GREEK OF 

XENOPHON 

BY 

The Rev. J. S. WATSON, M. A., and 
The Rev. HENRY DALE, M.A. 

LATE DEMY OF MAGDALEN COLLEGE, OXFORD 



WITH BIOGRAPHICAL NOTICE, 

CHRONOLOGICAL TABLE AND INDEX 



LONDON 
BELL AND DALDY 

YORK STREET, COVENT GARDEN 

1870 



312 Profusv display always needless 

cateh-liries in a crowded title-page are avoided as 
carefully as badly selected faces. 

The over-long name arranged for two or more 
lines of display also meets with objections from 
compositors of the old school. It compels the se- 
lection of types that are low as to height as well as 
wide as to set. The low and wide type is supposed 
to be not so prominent as the tall condensed letter. 
This is a great error. The low type in two lines is 
blacker and more prominent. The greater height 
of condensed letter does not add to its distinctness, 
for what is gained in height is lost in width and in 
roundness and clearness. Condensed type for a 
title-page may be unavoidable sometimes, but it 
should be the last resort of a perplexed compositor. 

It is customary for the compositor to begin his 
work on a title-page by setting up first all the lines 
of display. The ordinary title-page does not require 
many of these lines. When the name of the book 
does not sufficiently describe its contents, one or two 
added lines of display that describe its more impor- 
tant features, or a summary in small capitals that 
groups them together, should be enough to give the 
clearness desired. What the reader needs in his 
usually brief examination of any title-page is promi- 
nence for the peculiar features of the book. Its 
name, the name of author or editor, the notice of a 
new edition or of special illustrations, should be 
enough. To make many lines of display does not 
make the title-page more attractive ; it does tend to 



THE 

HISTORY OF THE 

SARACENS 

COMPRISING THE 

LIVES OF MOHAMMED AND HIS SUCCESSORS TO 
THE DEATH OF ABDALMELIK, THE ELEVENTH 
CALIPH, WITH AN ACCOUNT OF THEIR MOST 
REMARKABLE BATTLES, SIEGES, REVOLTS, ETC. 

COLLECTED FROM AUTHENTIC SOURCES 
ESPECIALLY ARABIC MANUSCRIPTS 

BY 

SIMON OCKLEY, B.D. 

PROFESSOR OF ARABIC IN THE UNIVERSITY OF CAMBRIDGE 

THE SIXTH EDITION 
REVISED, IMPROVED AND ENLARGED 



LONDON 
GEORGE BELL AND SONS 

TORE STREET, COVENT GARDEN 

1878 



314 Useless testing of widths of type 

confusion. The device (if used) and the imprint at 
the foot of the page are always noticeable. The 
prominence desired for different divisions of the 
title can be made more neatly by a proper use of 
blank space between the divisions and by irregular 
indention of lines than by lines of large type in 
display. 

To produce this irregular indention it is desira- 
ble that these scattered lines of display be made of 
unequal length. That done, it should be an easy 
task to lengthen or shorten the lines in smaller type 
that precede and follow. Many compositors make 
the composition of display lines a work of continual 
experiment. They set up and afterward reject line 
after line of types of different faces before they find 
the letter that fully meets the requisites of proper 
width, height, and boldness. 1 

When profuse display is not possible, the sum- 
mary or extended description may be set without 
display in one size of readable capitals, arranged 
in squared form, or in a diamond or half-diamond 

l Waste of time in testing the The full alphabet of a two-line 

comparative widths of different minion of one face may be 27 

faces *>f type can be prevented pica ems wide, and 29 pica ems 

by forethought. The specimen- in another face. After testing 

book of every printing-house one line and learning its exact 

should havo over the name of width, the compositor will know 

each face of type the exactlength whether he needs a wider or a 

of its alphabet in pica ems, and narrower body without testing 

this description of length should other faces. One glance at its 

be affixed to the case that holds printed measurement will be 

this face. Types much alike in enough to show its fitness or 

appearance may differ iu width, unfitness. 



Advantages of diamond indention 315 

indention. The squared form has the preference of 
many publishers, but it is not to be recommended 
when the summary has to be set in too narrow a 
measure. To make three or more lines in this style 
easily readable, capital letters of fair size should be 
used; but in the restricted space of a half measure 
(and sometimes of less than half measure) the even 
spacing of words is impossible. To produce the 
squared outline desired, the words in some lines 
must be widely spaced, and even the letters may 
have to be hair-spaced; in other lines the words 
must be separated by five-to-em spaces ; and these 
irregularly spaced lines may be contiguous, to the 
great disfigurement of the composition. A square 
composition of capitals cannot be done neatly with 
large types in a narrow measure unless the author 
rewrites the matter and selects words to suit rigid 
types. Nor is this expedient always possible. 

The diamond indention of a summary is prefer- 
able, for words or letters that cannot be put neatly 
in one line may be taken back or driven over into 
another line. Though it may require a frequent 
overrunning of lines before each line is of proper 
length, yet it permits a correct division of sylla- 
bles and makes unnecessary the clumsy attempts at 
a too wide or too narrow spacing of words and the 
hair-spacing of letters, which are the great faults of 
squared indention. The summary of abook can be 
diamonded so that it shall be surrounded by blank 
space. So treated, it will present a more compact 



316 All titles need much blank space 

and more orderly appearance than it would have in 
separate lines of display. 

The object most sought in a title-page should be 
the perspicuity that will enable a hasty reader to 
obtain a correct notion of the contents of the book 
at first glance. Previous examples show that this 
perspicuity is defective when many lines have to 
be huddled in one square paragraph, or in a suc- 
cession of long and short paragraphs, or are ar- 
ranged in any fantastic way that compels the reader 
to pay more attention to the work of the type-setter 
than to the purpose of the author. The clearness 
desired is most easily produced by blank space. 

SPACING OF SINGLE LETTERS 

Single types may call for separation. The capital 
letters selected for lines of display are regular as to 
height but very irregular as to shape. The types 
I M N H have upright stems that may bring the let- 
ters too close together in some combinations. Other 
types, asOCSKLYAZ, have curved, angled, or 
broken stems that produce unpleasing gaps when 
the unlike shapes approach one another. In small 
types these gaps are barely noticeable, but in large 
types they are very offensive. Even on the body of 
8-point the capitals E S seem too close. When he 
can do so, the careful compositor puts a very thin 
space between capitals that are too close, and omits 
the space between those that are wide apart. The 



Spacing hides defects of combination 317 



object intended is the production of an apparently 
equal space between the upright stems of all types, 
for it is only when they have been so treated that 
the letters seem equidistant. 1 In the very large 
type made for bold display, notches are sometimes 
cut by job-printers in the bodies of types like A Y 
L, so that the thick strokes can be brought nearer 
together. The thickness of the spaces to be used 
for keeping stems properly apart is at the discretion 



1 The importance of the un- 
equal spacing of capital letters 
of irregular shape is often under- 
rated. Fault is sometimes found 
with capitalsasawkwardlyfitted, 
when the fault is with the com- 
positor who does not see that it 
is his duty to rectify by spacing 
the gaps produced by combina- 
tions of types of irregular shape. 
The expert type-founder does all 
be cau in the designing of the 
model letter and in fitting the 
face on its body to prevent need- 
less gaps, but he cannot ma- 
terially alter the shape of an ir- 
regular character. The capital 
is put on a body that will hring 
it properly near to the lower- 
case letters with which it makes 
the greatest numher of combina- 

COMMERFORD 
COMMERFORD 

tions, but the set that is proper 
for the lower-case is not always 
satisfactory for another meeting 
capital. The set of the capital 
S, properly near to any lower- 
case sort, is always too near to a 



following capital E ; the capital L 
fairly mates with any lower-case 
letter, but it produces a had gap 
when followed hy the capital A. 
In any line of capitals the S fol- 
lowed by a capital like I, H, or 
E needs a thin space after it ; the 
L may need none even in a line in 
which other capitals are spaced. 
A Mr. Kalakinsky objected to 
the ragged combination of the 
letters in his uame on a card. 
He said that the types were not 
the same as those of the name 
Commerford which he had of- 
fered as a model for its lettering. 
When the irregular letters of his 
name were unequally spaced, his 
objection was removed. That 
done, he admitted that it was the 
same type. 

KALAKINSKY 
KALAKINSKY 

These suggestions ahout dif- 
ferential spacing may he re- 
garded asover-nice,hut attention 
to trifles is really needed to give 
completeness and harmony to a 
displayed title-page. 



318 Unequal spacing of meeting lines 

of the compositor ; it will vary from a hair-space to 
a three-em space. 

When the long name of a book has to be set in 
two meeting lines of display, one line may be mnch 
longer than its mate, or, what is equally nnf ortunate, 
the two lines may be of the same length. To space 
one of the lines to the full width of the measure 
and to leave the other line unspaced is not good 
practice. When the two lines are of just the same 
length, the types in one line may be spaced a little 
more widely than those of the mated line, but this 
unevenness of spacing should be slight and not at 
all noticeable to the ordinary reader. The long 
and the short line should seem to be of the same 
face. To make the main line fill the measure, so 
as to produce the desired irregularity of outline, it 
may be necessary to thin-space one of the lines, but 
care must be taken not to space it too widely, so 
as to give to it the appearance of an alien face of 
letter. 

The unequal spacing of meeting lines is always 
a risk. The type in one line may be changed for a 
larger or a smaller size ; particles like the, of, or an, 
that often appear in the title of the book, may be 
transposed from one line to another to make one 
shorter and the other longer. Yet there are com- 
binations of words for which these methods are 
impracticable. Two display lines of the same length 
may not be bettered by a change of type, by spac- 
ing, or by transposing particles. This attempt at 



Spacing of condensed types illogical 319 

improvement by spacing is often made in chapter 
headings, as in the illustration here presented. 

CHAPTER XX CHAPTER XX 

CONTIGUITY CONTIGUITY 

The wider spacing of the second line to the right 
is not an improvement, for it breaks the uniformity 
of method which has been observed in every other 
chapter in a place where uniformity of method is 
of importance as one of the marks of orderly com- 
position. It is never wise to attempt spacing when 
a worse result will follow. Two proximate lines of 
the same length may be unsightly, but if this fault 
cannot be corrected without making a greater fault, 
the two lines of the same length carry with them 
their own explanation and apology. 

Spacing between letters is tolerable with types of 
standard width only ; the spacing of any condensed 
type is quite illogical. To select a face of type that 
has letters on a narrow body, and then to increase 
the spaces between the letters, is a practical con- 
fession that this selection was a mistake. 

The spacing of letters in any line should not be 
attempted until all the lines of display have been 
set. It is only when these lines are grouped to- 
gether that a planned change of size or of spacing 
in an objectionable line can be done with proper 
discrimination. Time is often wasted in the com- 
position of the same line in many faces of type for 



320 Small capitals often need spacing 

the purpose of comparison. It is safer practice to 
combine on a galley the lines first set before the 
composition of intermediate or connecting lines. 
The compositor can then determine with more in- 
telligence whether the lines are of proper height 
and length, for he can clearly foresee the general 
effect of the completed composition. To set each 
line in the regular order of the copy, without con- 
sidering the probable appearance of the lines yet 
to be set, is a fruitful cause of wasted time. 

Small capitals on small 1 todies can be made more 
legible in title-pages by careful hair-spacing. They 
need more space, for the crossing lines within each 
letter (as in A E H, and in more than half the 
alphabet) diminish the white blank between the 
stems that is needed for relief. It is the excessive 
compactness produced by these crossing lines that 
makes small capitals indistinct to weak eyesight. 
They suffer by contrast when placed near the large 
capitals of displayed lines, which show generous 
spaces of white within each letter. Hair -spacing 
of small capitals is seldom noticed in recent title- 
pages. Its practice seems to have been neglected 
because it is troublesome. Preference is generally 
given to the wide spacing of display lines made by 
Baskerville and other printers of the Georgian 
period, but this method of treating a title-page 
should be regarded as in every way inferior to the 
neater practice of reputable English printers of the 
middle of the nineteenth centnrv. 



Display lines not to be widely spaced 321 

A very wide spacing of large capital letters is not 
at all objectionable when the display lines are few 
and short, and when there is abundance of space 
on the page, but wide spacing should be apparently 
uniform in all lines. To this must be added the 
caution that a wide spacing of single letters calls 
for a similar increase in the width of blanks between 
the displayed hues ; the over-wide spacing of large 
types is always offensive in the title-page that has 
many lines and scant space between them. Spacing 
between single types that is tolerable with capital 
letters is distinctly unpleasing with lower-case let- 
ters. Even in the narrowed measure of a text it is 
the better practice to put too wide spaces between 
words, or to make short or ragged the end of a line, 
than to thin-space single lower-case types so as to 
make them fill the measure. When spacing can 
be controlled, preference should be given to nar- 
row spacing in solid composition. 

An obsolete fashion recently revived authorizes 
wide spaces between single letters in title-pages 
that are compact as well as iu those that have but 
few lines of display. In title-pages of fair work- 
manship as to other features, the types of one line 
may be compact and those of other lines may be 
separated by an en or an em, and sometimes by the 
two-em quadrat. It follows that the unspaced line 
has more density and blackness than the one that 
is wide-spaced, which seems to be of a different font. 
The critical reader who knows very little about 
21 



322 Uniformity in spacing a merit 

old methods of type-setting notices the discord, 
and wonders why types are over -black and com- 
pact in one line and open and apparently separated 
by expansion in another. Unequal spacing that 
destroys an intended uniformity of black and white 
in print, and that makes the same type appear of 
two distinct faces, is regarded by the critical reader 
as a meddlesome interference of the printer with 
the proper expression of that type. 

These remarks apply only to indiscriminate and 
over- wide spacing. There are many lines of capi- 
tal letters that have to be spaced, for types are not 
to be had in any printing-house equally fitting to 
the word to be displayed and to the width of the 
measure. It is proper at times to thin-space lines 
to prevent too much compactness as well as to 
have types fill the measure ; but when large lines 
are so treated, other lines should be slightly spaced 
to show that an attempt has been made to main- 
tain a general appearance of openness and harmony. 
Other remarks on this subject will be found in the 
following chapter. 




H^BS^SI-'/^WS 




L«^A^e^vy;vt.;- 







XIII 



ABOUT BLANKS, 
LEADING, AND SPACING 

|IFFERENT divisions of title 
matter should be made no- 
ticeable by blanks and not 
by separating dashes; bnt 
when title matter is in excess, 
and there are many irregular 
divisions, the short hair-line 
dash may be nsed with pro- 
priety. The full-length cross- 
rules of single or double lines, the diamond dash, 
and all forms of ornamental dashes, as well as the 
narrow strips of border that were common in title- 
pages made before 1800, are now rated as disfigure- 
ments, for these marks of separation have more 
prominence than important words or lines. 

When the name of author, editor, or illustrator, 
or one or more lines of a motto, or a specification 




324 Blanks for rale-bordered pages 

of the edition, is put at the head of the title-page, the 
hair-line dash is needed to show its separation from 
the title proper, but the "blank that follows this dash 
should be of increased width. When the publisher 
adds lines to a title-page that call attention to edi- 
torial revisions or illustrations, and small space can 
be allowed for the blanks that should show the dis- 
tinctiveness of this matter, then a dash, and some- 
times two dashes, one above and one below, may be 
used to emphasize more clearly this distinctiveness. 
An old rale orders title matter to fill the page. 
Its first line must be parallel with the first line of 
the text ; the date of the imprint must be parallel 
with the last line of the text page. This is made 
obligatory, whether the title matter contains five or 
twenty-five lines. It is not a safe rule. When the 
title is crowded, the matter should fill the page; but 
when it has few lines, the first line should not be at 
the extreme head, for a title-page so treated will 
have wider blanks between its lines of display than 
it has over the head, and will appear sprawling and 
disjointed. This fault is most noticeable when it 
appears on a rule-bordered page. The distance of 
the rule from the type should be varied to suit the 
varying sizes of type, page, and margin,— more on 
the large page, less on the small page,— but it should 
show plain separation. The blank above the first 
line of print (unless that line is short, as in the 
words a, an, or the) should be as wide as that be- 
tween its regular divisious. When the first line is 



Leads make composition more readable 325 

very short, it may be rated as a part of the intended 
wider margin, but the blank at the foot of the page 
should be made much smaller than at the head. 

Blanks between divisions should be made with 
lines of large quadrats or quotations. It is a mis- 
take to substitute leads for quadrats : leads lack 
solidity when many are used together, and they 
make composition spongy, and cause the page to 
bend or hang if unusual care is not exercised in 
locking-up. 

The value of leads between the lines of the differ- 
ent divisions of a title-page is most forcibly pre- 
sented in advertisements that have been crowded 
in too small a space. The amateur advertiser be- 
gins his work of direction with the belief that the 
bolder and closer the type selected, the more promi- 
nent will be his advertisement. To arrange over- 
bold types so selected, condensed letter must be 
used, spaces between words will be made too thin, 
and lines will be jammed together with too few 
leads. The general effect of composition so treated 
is always disappointing: large types in huddled 
words and lines are not so readable as smaller types 
arranged with a proper relief of white space. The 
amateur at composition often makes a similar mis- 
take in his selection of too large a type for a text. 
If the type is of pleasing face, he hopes to increase 
its attractiveness by putting much of it in a solid 
page. He has to make repeated failures before he 
learns that the attractiveness of print often depends 



326 



When to lead and not to lead 



as much on the relief of white space as it does on 
the comeliness of the letter. What he learns after 
repeated mistake may "be gathered at once from a 
stndy of the following illustrations. 

In the type within the 
panel Ordinary way the 
white between lines is 
as narrow as is consis- 
tent with legibility. In 
the panel of Type with- 
out lower shoulder small 
capitals are substituted 
for descending letters, 

Have the mold carefulK- 1,,,+ +1,^ rvmnt ic ViqWIpt' 

cleaned and oiled on the in- DUt tne piint IS naraei 

side. Set it uprioht. with the , -, T ,, ^ 

core in its place in the centre. to read. In the panel 
Then pour in the coinposi- _ _ _ 

tictn hot from the kettle care- Time Without shoulder 
fullY upon the end of the J*- 

core, so as to run down the gmaU cap i t als take the 



Have the mold carefully 
cleaned and oiled on the in- 
side. Set it upright, with the 
core in its place in the centre. 
Then pour in the composi- 
tion hot from the kettle care- 
fully upon the end of the 
core, so as to run down the 
core. 



OHD1NAHY WAT. 



TYPE WITHOUT LOWER SHOULUER. 



nave thc mOLD careFULi/r 
CLeaneD anu oilpd on Tne 
insiDe. seT lTurnoHT. with 
Tne core in its PLace in Tue 
centre. THen pour in Tue 
comrosiTion hot rrom Tne 
ueTTLe <iareFULLY upon Tne 
enD of THe core, so as to run 
dowu tho core. 



place of descending and 
ascending letters, in- 
cluding the capitals, but 
the spacing between the 
words is unavoidably 
wide. When nine lines 
aiv crowded in the space 
previously occupied by 
six, the book so treated becomes almost unread- 
able and will be entirely unsalable. 

When to lead and when not to lead a text should 
be determined largely by the construction of the 
type— by the manner in which its letters are put on 



TYrE without shouldeh. 



Lines of capitals need doable leads 327 

the body. When projecting lower-case letters, like 
d and y, are long, and round letters, like m and o, 
are short, or when small capitals are used in two or 
more lines, a blank of white space is unavoidably 
left between the lines of printing. The width of 
this blank, which may be more than the height of 
the round letter m, gives a relief of white space 
above and below these round letters. This relief 
of white is often infringed by ascending or descend- 
ing letters that divert the eye by their irregularity ; 
but the reader unconsckmsly notes that there is 
more white than black on the page, and that every 
character has above and below a generous relief of 
white. With types so constructed there is no real 
need for leads between the lines, but there should 
be no offence when that type is leaded or double- 
leaded in any book set in broad measure, in large 
type, and with properly wide margin. 

When the ascending and descending letters are 
short, and the round letters occupy more than one 
half of the body, the white space between solid lines 
is correspondingly reduced. It is on this plan that 
the small types are designed for advertisements 
in newspapers and for similar work in which the 
white space between the lines is too often pain- 
fully narrow. To make these large -faced types 
more readable in book -work, leads nrust be put 
between the lines. 

As capital letters occupy about three fourths of 
the body, more leads must be used between lines 



328 Leading and spacing of condensed type 

eiitirely in capitals than are used in the lower-case 
text. A solid composition in the capital letters of 
a book type, ahvays hard to read, can be made pleas- 
ingly readable by putting two or more leads be- 
tween the lines and by slightly increasing the space 
between the words. 

The lesson learned by the amateur is that print 
is not necessarily made more readable by selecting 
and compacting large and black types. The black- 
faced type which is attractive when it is used in one 
line or in a few lines beeomes unattractive when it 
is used in a mass. A page of types in fat-faced or 
title type compels a greater strain on the eye than 
a page set in ordinary book type. What the reader 
needs for easy reading is the instant visibility of 
every stroke in every character. This visibility is 
dimmed when there is too much black. Types are 
clearest when the white is visible within as well as 
without each round letter. The vigor of the black 
is weakened as its relief of white is diminished. 

Lines of condensed lower-case type seldom need 
leading, but they do need narrow spacing, for tall 
ascenders and descenders give broad shonlders to 
round letters and wide spaces between lines. The 
spaces between words need be no greater than the 
average space between the stems of the n or h, and 
they often may be made narrower to advantage. 
A space which elearly separates the words is wide 
enough for all types of ordinary width, but when 
the types are of a broad face, with broad counters 



Morris's notions about leads and spaces 329 

between theiv stems, the width of the spacing should 
be increased in proportion. Thin spacing is always 
to be preferred in all lines of condensed type, and 
wide spacing in lines of expanded type. 

A fat-faced type with thickened stems and nar- 
row space between its stems does not call for wide 
spacing, but light-faced roman letter of the usual 
width may receive wider spacing between the words 
and should have leads between the lines. When 
there is plenty of white within the area of a round 
light-faced letter there should be more white with- 
out. Conversely, the pinching of white within a 
black and bold letter justifies a similar pinching in 
its spacing and leading. The black characters of 
the Troy type of William Morris are readable with 
thin spaces which would disfigure a composition in 
light-faced roman, but his lines of capitals would be 
more readable if they had been leaded. His teach- 
ings have been followed too often without a proper 
discernment of the radical difference between the 
medieval and the modern practice of printing. 

In his Aims in Founding the Kelmscott Press, Mr. 
Morris advised that types be made with large faces 
which nearly fill their bodies j that undne whites 
between the lines be avoided in the construction of 
the type ; that spaces between words be no wider 
than are really needed to show a separation ; that 
whites between lines be made not excessive ; and 
that leads be used rarely, and only to show the 
part of the text intended to be noticeably distinct. 



330 Old methods improper in new boohs 

That these teachings are good for the reprints of 
old texts set in black or bold-faced letters of gothic 
form is not to be denied, but it does not follow that 
they are good for any modern book in light-faced 
roman letter. It is not necessary to oppose the 
Morris dictum that no really good book, from the 
artistic point of view, has been printed since 1550, 
but it is here in order to maintain that many old 
mannerisms are out of place in the modern book. 
There are few readers who can accept the early 
book as the model of good form in all its features : 
whether in Latin or in any vernacular, in roman or 
black-letter, it is hard to read. The reader may be 
pleased with the design or cut of the type, the 
proportion of the page, the grace of the engraved 
initial, and the firmness of the presswork, but he 
cannot like the composition of the types. For 
pleasurable reading or for ready reference he will 
prefer modern editions. In many early books there 
is no break save that made by the very large initial 
that serves as a substitute for the chapter head: a 
text of ten or more pages may be consolidated in 
one paragraph. The early book rarely shows any 
leads ; its spaces between words are often too thin, 
and the words are made obscure by frequent abbre- 
viations. Publishers who admire early books copy 
their peculiarities with caution. They dare not re- 
produce them all, for they know that the solidity 
and gloominess of old typography repeated in a 
modern book would make it unsalable. 



Early printers had no leads 331 

The first printers composed their books in solid type 
for no better reason than that of usage. The early 
copyist had been instructed to use vellum sparingly, 
to form large, black, and compressed letters, and to 
get as many as he could on the page. For his ser- 
vile imitation of this mannerism of the copyist the 
printer had the additional excuse of a lack of thin 
leads. Types were made long before leads ; there 
were many printing-houses that were destitute of 
any leads. Composition was made solid also for 
economical reasons. 1 To print any book of many 
words with large type and keep it in a volume of 
convenient size, the composition had to be compact. 



i Although solid composition 
was the rule, there are a few old 
hooks which were wide-leaded. 
When words were scant, at- 
tempts were made at times to 
thicken the hook by increasing 
the distance hetween the lines. 
Leads or lines of quadrats can he 
seen in the Cicero de Officiis of 
Peter Schoeffer, 1466; in the 
colophon of Cornelius Nepos, hy 
Jenson, 1472 ; and in the Auso- 
nius of Jodocus Badius, 1513. 
Wide spaces hetween lines are 
also to he ohserved in some of 
the facsimiles of old manuscripts 
reproduced hy Silvestre in his 
Palaeography. 

Old inscriptions on stone seem 
to he accepted hy some modern 
designers as evidences that hud- 
dled lettering was preferred for 
its supposed superior artistic 
merit, but it is more reasonahle 



to suppose that the huddling 
came from want of forethought. 
The letterer who did not begin 
his work with an exact know- 
ledge of the just proportion to he 
maintained between space and 
letters prudently began at the 
extreme top and huddled them 
to make sure that all would come 
within the tahlet. If he made 
letters too large, he wasted labor 
and spoiled the stone. If he 
made letters too small, and left 
an ungainly hlank at the foot of 
the tahlet, his work might and 
sometimes did find acceptance 
with the uncritical. It was safe 
for him to jam together words 
and lines, hut it is not safe for 
us to form the conjecture that 
his neglect to make letters fill a 
prescrihed space should be con- 
sidered as the outcome of intel- 
ligent choice. 



332 Leads were often used unwisely 

This fault is noticeable in one of the tablets of the 
Hypnerotomaeh'm of 1499 (page 333). That the 
composition of the types of this tablet was passed 
by Aldus does not make their useless compression 
any more tolerable. Perhaps Aldus thought it was 
his duty faithfully to copy the style of the old Ro- 
man tablets, and jam together lines, use thin spaces 
between words, and show ragged endings in all their 
deformity, but it is quite as probable that he would 
have opened the lines if he had been provided with 
leads. The composition would have been more 
worthy of the design if leads had been used to pre- 
vent the uugainly blank at the foot of the tablet. 



. for as to the Title, it is a 
Summary relation of the mean sub- 
ject on which the Work is founded: 
and tho' it consists but of one single 
pagej yet to display its several mem- 
bers in such a manner that the whole 
may appear of an agreeable propor- 
tion and symmetry, is counted a mas- 
terly performance. And tho' setting 
of Titles is generally governed by 
fancy; yet does it not follow that the 

An old-fashioned way- 



excursions of every fancy should be 
tolerated, else too many Titles would 
be taken to belong to the Chapmen's 
books. It is therefore proper that Ti- 
tles should have the revisal of one that 
is allowed to have a good judgment 
in gracing one. But to change and 
alter a Title to the mere fancy of Pre- 
tenders, is the ready way to spoil it. 
Smith, Printer's Grammar, pp. 21 6, 
217. 8vo. London [1755]. 

of leading small type. 



Morris's dislike of leading was fairly provoked by 
its abuse. There are books in which lines of small 
type are widely leaded that would be more pleasing 




ASPICE VIATOR.Q.SERTVLLIIETDVLCICV 
LAE SPON.ME AE.3K ANCILIAE VIRG . SIM VI 
ACPOSTINDE-QVIDFACIAT LICENTIOSA 
SORSLEGITOJNIPSA FLORIDA AETAT.CVM 
ACRIORVISAMORISINGRVER.MVTVOCA 
PT.TAND.SOCERO.E.ET.M.SOCR.ANNVEN- 
TIB.SOLENNU4TTMEN.NVPT.COPVI.AMVR. 
SEDOFATVMINFOEL.NOCTEPRI.CVM IM 
PORT- VOLVPT ATIS EXX.F AG EXTING VE R E 
ET.D.M.V.VOTACOGEREMVRREDD.HEVIP 
SOINACTVDOM.MARITAUSCORRVENSAM 
BIAMEXTRE.CVMDVLCITVD1NE LAETISS. 
COMPLICATOSOBPRESSIT.FVNESTAS SO 
ROR.NECNOVIQVIDFECISS.PVTA. NON E* 
RAT IN FATIS T VM NOSTRA LONGIOR HO- 
R A.C ARIPARENTES LVCT V NEC LACHR YMIS 
MISERAACLARVATANOSTRADEFLEATIS 
FVNERANE REDD ATIS INFOEUCIORA 
ATVOS NOSTROSDIVTVR 
NIORES VIVITEANNOS 

OPTIME LECTOR 

AC VIVE TVOS. 



Reduced facsimile of a page of the Hypnerotomachia. 
Printed by Aldus Mamitius, Venice, 1499. 



334 Leads needed for readable books 

in larger types set solid, for it is a mistake to select 
a type too small and to tiy to retrieve the fault by 
a free use of leads. A double-columned octavo so 
treated, especially when the space between columns 
is narrow, always impresses the reader as a piece of 
bad workmanship caused by neglect. Why should 
eyesight be strained to read small type, unwisely 
leaded, when the space could be filled with larger 
and more readable letters? Excessive leading is a 
fault, but it does not follow that leads should be 
discarded because they have been used improperly. 
Solid composition lost its attractiveness at the 
end of the eighteenth century. Bodoni 1 tried to 
lighten density by cutting small faces of type on 
large bodies and by making long the ascending and 
descending letters. This gave more white between 
lines and made the print more readable. The Didots 
of Paris did not noticeably change the old method 
of making types, but they obtained the similar re- 
sult of greater legibility by the use of leads between 
lines. The more readable books produced by the 
new methods so< >n made a revolution in typography. 

i Bodoni's notions about ty- the pages in straight, regular 
pography are to the point. "The lines, not crowded, nor, in pro- 
beauty of letters consists in their portion to their height, too far 
regularity, in their clearness, apart, and with equal spaces be- 
and in their conformity to the tween words and lines. . . . 
taste of the race, nation, and age The more classic the book, the 
in which the work was first writ- more appropriate it is that the 
ten, and finally in the grace of text should appear alone, in order 
the characters, independent of that the beauty of the letters 
time or place. . Types may be apparent. This is real 
should be suitably arranged on art." 



i 7 4 ALEXANDRE. 

Mais rien ne me forcoit, en ce commun effroi, 

De reconnoitre en vous plus de vertus qu'cn moi. 

Je me rends; je vous cede une pleine victoire: 

Vos vertus, je l'avoue, egalent votre gloire. 

Allez, seigneur, rangez lunivers sous vos lois; 

II me verra moi-meme appuyer vos exploits: 

Je vous suis; et je crois devoir tout entreprendre 

Pour lui donner un maitre aussi grand qu'Alexandre. 

CLEOF1LE. 

Seigneur, que vous peut dire un cceur triste, abattu? 
Je ne murmure point contre votre vertu: 
Yous rendez a Porus la vie et la couronne; 
Je veux croire qu'ainsi votre gloire l'ordonne. 
Mais ne me pressez point: en Tetat ou je suis, 
Je ne puis que me taire, et pleurer mes ennuis. 

ALEXANDRE. 

Oui, madame, pleurons un ami si fidele; 
Faisons en soupirant eclater notre zele; 
Et qu'un tombeau superbe instruise Tavenir 
Et de votre douleur et de mon souvenir. 

FIN. 

An exhibit of the leading and spacing of the Didot printing- 
house. Reduced facsimile of a page from an edition of 
Racine by Pierre Didot l'aine. Paris, 1801-1805. Brunet 
said that this is one of the most magnificent books ever 
produced by any printer. 



336 Pif/eonhothifj of composition 

It is well understood by all publishers that readers 
now prefer a composition that has been leaded. It 
is mainly in books like dictionaries and the Bible 
that solid type-setting is commended. The leading 
of matter is preferred, although leading can be 
overdone. 

The new fashion was pushed too far. The 
types of the sumptuous book printed about 
the year 1800 were double- or triple-leaded, 
and sometimes white-lined with quadrats; the 
spaces between words often were made so wide 
that "hound's-teeth" (or irregular white gaps, 
curving up or down, between words) could be 
traced easily between four or more adjacent 
lines. This made an unsightly page which 
was a real annoyance to the reader. Then 
printers perceived that, although open com- 
position was a merit, words could be separated 
too widely, and that " pigeonholed " composition 
was as unnecessary as it was unworkmanlike. 

Imitating amateurs carried the reaction introduced 
by Morris to its extreme limit, and began to copy the 
older mannerism and narrow the spacing, not only 
between w< >rds, but 1 >etween sentences. In the Kelm- 
scott books, always unleaded, we often find sentences 
separated by a space no wider than that used between 
words. Sometimes there is no space after a closing pe- 
riod; the following capital letter abuts the period. 



XIV 

RED LINES AND LETTERS 
PUNCTUATION 



HERB are many books which 
cannot be classified under the 
headings of serious or stan- 
dard, and to these books the 
suggestions previously made 
about the value of a severe 
simplicity cannot be applied. 
For there are books of amuse- 
ment aud sometimes books of 
instruction that some publishers try to make more 
attractive by the charm of bright colors or special 
engraving. As a rule, these graces must be fur- 
nished by the designer, for the time has gone by 
when the printer was asked to improve the title- 
page with a border of type, or a ground tint, or by 
giving many colors to different lines, or by hack- 
neyed typographical decoration. 




22 



337 



338 Colors most suitable for titles 

Some remarks on engraved lettering will be made 
in another chapter, bnt none need be made on the 
fully decorated title-page, which always will be the 
special work of the designer, and is clearly out- 
side of the province of the compositor. Printing 
in colors from an engraved block or plate is in the 
printer's province, although he is expected always 
to print the colors under the direction of the artist ; 
yet some remark on the gracing of a title-page by 
the use of colored lines, type, or initials is in order. 
It is work that should never be overdone. Every 
attempt at improving title-pages with types or ini- 
tials in many colors is a hazardous experiment, for 
colors are dangerous materials to be meddled with 
by the inexpert. One trial should be sufficient to 
convince the novice that a title-page of type is not 
improved but is damaged when it is planned for 
many colors. Book-printers of experience main- 
tain that the only colors suitable for any title of 
types are black, red, and gold, and that the bright 
colors must be used sparingly. 

(-rcld is of small value as a color unless it comes 
in close contact with red or black, and this contact 
can seldom be had without special engraving. Iu 
the form of a bronze powder, gold will turn dingy 
with age and exposure. Its permanence as a color 
ran be assured only when it is applied in the form 
of true gold-leaf. The red to be preferred is scar- 
let lake. A print iu plain vermilion red is always 
damaged by exposure to coal-gas or illuminating- 



THE LIFE OF 
CHARLES HENRY 

COUNT HOYM 

AMBASSADOB FKOM SAXONY-POLAND TO FRANCE AND 

EMINENT FRENCH BIBLIOPHILE 
1694-1736 

WEITTEN BY 

BARON JEROME PICHON 

FOR THE SOCIETY OF FRENCH BIBLIOPHILES 

AND TRANSLATED INTO ENGLISH FOR THE GROLIER CLUB 

WITH A SKETCH OF THE LIFE OP 
THE LATE BARON PICHON 




THE GROLIER CLUB 
NEW YORK 1899 

Reduced facsimile. 



340 Types to he selected for colors 

gas. Crimson reds often have to be used for small 
types, for which scarlet is too weak, but crimson is 
not an approved color for illumination. Xo red 
should be used for a book until a print from it has 
been tested in strong sunlight, and it should stand 
the exposure with little loss of brilliancy. 

A rubricated title rarely calls for more than two 
lines of red ink, and one line is often enough. The 
main line of display is generally selected. If an- 
other line has to appear in red, it should be kept 
apart at a decided distance, and should always be 
of a different length. Two red lines of the same 
length in one title are always a disfigurement, even 
when they are widely separated. If three or more 
lines appear in red, the distinction hoped for by its 
use is weakened or destroyed. 

The ordinary form of roman capital, useful as it 
is for titles in black ink, fails entirely for lines in 
red ink, for it has too much of hair-line and serif, 
is too thin as to stem, and has not enough of sur- 
face to show breadth or depth of color. The Caslon 
old-style capital is better fitted than any form of 
modern cut for printing in red, but the MacFarland 
or the Bradford is to he preferred. Although red 
is a more vivid color than black, it is relatively 
weaker and more ineffective when put in contrast 
with a line of the same size in black ink. This in- 
effectiveness can be prevented only by increasing 
the size of the type. A line marked for red should 
be set in relatively larger or bolder type. 



BOOK-VERSE 

MODERN METHODS 

OF 

ILLUSTRATING BOOKS 

THE 

ENEMIES OF BOOKS 

BY 
WILLIAM BLADES 

THE DIVERSIONS 

OF A 

BOO K-WO R M. 

THE PLEASURES 

OF A 

BOO K-WO R M. 



342 Petty rvlrication always ineffective 

Before the bolder faces of romans were produced, 
display lines for red ink were often set in antiques, 
ramies, and other styles which approximated roman 
type in simplicity. French publishers, who long ago 
discerned the weakness of the modern roman capi- 
tal, have not hesitated to use any face of plain letter 
that has enough breadth of stem to bring out the 
entire value of bright color. 

Red ink does not give increased boldness to types 
of light face, with narrow stems and over-long hair- 
lines : it really makes that face of type more feeble. 
Carmine printed on the ordinary background of 
white paper will appear as dull pink ; if scarlet is 
used, it will show as dull orange. Excess of white 
degrades red. This fault is more noticeable when 
the initial letters only of two or more words of the 
line are printed in red, as is often unwisely directed. 
The initials so reddened are not only weaker in ef- 
fect, but they seem to be of smaller size or of a wrong 
font. The rubricated smalL initial letters of the 
early illuminators were usually twice as large as 
the ordinary capital letters in type ; they were al- 
ways of a square form, and sometimes purposely 
made broad so as to show color in quantity. 

The illustration, on a previous page, of initials in 
an old Book of Hours shows that the early practice 
of putting a dab of red ink from a brush over a 
capital letter had fallen into disuse in the sixteenth 
century. The red dabbed on was not broad enough 
to give emphasis, nor was it satisfactory when the 



Good methods of the early printers 343 

initial appeared entirely in red ink, for its thin lines 
made red pale. In print, the letter in red was not so 
prominent as the one in black. Printers had to try 
another method. To give the boldness desired they 




SjenumeftomnequKquid opWtw 
o cucnit* ({HU>3lKro qcpeaeoal 



or. fait turue gggredi. fljjujnlia 



^teri quod fccWfe»^a mp |U0 tcwri 

» {tjfjn osal 
bttriofumiftion ponicut ^u6rafnat«aucodiC 
muliennicfyleterrium flrocriftcBtcftrcnug 
fufpuio tth* {Tamee pSete fiequusefiali* 
tetfetae* flafpi reS-opnet quod ppfljg yettk* 
re# ffitmcnPiaa fi fetg«ferie nw, ^Jjlierwto* 

Proverbia Senece, John Pruss, Strasburg, 1486. 

A title partly rubricated with dabs of red. 

Reduced facsimile. 

omitted capitals for printing in black ink and pnt 
instead a larger blank space, which the illuminator 
filled in with a square solid background of red or 
blue, on which he painted the letter in gold. It was 
better understood then than now that bright color 
to be of real value must be used in a mass. 

A red-line .border may be an added grace to the 
bald or ragged title, but this line should have width 



344 Bed ink requires perfect workmanship 

enough to show the color. The hair-line rnle in red 
ink is ineffective as to color, and too often produces 
an uneven and indistinct impression. 

Remarks on the proper width of rules for a title- 
page decoration have been made in the chapter on 
Borders of Flowers and Rules, but the caution may 
be repeated here that the rule selected should not be 
so bold as to make the types within seem insignifi- 
cant. A rule too wide, or the selection of large or- 
namental corner-pieces for the rule, gives to a title- 
page the appearance of an advertisement. 

This rule border always should be at a noticeable 
distance from the type ; its value as a finish or as a 
decoration is damaged when put too close. No at- 
tempt at higher finish more completely degrades a 
title than a rule border that crowds at the head and 
nearly touches the ends of lines. Its distance at 
the head from the first line of the title should be 
not less than the average distance between the im- 
portant divisions of the title ; its distance on the 
side should be more than that of the widest space 
between words of display. 

Parallel rules, one red and one black, should not 
be ordered for a title-page that must be printed on 
a very large sheet. Under ordinary conditions of 
pressAvork, the rules will not be printed exactly in 
parallel ; if out of parallel, the added red line is a 
real blemish. 

It is always expected that a title with one or two 
red-ink lines will be improved by this use of color, 



nrrr 



POLYtt LOTTO 



COMPLECTENTIA 



Pen. MChaldaicum . 




Quicquid comparari potent. 



Qm Textuum, 6* Verfmnvm Oruntdium TranfUttombut Latinis. 



VETUST1SSIMIS MSS UNDigUE CONQ.U1 SI TJjS^ 



opiimifque Excmplaribus unprelsis , fumma fide collatis. 



Qjik in pnonbus Editiombiu dctranr fiippleca. 

Mull j inrchic mediu , dc novo adjefti. 

Omnia co ordinedilpolira, ut Tcxtus cum Vc'fionibui uno intuitu confetti poOIat. 



i! Cum Apparatu, Apfendicibus, Tabu us, Varus 

LkcTIONIiui, Aknotitioniiui, [ndicibui, J 5f Ci 



Opus coium in fcx Tomos tribmum. 



Ttationts qutbtu Opus hoc fufceptm, 
Qmrnn Aufpkiit & mmtfctntuturemotum t 
Qmrvm cotlatu fiuJits &• Uboritott perfedtan t 
Quidque in hoc Ei'aione pr* reliqm prajlitum, 
Sequent Trsfatioindicabit. 



L ?CD I JVC I. 



ImyrimebatTHOMAS ROYCR.OFT, 



M DC LVII. 



The cross-lines and border-rules were added 

with a pen by the first owner. 

Reduced facsimile. 



346 Points in title-pages 

but the red will be a positive damage if it is not in 
the right place, of good color, and fairly printed in 
good register. The choice of red is the practical 
assertion of an intended superiority, which is not 
justified if the title-page betrays neglect of good 
workmanship in any feature. 

POINTS IN TITLE-PAGES 

Points of punctuation in the title-page have been 
much neglected since 1860. It is now the fashion to 
set the title without points. Their rejection comes 
from the abuse of wide spacing in displayed lines. 
When condensed type had been selected for display, 
and its single letters were spaced, it was customary 
to put a space of the same width between every one 
of the characters in the line. As the main display 
line often ended with a colon or semicolon, which 
was never so high as other characters in that line, 
the blank so made before the point put the line out 
of centre : it seemed lopsided in print, and often 
destroyed the general effect of an otherwise well- 
balanced composition. This blemish provoked an 
inquiry as to the need of points at the ends of dis- 
play lines, which are usually omitted by job-print- 
ers, who say that a change in the size or face of 
type in two proximate lines is notice enoiigh of a 
change in the relative importance of the words in 
these lines, and that a point is not needed to give 
warning of the change. 



RECOLLECTIONS OF 

Mr JAMES LENOX 

OF NEW YORK 

AND THE FORMATION 
OF HIS LIBRARY 




By Henry Stevens of Vermont 

Bibliographer and Lover of Books Fellow of the 

Society of Antiquaries of Old England and Corresponding 

Member of the American Antiquarian Society of New England of the 

Massachusetts Historical Society and of the New England Genealo 

gical Society Life Member of the British Association for the Advance 

merit of Science Fellow of the British ArchFeHo-'ical Association 

and the Zoological Society of London Black Balled Athenreum 

Club of London also Patriarch of Skull & Bones of Yale 

and Member of the Historical Societies of Vermont 

New York Wisconsin Marylaod &lc &c BA 

and MA of Yale College as well as 

Citizen of Noviomagus 

et cetera 



r 



LONDON 

HENRY STEVENS & SON 115 St Martin's Lane 
Over against the Church of St Martin in the Fields 

MOCCCLXXXVi 



?A8 Points in titles -unwisely prohibited 

This attempted reform in the composition of title- 
pages did not stop with the discarding of points at 
the ends of all long lines : points were prohibited 
everywhere, even in the smallest type and in the 
shortest line. Nor were dates and abbreviations or 
composition in long paragraphs excepted. A war- 
rant for this neglect of points was sought for in the 
practice of old copyists and printers, who used them 
.sparingly or not at all. It was maintained that if 
the meaning of the author could be comprehended 
in an unpunctnated old manuscript, points were not 
really required in the title-page of a typographic 
book. This may be answered fairly by the counter 
assertion that if a reader does not need points in 
the title-page, he does not need them in the text. 

The omission of points at the ends of lines where 
they make ungainly blanks and serve no useful pur- 
pose is an improvement ; but then* rejection in the 
title-page or in any other composition where they 
are needed to show a separation of distinct clauses 
or to make clear the meaning is not to be recom- 
mended. When abbreviations occur, as they often 
do, in the specification of honorary titles, or when 
dates or amounts of money have to be specified in 
arabir figures, the omission of points confuses the 
reader. 



PART III 
CRITICAL 



XV 



THE PICKERING TITLE 
THE SQUARED TITLE 

NE of the numerous reformers 
of printing during the nine- 
teenth century, and the one 
now honored as the most de- 
serving, was William Picker- 
ing, a famous publisher of 
London. Aided by his printer 
and lifelong friend, the sec- 
ond Charles Whittingham, he 
broke away from printers' rules, and had title-pages 
arranged with much more regard for simplicity and 
common sense. His first attempts at their reform 
began with wise caution. Although an admirer of 
the work of Aldus, whose device he adopted, he did 
not servilely imitate his style or that of any other 
printer. Nor did he follow modern fashions. The 
condensed capitals then in favor with English and 

351 




352 Pickering favored severest simplicity 

French publishers were his pet aversion. Other 
novelties in the cut of letter introduced by Bodoni 
and Didot, and afterward developed by English 
type-founders, did not please him. His preference 
was for the capitals of standard form and for the 
angular shapes of the first Caslon. 

At the request of Whittingham and Pickering, 
the fourth Caslon recast the old-style types devised 
by the founder of that house, and in time succeeded 
in securing for them a wider use than they had in 
the previous century. Black-letter of old English 
form, appropriate decorative borders, initials, and 
head-bands were welcomed by Pickering in his re- 
prints of old books, but the black-letter was selected 
for a title-page of roman capitals only where it was 
really needed. Lower-case characters seldom ap- 
peared : if the author insisted, Pickering might have 
tolerated a line of Greek or of italic for a motto or 
a quotation ; if he did, it was under protest, for he 
disliked verbose titles. He proved that roman capi- 
tals of standard form, in a few sizes of the same 
face, not so large as to be obtrusive nor so small as 
to be indistinct, were enough to give fit expression 
to the wording of any title. Above all, lines must 
have a good relief of white and be readable at a 
glance. 

Pickering's earlier title-pages contain points of 
punctuation at the ends of long lines, as was then 
the practice, but he discarded them when they made 
the page lopsided or were not needed for the sense. 



FRIENDS IN COUNCIL 

A SERIES OF READINGS 
AND DISCOURSE 

THEREON 




BOOK THE SECOND 

LONDON 

WILLIAM PICKERING 
1849 



354 Pickerhtffs borders for title-pages 

He did not reject them entirely ; they were retained 
in all places where they might help the reader to a 
clearer understanding. 

To aid the reader, not to show his own ingenuity, 
was his purpose in the composition of a title, and 
this led him to avoid the use of feeble catch-lines 
between the lines of display. He preferred to group 
in a mass the words that were most closely related, 
and set them in capitals of a size that easily could 
be read, and generally in the form of a half-dia- 
mond indention. If words were too long or divided 
badly for his indention, he selected smaller sizes of 
type, but they were not so diminutive as to be in- 
distinct. Dashes and ornamental marks for division 
were used sparingly in his later books. The result 
of this return to simplicity was a more readable 
title-page, in which the purpose of the author was 
not overpowered by the caprices of compositor or 
designer apparently struggling for a first recogni- 
tion from the reader. 

The Pickering title was not liked in its own time 
by printers or engravers. Nor is it entirely pleas- 
ing to them now. Its marked simplicity has been 
condemned as a studied affectation, but the real 
objection to it is seldom put forward : a title in 
the Pickering style is not so easily composed as the 
ordinary displayed title. 

Pickering did not neglect ornament, but he made 
it keep its place. It usually appeared on the title 
in the form of a border, preferably architectural, 



SD&tf Kite rflfittf #tom* £erto 



THE LUCK OF ROARING CAMP 
AND OTHER STORIES 



BRET HARTE 




BOSTON 

HOUGHTON, MIFFLIN AND COMPANY 

New York: 11 East Seventeenth Street 

GCrjf SSibrrsifiE $rffl», Cambrfoge 

1SS5 



356 Attempts at greater simplicity 

and generally in the old Italian outline style. The 
border decorated but did not suppress the type ; the 
lettering always had a fair presentation. 



THE SQUARED TITLE 

Not content with the meritorious simplicity of the 
Pickering method, there are amateurs in typog- 
raphy who insist that every title-page shall have 
the monotony of a page of text. It is not enough 
for them that indistinct catch-lines are sivppressed, 
over-large display lines reduced, and words closely 
related grouped together in a more readable fashion. 
Objecting to all diffuseness, they propose these 
questions : Why should the words of the title be 
sprawled over an entire page ? Why should there 
be many sizes of type and arrangements of long 
and short lines, when these variations are prohibited 
in the text ? Why not run together in one para- 
graph and in the same face of type all the words 
of the title, without attempting to separate its many 
divisions by blanks of different width I Why not 
return at once to the simplicity of the titles of 
Aldus and Robert Stephens ? 

Early attempts at title-pages in this manner were 
set in old-style lower-case types of a large size, but 
they did not meet with general approval. They 
were condemned by many critics as in a style better 
fitted for the primers of children learning to read. 
To escape this reproach and to give to the title-page 



THE 

POETICAL WORKS OF 

JOHN MILTON 

VOLUME I 



ALDI 




LONDON 

WILLIAM PICKERING 

1852 



358 Titles in lower-case letters 

a more pretentious appearance, a few capital letters 
of uncial shapes and in the monastic style have 
been occasionally substituted for the plainer roman 
capitals, but with no better result. The new treat- 
ment makes a typographic discord which may be 
tolerable or attractive in an advertisement, but is 
usually regarded as out of place in a serious book. 
Medieval capitals obtrude this caprice of the com- 
positor before the sense of the author. 

*T-*€(S (Dots Francois 

w ■ * selon lordre desjjettres, 
ainsi que Ees ]E[ault 6(scrire : 
<s>ournez enliatin pour les €[n- 
fans. ,j9tuec priuilege du Koy. 

Part of a French title of 1544 with monastic initials 
of modern cnt. Reduced facsimile. 

Large italic lower-case was the next selection, and 
this was a decided improvement in a long title, 
for it had been found that the squared paragraph 
title-page did not make its best appearance in a 
title of few words that made an offensive blank 
about the middle of the page. Nor was it pleasing 
when the title was overfull aud specified the names 
and titles of the author and editor, of designers 



VELAZQUEZ AND MURILLO 



A DESCRIPTIVE AND HISTORICAL CATALOGUE 
OF THE WORKS OF DON DIEGO DE SILVA 
VELAZQUEZ AND BARTOL OME ESTEBAN 
MURILLO, COMPRISING A CLASSIFIED LIST 
OF THEIR PAINTINGS, WITH DESCRIPTIONS; 
THEIR HISTOR Y FROM THE EARLIEST 
KNOWN DATES, NAMES OF THE PRESENT 
AND FORMER OWNERS, SALES IN WHICH 
THEY HAVE APPEARED, AND ENGRAVINGS 
AFTER THEM, ALSO, LISTS OF LOST OR UN- 
IDENTIFIED PICTURES, A BRIEF ACCOUNT 
OF THE LIVES AND WORKS OF THE DISCI- 
PLES OF THESE ARTISTS, A BIBLIOGRAPHY, 
AND A COMPLETE INDEX. WITH ORIGINAL 
ETCHINGS. BY CHARLES B. CURTIS, M. A. 



NEW-YORK, % W. BOUTON, 706 BROADWAY. 
LONDON, SAMPSON LOW, MARSTON, SEARLE, 
AND RIVINGTON MDCCCLXXXIII. 



ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. 

Reduced facsimile. 



360 Large capitals not easily arranged 

and engravers, the number of the volume and of 
the edition, and similar adjuncts. To put these 
items together in one paragraph, and in type of the 
same size, made a jumble of information not easily 
disentangled by an impatient reader. Foreseeing 
this, the publisher insisted that his division of the 
title-page should be separated from the title proper 
by a broader blank. The squared paragraph title, 
when set in large roman, italic, or black-letter, was 
seldom satisfactory. When the type was of proper 
size and set solid according to prescription, too 
much blank was left in the centre of the page : the 
contrast between extreme density and absolute va- 
cuity was disagreeable. 

Roman capitals were also tried in sizes a little 
larger than capitals of the text letter, although the 
general effect of a composition entirely in capitals 
is that of extreme monotony. A large initial letter 
was sometimes selected to heighten the needed con- 
trast, but this initial narrowed the measure and in- 
creased the difficulties of dividing words. A title- 
page in paragraph style entirely in capitals, espe- 
cially if the capitals are of large size and set in a 
relatively narrow measure, presents a dilemma at 
almost every line. To avoid bad divisions the com- 
positor is tempted to space too wide or too close, to 
abbreviate, to justify in capitals of larger or smaller 
size, to insert ornaments that are not needed, or to 
space the letters that must fill one line and leave 
them unspaced in other lines. 



Capitals cause uneven spacing 361 

These are all disagreeable alternatives, but the rule 
that all lines must be made full is usually obeyed 
by spacing the letters of the line that is too short. 

A BIOGRAPHICAL AND CRITI- 
CAL DICTIONARY OF PAINTERS 
AND ENGRAVERS, FROM THE 
REVIVAL OF THE ART UNDER 
CIMABUE, AND THE ALLEGED 
DISCOVERY OF ENGRAVING BY 
FLNIGUERRA, TO THE PRESENT 
TIME: WITH THE CIPHERS, 
MONOGRAMS AND MARKS 
USED BY EACH ENGRAVER: BY 
MICHAEL BRYAN. A NEW EDI- 
TION, REVISED, ENLARGED 
AND CONTINUED TO THE PRES- 
ENT TIME, COMPRISING ABOVE 
ONE THOUSAND ADDITIONAL 
ACCESSIONS. 

Uneven spacing produced by capital letters 
in a narrow measure. 

This procedure puts the line so treated out of har- 
mony with other lines, making its type appear as 
of another face. Over- wide spacing between words T 



362 Squaring needs help from author 

always to be avoided, is not so offensive, but this 
expedient is not wise when the lines of capitals are 
solid or are single-leaded. In some titles the am- 
persand is used as an abbreviation of the three 
letters. Why it is tolerated in the title-page of a 
book and not in the text has never been explained. 
A common method of evading bad divisions and 
awkward gaps of space between words is the use 

lATALOGUE of the 

BOOKS in the LIBRARY 
OF THE TYPOTHETE 
OF THE CITY OF NEW 
YORK. WITH A SUBJECT INDEX. 

of larger letters for the words that are too short 
and smaller letters for those that are too long, but 
this is one of the condemned methods of display. 
If the words allow a change of size, the foreseen 
blemish may be avoided ; but if the changes thus 
made belittle important and bestow distinction on 
unimportant words, the method is unworkmanlike. 
A squared paragraph title can seldom be made 
neatly without the help of the author. If he will 
consent to change the too long or too short word 
for a synonymous word of the needed length, the 
bad breaks which are sure to occur in the title may 
be neatly closed. Even under the most favorable 




Squared summaries objectionable 363 

conditions, the composition of a squared title of 

capital letters is troublesome and often unpleasing. 

In the subtitle on this page all the types of the 

squared composition are of the same face, but they 

UNIVERSAL 

PALEOGRAPHY 

OR FACSIMILES OF 
WRITINGS OF ALL 
NATIONS AND PE- 
RIODS COM PILED 
FROM THE MOST 
CELEBRATED AND 
AUTHENTIC MANU- 
SCRIPTS IN THE LIBRA- 
RIES AND ARCHIVES. 

BY M. J. B. SILVESTRE 

Uneven spacing caused by too narrow measure. 

do not seem true mates. The effect of two faces is 
distinctly produced by spacing the letters in some 
lines and by not spacing them in the last lines. 
The composition is not quite so fantastic as in the 
examples shown by Pnttenham, iu the first chapter 
of this book, but it is equally artificial. 

Publishers who refuse to huddle together all 
the words of a title in one paragraph of full width 
are sometimes content to have one or more of the 
minor divisions of the title arranged in a narrower 
measure in a square or box-like form. This new 



364 Difficult separation of sentences 

treatment allows more prominence for the long 
lines of display, diminishes or abolishes the objec- 
tionable catch-lines that waste space, and permits 
a proper separation of the different divisions of the 
title by blanks of irregnlar width. It is a growing 
fashion, but it has to encounter some of the diffi- 
culties to be opposed in setting up the broad para- 
graph title in capitals. If the words or letters of 
any one line in the square are perceptibly wide- 
spaced, or if ornaments have to be added to fill up 
the line, the color of the composition is changed, and 
the square so made is as fussy and artificial as the 
old form of the coffin or wedge. 

When the title has many words, italic capitals are 
to be preferred. A three- or even a four-line initial 
letter, which practically makes a hanging inden- 
tion, will often be found au improvement. 

Whether capitals of italic or roman are selected, 
the composition will always be improved by double- 
or triple-leading. Unleaded capitals may be toler- 
ated in a title of Jenson type in the Morris style, 
but for a readable title there must be a generous 
relief of space between lines. To pinch space be- 
tween solid lines of capitals, where relief is needed, 
and to waste that space in a blank below, where it 
is not needed, is not good workmanship. 

Not a little difficulty is found in the separation 
of sentences in a squared title. They should be 
kept apart by a blank as noticeable as the em quad- 
rat, but it is rarely possible to use this wide space. 




Catalogue of an ex 

l\ HIBITION OF ILLU 
'MINATED AND PAINT 
ED MANUSCRIPTS TO 
GETHER WITH A FEW 
EARLY PRINTED BOOKS WITH ILLU 
MINATIONS— ALSO SOME EXAMPLES 
OF PERSIAN MANUSCRIPTS —WITH 
PLATES IN FACSIMILE AND AN IN 
TRODUCTORY ESSAY «%%%*%%**%*%*% 




THE CALLIGRAPHER AND THE PRESENTATION 
OF A BOOK $v MINIATURES FROM A MANU 
SCRIPT IN THE BIBLIOTHEgUE DE CAMBRAY 



NEW-YORK THE GROLIER CLUB 1892 

Reduced facsimile. 



366 New rules make awkward divisions 

To avoid bad divisions each line must be spaced 
unequally : it may be with a thin space in one Hne 
and a very wide space in the following line. Some 
compositors use an em dash, and others the asterisk 
or any unmeaning ornament, to mark the close of 
a sentence or to fill an unsightly gap made by words 
that eannot be divided on syllables. When this 
expedient is unavoidable, caution should be taken 
not to select any ornament that is bolder or blacker 
than the capital letters. An added space, if needed, 
may be put on either side of the dash or ornament. 

If the honorary titles of the author, or other 
abbreviations, appear in any squared title of capi- 
tals only, the abbreviating period should always be 
used. The omission of the hyphen at the end of a 
line has the sanction of good authority, but it is 
unpleasin^. 

The new rules for spacing words conflict with 
another rule, much more arbitrary, which declares 
that a word partly at the end of one line and at 
the beginning of the following line must be di- 
vided only at the jointing of its proper syllables. 
The hyphen is at times as important as any other 
point of punetuation, but it is often suppressed. 
To keep from mangling syllables, some hues must 
be spaced wide and others narrow. In the text of 
the modern book the compositor is not allowed to 
divide any word capriciously, to use the ampersand 
or any other abbreviation, to substitute capital 
for lower-case letters, or to fill an ungainly gap 



THE CATALOGUE 

OF BOOKS FROM THE LIBRARIES 
OR COLLECTIONS OF CELEBRATED 
BIBLIOPHILES AND ILLUSTRIOUS 
PERSONS OF THE PAST WITH ARMS 
OR DEVICES UPON THE BINDINGS 

EXHIBITED AT THE 

GROLIER CLUB 

IN THE MONTH OF 
JANUARY i895 




NEW-YORK 

PUBLISHED BY THE GROLIER CLUB 

MDCCCXCV 

Reduced facsimile. 



368 Ornaments to fill gaps 

with unmeaning ornamentation. Why should these 
eccentricities be allowed in a title-page ? 

The difficulties to be met in trying to even-space 
a composition in capitals are largely increased when 
that composition has to be arranged in the form of 
a funnel or an inverted cone. The tapering lines 
compel not only uneven spacing, but the insertion 
of unmeaning ornaments. In some lines these 
ornaments interfere with the proper connection of 
words and obscure the intent of the writer. 

DEDICATED IN LOVING 

MINDFULNESS OF 

MANY LESSONS 

LEARNT ® TO 

THE MEMORY 

OF ® HENRY 

BRADSHAW 

® ® ® 

® ® 
® 



XVI 

THE CHAP-BOOK AND 
ITS OUTGEOWTHS 



THE PURITAN TITLE-PAGE 
THE RAGGED TITLE 

flEAKCHES after novelties in 
book-making have brought 
to notice the peculiarities of 
the old English chap-books. 
Their illiterate readers had 
little fault to find with worn 
types and dingy paper, with 
muddy presswork and the 
crudest forms of engraving. 
Shabby as they were from literary and mechanical 
points of view, chap-books found eager buyers for 
more than three centuries, even if the critical did 
refuse them admission to catalogues and libraries 
and put them outside the pale of literature. The 

24 369 




370 Exhibits of uneducated taste 




A chap-book illustration. 

late Andrew Tuer of London considered them as 
valuable exhibits of the uneducated taste for books, 
and republished a few with all their features of 
quaintness. It is from his " Olde Tayles Newly 
Kelayted " that these examples have been copied. 



Bold printing revived by Titer 371 

Words need not be wasted on the great silliness 
of the matter and the manner of the early chap- 
book, but it is not at all out of place here to say 
that its crude typography, as illustrated by Tuer, 1 
justly may be considered as the real beginning of 

• 

Jemmyfrnancy 

OF 

Yarmouth. 




A chap-book title. 



1 To give the correct o]d-style 
flavor to these reprints, Tuer had 
to reproduce the old woodcuts, 
arid to engrave and sometimes to 
cast the types most needed. A 
bold-faced italic of large size,, 
graced with Flemish manner- 
isms of long swash-letters, was 
his favorite type for display, but 



he used other forms. His un- 
known engraver of the woodcuts 
went to his task sympathetically, 
and made illustrations to match 
the types, which were truthfully 
presented to the amused reader 
on coarse and spongy paper with 
black presswork, and in bind- 
ings appropriately rude. 



372 Modern imitations of chap-boohs 



&>S$ HoJiePoJtyire. 



the revival of bold and black printing, which was 
afterward developed on other lines by William 
Morris and his disciples. 

A typographic imitation of the crudely formed 
letters of the old chap-book has been shown on 



|E«der-if wed -ttysScvIpfvxerd < 
lYnSvnftwu 




\yt6 yzhwshie patte-jm5totms>? 



page 253. There are two other variations, made 
by rival type-founders, known as Blanchard and 
Plymouth, and all of them find great favor with the 
advertiser. The uncritical reader rashly assumes 
that these chap-book faces must be of the genuine 
and correct old-style pattern because they are so 




UTEMrURE 

lO C LNTS A COPY 



Friday, April 28, 1899 




HARPEJM^ BROTHERS 

PYBLISHLPwS 

Newspaper title in chap-book style. 
Reduced facsimile. 



374 Why titles were wide-spaced 

preposterously boorish and uncouth. To use his 
own phrase, they are "catchy," and they make the 
reader stare. To the commercial printer the chap- 
book faces present another advantage : ungainly 
practices in composition, that would not be toler- 
ated with types of the usual form, lend an addi- 
tional attractiou to coarse styles of type that can 
be quickly and cheaply composed by any inexpert. 
Careless types are helped by careless composition. 

THE PURITAN TITLE-PAGE 

The Puritan title-page seems to be the outgrowth 
of the chap-book. The restrictions put on printing 
by Star-Chamber decrees of the early seventeenth 
century provoked the establishment in garrets and 
cellars of numerous secret printing-houses that were 
then known as " holes," and many of the printers in 
these holes had their preliminary training in the 
chap-book school and in no other. They were not 
restrained by typographic rules or traditions, and 
necessity compelled them to indulge in whimsical 
freaks. Types sorely needed were hard to buy, for 
the type-founders also were restricted. Printers 
were often in straits for want of large qiaadrats, 
especially of those needed for the large types of 
display, but they evaded this difficulty by a simple 
method. It was easier to space single types than 
to justify in substitutes for large quadrats at the 
ends of short lines. 



OUTLINE 
H I ST O R Y 
of the LIFE 
OF CHRIST 
for BOYS' BI 
BLE CLASSES 

By W. H . DAVIS 

Secretary Bedford Branch Brooklyn 
Young Men's Christian Association 
'with the advice «/ John Angus 
MacVannel, Ph.D., Columbia 
University and Pratt Institute 




New York The International Committee 
of Young Men's Christian Associations 



Composed by Will Crombie of Brattleboro, Vermont. 
A good illustration of the Puritan style. 



376 Puritan style approved by artists 

Over-wide spacing is now esteemed by amateurs as 
an additional grace. Not content with spacing out 
large types to the full width of the measure, single- 
letter spacing is often ordered for types of the 
smallest size. Quadrats of large size are proscribed. 
The em quadrat at the, beginning of a paragraph is 
suppressed ; its first letter must be made flush with 
the left side of the page. Nor does the last line of 
a paragraph escape the rule ; it can have no quad- 
rats, but must be filled with unmeaning ornament. 

Under the guidance of two eminent American 
artists, who have been attracted by the rude sim- 
plicity of early English printing, the good features 
of the chap-book have received additional develop- 
ment. Under their hands the clownishness of the 
chap-book makers disappears completely. They 
give us the firm, strong lines aud the directness of 
the block-book printers of the fifteenth century, but 
their ornamentation is invariably of a later date : 
their favorites are the somewhat hackneyed pot or 
basket of flowers, the cornucopia, hanging garlands, 
and other stock pieces, which retained some favor 
even as late as the year 1800. 

One feature of this Puritan style is the complete 
reversal of accepted notions about the display of 
words. Connecting particles like the, of, by, and, 
etc., heretofore made as catch-lines, or put in the 
smallest, types to show their relative inferiority, 
are set in lower-case italic between or before words 
in capitals of full size. Why small capitals, that 



GOLYMBIAN ODE 

fly HARRIET MONRpE 



Designs by 
WILLH 
BRADL 
EY 




CHICAGO 

WIKyiNGWATfrCO 

MBOOOQOa 



378 Peculiarities of the Bradley style 

are better mates for the full capitals, are not selected 
cannot be explained. Sometimes these particles in 
italic lower-case are spaced, even in positions where 
there does not appear to be any need for their 
spacing. The object sought seems to be the pro- 
duction of harsh contrasts of size, form, and color. 
The lettering approved by Pyle is that of the 
improperly named Fifteenth-century face, which 
was revived under his direction. The engraved 
lettering of Bradley, noticeable not so much for 
its form as for its arrangement of lines, shows a 
great disdain of the rules now accepted for the dis- 
play of words, the division of the words in syllables, 
and the position of the words in blank space. His 
engraved words may be huddled in a corner as on 
an old Greek coin ; his letters in type may be spread 
apart until their connection with one another is not 
apparent at first glance. The line of ten large let- 
ters, compactly set and filling the measure, may be 
followed by a line of but six small letters unduly 
spaced to fill the same measure. Words in every 
line of display must always make a long line. When 
the line of a general heading has too few characters, 
that line must be inclosed in a black rule border 
to the full width. Very thick and black dashes of 
double rule, or lines of old-fashioned flowers, may 
be freely used between lines of type. This style of 
composition is known in the trade as the Bradley 
style, but it is not certaiu that every feature of it 
has his entire approval. It attracts attention now 









The lettering of this title seems to have been made to inclose an 
illustration which proved unacceptable and was rejected. 



380 Disorderly lettering on coins 

by reason of its novelty, and it finds its greatest 
admirers among advertisers. It is occasionally 
found in newspapers, but rarely in the standard 
book. Whether it will be tolerated as of good form 
by the readers of the next generation is a question. 



THE RAGGED TITLE 



For this form of title a new name is required, and 
no word but ragged so plainly defines the title with 
an uneven edge at the right ends of lines. It is an 

imitation of the odd 
lettering sometimes 
found on old coins, 
tiles, and tablets, in 
which a large and 
irregular design al- 
lowed scant space 
for letters. In some 
of them the letters 
seem to have been 
a late afterthought. 
They were placed 
anywhere to get rid 




A coin of Athens, about 176 B.C. 1 
Slightly enlarged. 



i The coin on this page is a 
slightly enlarged facsimile of an 
old coin engraved for The Coins 
and Medals of the British Muse- 
um, by Barclay V. Head. [Sec- 
ond edition, octavo. London, 
Longmans & Co. 1881.] It there 
appears as Plate 55, coin 23, and 



is described as a Coin of Athens : 
AQK .... ANTOXOS . . . 
KAPAIXOS . . KMi. Owl 

onamphora | ; heneath 2<t> (mint 
mark.) The first magistrate on 
this coin was afterward Antio- 
chus IV of Syria. In the year 
b.c. 176 he was in Athens. 



Baggedness imitated with types 381 

of an unwelcome addition when the main feature 
of the design had been completed. 

In some of the legends the letters are disjointed 
without regard to syllables, and arranged vertically. 




The Brinton medal. Designed by John Flanagan. 

singly or in rows of twos or threes, wherever there 
was any vacant space. When a large illustration 
nearly fills the outside cover of a book, and leaves 
no space for lettering above or below, a similar 
liberty has to be taken, and the words have to be 
wedged in every chance vacancy that may be found 
on either side. The great audacity of this treat- 
ment has provoked typographic imitation, which 



382 Useless affectation of quaintness 



began by placing one or more letters of a 
word by the side of an over-large cut or 

£$(£) initial, and ended by breaking up words 
in ragged vertical rows on the side of 
blank pages that contained no cut or in- 

ThG itial, in which position there could be no 
proper warrant for this mutilation. 
The few admirers of this disorderly 

]_j method of arranging types say that it 

gives piquancy to print ; that it is a fair 
reproduction of an old-time mannerism ; 

TtlO kh a ^ it is artistic, and a pleasing change 
from the insipid monotony of orderly 

ItDS composition. To readers who have been 
taught that divisions of words should be 
avoided or made on syllables only, and 
that there should be at least an attempt 
at symmetry by making letters fit the 
space to be occupied, the ragged title 

YRp seems a studied affectation of quaint- 
ness. There are old manuscripts in which 

l\(Q broken words were placed by the side of 
huge initials, but that breaking was often 
condoned by the charms of bright color 

D(§) and a graceful floriation around letters of 

t— curious design— graces not to be repro- 

/ duced by mechanical types in black ink. 

0]D]c) For modern titles in type there is no 
valid excuse for this raggedness. The 
early printers made lines uneven because 



Y)0 

ue 
u 

F£D< 

By 

€ 

x; 

X80F{ 



€R 



^>ic omneer barbate nacdne& ahoru t£ 
gum mflgma fe/pieiunt-feb gttrmano^ 
aquilae timent natutabtet ct abljonct 
=|nfug non 5 cctarn muttu alaSmctteba 
romano^ cofuett cc flbi quafi mnam fct 
(co*bia*<£2uta licet ipi ^pc attune bnan 
fci et ijatejftifutt feiftotfeff wmcn g &t 
cjtfim m life ate^obca tenoriffune funt 
concoitee fatcw tttc m pceSctbj ab aK® 
t8 fcaptce fn qutbufttam fcuiaffz fet> fl 
cut ipt m fine origmabb; eeefciit fc tea 
trttS ejtrcetpftffe fie ego p uto nulls ixto 
abmifcuitfe fclfttattTtupetfne cCi fpmrii) 
tare wmam fe eemtze* 

€jtrpKat KfeH9 ^smi&awe mijjjj woi* 

From an edition of Lucius Florus, printed by 
Ther Hoernen, Cologne, u. 1470. 

fttqitu e. pofi: £c raimar ttxttmfim* 

m nua raoifitab im trqjam iflufcut 
ra^mitrctralprarau&nttu omnea 
Oewrofuiaijuaoinuoiatufnonmi 
tmu&rat&SBfatfetrc tyc jfiotu a h 
tulolDnoiqtUQruu^raptec quo* 
9oiuOinjn6imnitttanoj0iif|5m* 
rib)tsautmmfa& Dricftifmbma^ 

From the Bible of Forty-two Lines. Reduced facsimile. 



384 Print preferred for its precision 

they did not have spaces of different widths ; the 
ragged outline at the right was a confessed blem- 
ish, and was avoided as much as possible by the 
use of frequent abbreviations. In many modern, 
imitations of this fashion the raggedness at the 
right is needlessly exaggerated. In the Bible of 
Forty-two Lines the ragged endings are noticeable, 
but are not offensive, nor are they eyesores even in 
the graceless books of Ther Hoernen. A desire to 
mitigate the irregularity is evident in each illus- 
tration. When spaces of different widths were in- 
vented (about 1480), printers everywhere adopted 
the new practice of making the lines of text of 
uniform length, and this practiee has been contin- 
ued without change for more than four hundred 
years. It is too late now to revive the deservedly 
obsolete fashion. 

The preference always given by readers to print- 
ing over manuscript is fairly earned by the uni- 
formity of its letters and the precision of its lines 
and pages. Printed words in ordinary text types 
do not compel the study and identification of each 
letter ■ they are read at first glance. To vary the 
shape of each letter, or to mangle words by queer 
divisions, increases the difficulty of reading. Yet 
there are amateurs who maintain that the ragged- 
ness of outline which is unavoidable in manuscript 
and type-writing should be accepted as evidence 
of the superior artistic taste that disdains the re- 
straints of usage and the rules of grammar. 



Baggedness a typographic freak 385 




A Minton tile., Joseph before King Pharaoh. 
Reduced facsimile. 

The ragged title never appears in any serious book, 
but is often seen in the titles of pamphlets and ad- 
vertising circulars. Nor can it be used in the sub- 
headings of newspapers, for it is too wasteful of 
space. Its novelty in advertising matter is nearing 
its end. Ragged lines and mangled words in the 
advertisements of a book or magazine are properly 
regarded as tricks to call attention to matter which 
in the usual form would be passed unnoticed. 
25 



ORJ)EF( 
FIR/® 



bo 





BO 





A modern fashion of ragged title. 



XVII 



KELMSCOTT TYPOGRAPHY 



ANY amateurs have tried to 
reform printing, but William 
Morris has been most success- 
ful in obtaining admirers. 
How much of this admira- 
tion has been earned by the 
beauty of his presswork, and 
how nmch by his audacity 
in pulling down old idols of 
taste and in putting up new objects for reverence, 
are questions not to be decided hastily. 1 

All of his Kelmscott books were printed from 
two faces and three bodies of type made from his 




l In his Aims in Founding the 
Kelmscott Press (p. 1), Morris 
makes this statement: "I be- 
gan printing hooks with the hope 
of producing some which would 
have a definite claim to beauty, 
while at the same time they 
would be easy to read, and should 



not dazzle the eye or trouble the 
intellect of the reader by eccen- 
tricity of form in the letters. . . . 
It was the essence of my under- 
taking to produce books which 
it would be a pleasure to look 
upon as pieces of printing and 
arrangement of type." 



387 



388 Peculiarities of Kehnscott types 

own designs. First came the Golden type, upon a 
body of fourteen points, said to be modelled on 
the roman letter made by Nicolas Jenson of Venice 
(1470), but smaller, firmer, bolder, and with some 
traces of gothic mannerisms. Next came the Troy 
type of eighteen points and the Chaucer type of 
twelve points, each modelled upon the form of round 
gothic letter preferred by fifteenth-century printers 
in Germany, Spain, and the Low Countries. Good 
reasons were given for these revivals of the disused 
faces. The roman types then made by all English 
type-founders, and subserviently accepted by all 

HBCDef6IU7KLJV[]>* 

The capitals of the Troy type. 

readers, were relatively thin and weak, full of sharp 
hair-lines, dazzling to the eye, and especially irri- 
tating when feebly printed with little ink upon 
smooth and dry paper. Morris showed courage and 
good sense in designing his roman of strong and 
simple form, free from all indistinct hair-lines, yet 
many admirers think that his Golden type is too 
black and angular. His Troy and Chaucer types 
were not so happy, for they were broad and black, 
and tended to simplicity in the lower-case forms 
only. His capital letters are simpler than those of 
modern German, but some are really uncouth. Yet 



© 

O 
o 






n 3 



O 

c 



- 2 ^ 

8LS "8 



o 



tx* cu sT 3 

£U8,3 8 







1*8 



p 2 



&4*o^ o 

2«s si US 



en 0i 

13* 



p 8 38 &!f " 



Is.!*! 5 " 
8T&S5.9 



cu 



X/l 



P -< O 



8 «? 



-1 

HJ*0 



^ ^ ' 2 §*ej*3 






rill fU3 



c ^ c c5 



a* 
o 

o 

o 

c 

en 



b-b 51 3£ 






w 



I 

5 LB 
ft o So^g &£*% I 



tr§ 2.8 



si 3 



390 Thoroughness of Morris's ivork 

he was not a servile imitator of old mannerisms: 
he refused to put the long f in any of his fonts, he 
used doubled letters sparingly, spelled out abbrevia- 
tions, and discarded catchwords. 

Morris had been a lifelong reader of quaint books 
and a student of the manner as well as the matter 
of the old copyists and the early printers. He be- 
came a medievalist thoroughly saturated with the 
spirit of the fifteenth century. It was almost un- 
avoidable that he should impart what he had re- 
ceived, that he should prefer middle-age subjects 
and should print, when his time came, in the style 
of his teachers. There is, then, a nice propriety in 
his selection of old fashions of letter and his use of 
old methods. By no other means could the books 
he printed be so satisfactorily presented to the 
limited number of English-born readers of similar 
education and tastes for whom the medieval style 
of book-making has an indefinable charm. 

Nor did his painstaking stop with new forms of 
types. In every feature of his books, from the se- 
lection of the paper to that of the tapes that tied 
the covers, Morris was the only controlling force. 
No author or publisher, printer or binder, was per- 
mitted to alter his purpose in the slightest : he went 
to his mark as straight and stroug as a bullet. The 
result of his energy was a book that showed com- 
pleteness, with a unity not to be had when the book 
has been the joint work of many men, even when 
all are able or expert. 



3 
c 
(ft 








el- 
O 



3 3 &> a 



o9 




1>3 

5 <2 «* «-»■ S _1 *2 -L**»2. 



o 

3 



*■!<§ 

J^O ^ 




392 Gothic letter cannot be revived 

Putting aside its medieval flavor, the Kelmscott 
book has strong claims upon appreciation by reason 
of its thorough virility. It is not a lady's book. 
To readers who have been sated with the effemi- 
nacies of modern letter-cutting and printing, and 
who supposed there was no better method, the 
Kelmscott book is a true revelation of unexpected 
capabilities in typography. It is strong, bold, and 
sturdy, even if its gothic capital letters are some- 
times dismal and its composition mannered. It is 
a pleasure to find a book in type which does not 
suggest on every page some imitation of copper- 
plate, lithography, or photography. 

At this point the thoughtful reader has to pause. 
It may be admitted that the Kelmscott book is 
the work of a master in typography, but is its style 
the best ? Is that style fit for modern books ? All 
English-speaking people do not cherish Morris's 
reverence for medieval or monastic fashions, nor 
is the great body of readers in foreign counti'ies 
any more deferential. During the sixteenth cen- 
tury the reading world outside of Germany had 
decided most distinctly that it was weary of types 
formed on gothic models, and put them aside for- 
ever as the standard type for book texts. The 
roman letter then accepted as better has been con- 
firmed as the standard of form by three centuries 
of continuous use ; and although it often has been 
debased by bad cutting and worse printing, it is 
not probable that it will be supplanted by the Troy 



Peculiarities of Kelmscott titles 393 

or Chancer types or aiiy form of gothic letter. A 
newspaper or a magazine, a Bible or a dictionary, 
or even any modern book intended more for use 
than for show, is impracticable in the Kelmscott 
style of typography. 

Morris discarded all the modern styles of title 
page. In his larger books in the Troy type the 
letters of the title were often inclosed in a decora- 
tive border of black ground, the decoration appear- 
ing in white lines, while the engraved lettering of 
the title was put in bold and black gothic letters 
upon an apparently gray ground, so produced by 
an openwork of intertwisted floriation. The title 
was made more effective by its vigorous contrast of 
white, gray, and black, but it is a title of strict en- 
graving, and it is not typography proper. In books 
of octavo size printed from the Grolden type without 
an engraved border, the title of type is put in a few 
compact lines at the head of the page, even when 
the lower part of that page is left entirely blank, 
This mannerism of the old copyists is not a true 
title ; it is only an introduction to a text. To ascer- 
tain the name of the printer and the date and place 
of printing the reader must turn to the end of the 
book, and there read the colophon and see the de- 
vice. In the books printed from the Troy type the 
introduction and the colophon were set up in a 
lower-case letter. The gothic capitals of the Troy 
type were seldom used in a mass, for they were not 
at all pleasing in combination. 



394 Compactness of the Kelmscott page 

The workmanship of the Kelmscott books shows 
between lines that Morris met with unexpected dif- 
ficulties in the composition of his new types. To 
secure for them the greater legibility he purposed, 
he had to make types of large size. This largeness 
made them occupy more space than he intended or 
desired. His best books are quartos : the Historyes 
of Troye is in two, and the Golden Legend iu three 
volumes. The Chaucer type on twelve -point body 
seems a plain attempt to save space by the use of 
the smaller body ; but it was not his favorite, for 
with its reduced size came also some reduction in 
clearness and a marked loss of character. When 
he made use of the Golden type for his octavos, his 
huge initials compelled the breaking np of long 
lines of verse in an unpleasing manner. He had to 
make chopped and ragged endings to lines of capi- 
tals in positions where ragged breaks annoyed the 
reader. In other places he had to print verse in 
the style of prose, making one line of verse occupy 
three or more ragged lines in print. The expres- 
sion of the writer's thought is unavoidably muddled 
by these breaks when the work of the designer is 
given greater prominence. 

To save the space he sorely needed, he had pre- 
determined not to use leads between lines in any 
position, but he had to do more than this— to make 
narrower the spaces between the words. These self- 
imposed rules proved fetters to symmetrical com- 
position. They served fairly well for a text in all 




Reduced facsimile. 



396 Morris on leading and spacing 

lower-case, in which occasionally projecting capitals 
and ascending and descending characters made the 
relief of white space between lines that is needed 
for readability ; l they did not serve properly for 
lines set entirely in capitals, which are four times 

THUS ENDETH THE LYF OF SAUL WHICHE WAS 
FIRST KYNGEVPON ISRAHEL & FOR DISOBEDY* 
ENCE OF GODES COMANDEMENT WAS SLAYN 
AND HIS HEYRES NEUER REGNED LONG AFTER. 
THYSTORYE OF DAUID. 

HERE FOLOWETH HOW DAUID REGNED AFTER 
SAUL& GOUERNED ISRAHEL. SHORTLY TAKEN 
OUT OF THE BIBLE, THE MOST HISTORYAL MA. 
TERS AND BUT LITILTOWCHED. 

From the Golden Legend. Reduced facsimile. 

as large, height and width considered, as the letters 
of lower-case. The space between lines which was 
enough for lines of lower-case was not enough for 
the lines of capitals. They really needed twice as 

l Morris's notions about the to these two essentials of seemly 
proper distance between words composition, and the inferior 
and lines are here quoted from ones run riot in licentious spac- 
page 4 of his Aims in Founding ing, thereby producing, inter 
the Kelmscott Press. "First, the alia, those ugly rivers of lines 
'face' of the letter should be as [hounds' teeth] running about 
nearly conterminous with the the page, which are such a blem- 
1 body * as possible, so as to avoid isb to decent printing. Third, 
undue whites between the let- the whites between the lines 
ters. Next, the lateral spaces should not be excessive ; the 
between the words should be (a) modern practice of 'leading* 
no more than is necessary to dis- should be used as little as pos- 
tinguish the division into words, sible, and never without some 
and (b) should be as nearly equal definite reason, such as mark- 
as possible. Modern printers, ing some special piece of print- 
even the best, pay very little heed ing.'' 



Other mannerisms of Morris 397 

much relief of white, but the Morris rule gave 
them only half as much. To prevent offensive 
divisions of words, some lines of capitals had to be 
unduly thin-spaced, while others had to be wide- 
spaced, or made ragged at the ends of lines, or to 

LAST WORDS ON THE HISTORY OF THE 

TITLE-PAGE WITH NOTES ON SOME 

COLOPHONS AND TWENTY-SEVEN 

FAC-S1MILES OF TITLE-PAGES 

BY ALFRED W. POLLARD. 

An approved modern method of composing capitals. 

have unnecessary ornaments interjected. To most 
readers these methods are objectionable : lines of 
capitals set solid are always hard to read ; but they 
can be made more readable by a free use of leads. 
Which of these facing titles is easier to read, and 
more pleasing in general effect ? 

Morris applied his rule of thin spacing with equal 
rigor to spaces between the words set in all capitals. 
The H at the end of a word is sometimes nearer to 
the I that follows in the next word than the two 
stems of the H are to each other. To prevent the 
making of what seemed ungainly gaps of white at 
the ends of paragraphs, or other gaps caused by the 
indivisibility of syllables that made the spacing 
uneven, he designed bits of engraved decoration as 



398 Morris types frequently misused 

substitutes to fill up these gaps, which consequently 
appear in places where they are not required by 
the copy and where they are sometimes a positive 
offence. With the same intent, he permitted the 
abbreviation & in the text where it is not now al- 
lowed. These expedients are not always sufficient. 
Divisions of words tolerated in the Morris books are 
condemned as blemishes in other publications. The 
long blank left below some medieval introductions 
had a reason for its existence in the old time that 
is not valid now. When the copyist knew that the 
great attraction of the page would be the work of 
the rubricator, he did right in leaving this large 
blank for the artist. 

It is distasteful to note blemishes in the work of 
a man who has done so much for virile typography, 
nor would any adverse comment be made if it was 
not required for recent books professedly made in 
the Morris style. The best features of the Kelms- 
cott books are not at once seen ; the oddities are 
first seen, and are copied and exaggerated. It is a 
great misfortune that the Morris style has been so 
often imitated, for it was devised by Morris for 
medieval books or subjects, and should be used for 
them exclusively. 1 Imitation of the Morris style 

i Every one who cared for and no one seems able to start 

William Morris must regret the a new press or get some new 

extent to which his name and type without taking Mr. Mor- 

work are being used in the mat- ris's name in vain. The Biblio- 

ter of printing. Tasteless imi- graphical Society's Xews Shert, 

tations of his types and orna- March, 1899. Other criticisms 

ments threaten us on every side, of like nature could be added. 



ismm.< 



HERE BEGIN POEMS BY THE 
WAY. WRITTEN BY WILLIAM 
MORRIS. AND FIRST IS THE 
POEM CALLED FROM THE UP. I 
LAND TO THE SEA. 

HALL WE 
WAKE ONE 
MORN OF 
SPRING, 
GLAD AT 
HEART OF 
EVERY. 
THING, 
YET PEN. 
SIVE WITH 
THE THOUGHT OF EVE ? 
Then the white house shall we leave, 
Pass the wind. flowers and the bays, 
Throu gh the garth, and go our ways, 
O Wandering down among the meads 
Till our very joyance needs 
Rest at last; till we shall come 
To that Sun.god's lonely home, 
Lonely on the hill.side grey, 
Whence the sheep have gone away; 
Lonely till the feastytime is, 
When with prayer and praise of bliss, 
Thither comes the country side. 




Reduced facsimile. 



400 



Imitations demand much skill 



in any book on a modern subject is practically an 
anachronism. It is not enough for the amateur 
to buy a good imitation of his type, and to try to 
copy the more striking mannerisms of composition 
and presswork. Imitation is wasted labor without 
the closest attention to many details. It is sorely 
disappointing when materials and methods have 
been cheapened. Rough -faced paper of a mean 
grade, made by machine from wood-pulp, printed 
without dampening, in haste and with ordinary 
book ink, is sure to produce the travesties which 



HERE endeth Poems by the Way, written 
by William Morris, and printed by nim at the 
Kelmscott Press, Upper Mall, Hammersmith, 
in the County of Middlesex; and finished on 
the 24th day of September of the year 1891. 

Sold by Reeves & Turner, 196, Strand, London. 




Superior presswork of Morris books 401 

have discredited the style of Morris more than any 
of his eccentricities. Without disciplined work- 
men, and, more than all, without the watchful eye 
of a master generous in his allowance of time, fer- 
tile in resources, and swift to adapt, means to ends, 
imitations are always unsatisfactory. 

The great merit of the Kelmscott book is in its 
superb presswork. Its types 1 are always sharp, clear, 
and clean ; impression is uniformly even ; the black 
ink is evenly black, and the red ink bright but 
not shiny, and the two colors are in accurate regis- 
ter. No printer of the fifteenth century did better ; 
few did as well. This sustained excellence was had 
by the observance of all approved processes of hand 
presswork : the hard-faced paper was made pliable 
by careful dampening ; the ink was evenly dis- 
tributed ; ample time was allowed for the making 
ready ; and every gray or imperfect impression was 
destroyed. Those who try to imitate Morris's Avork 
will learn sooner or later that the best printing 
cannot be had if any one of these conditions be 
neglected. 




26 



REFLEXIONS 

SENTENCES ET MAXIMES MORALES 

« DE 

LA ROCHEFOUCAULD 

PRECEDEES D'UXE NOTICE 

PA II 

M. SAINTE-BEUVE 

de I'Academic Crancaise 



CEUVRES CIIOISIES 

DE VAUVENARGUES 

AVEC UN CKOIX DES MDTES DG VOLTAIRE, NORELLET, FORTH, ETC. 

el pr^rtdicn June Kolice 
PAR GUARD 



NOUVEILE EDITION 

REVUE AVEC CRA^D SOI* SCR LEI MEILLEUItS TEXTES 



PARIS 

GARNIER FRERES, LIBRAIRES-fiDITEURS 

6, HUB DES SAISTS-PtllES, ET P AL AIS-R0YA.L, 215 

Reduced facsimile. 



XVIII 



FRENCH TITLE-PAGES 




DIRECTIONS for the composi- 
tion of title-pages have been 
given byTh^otiste Lefevre of 
Paris in his Guide Pratique du 
Compositeur ) which often dif- 
fer from those now observed 
by printers in England and 
America, bnt his rules are 
instructive and deserve an 
extended examination. To assist the reader to a 
better knowledge of recent French practice the 
following summary of Lef evre's rules is submitted. 

THEATRE 

DE 

BEAUMARCHAIS 

403 



404 Arrangements of French title-pages 

The title-page should not have too many lines, and 
the words oftenest used in giving a name to the 
book should constitute the line of largest display. 

Where a preference is possible, this leading line 
should be the third line of the title. 

The article attached to the word selected for the 
largest display may be put in a separate line, as in 

LA 

PHILOSOPHIE 

When the words selected for largest display are 
too many for one line, they may be put in two or 
more lines, and one line should be larger, as in 

THEOLOGIE 

MORALE 

DES CURES ET DES CONFESSEURS. 

When the noun that defines the subject-matter is 
followed by a qualifying adjective which contains 
more letters than the noun, the adjective should be 
in the larger type and make a full line : 



Arrangements of French title-pages 405 

THEOLOGIE 

SERAPHIQUE. 

When the words are too many for one line, the 
preceding word, as Treatise or History, should be 
in the largest type even if it makes a short line. 

TRAITfi 

DU 

DROIT ECCLESIASTIQUE. 

When all the words in three or more proximate 
lines need a bold display, eare mnst be taken to 
prevent the formation of a eone, as it appears in 

LECONS 

SYNCHRONIQUES 

D'HISTOIRE GENERALE. 



406 Arrangements of French title-pages 

The words of each short line should seem to be in 
the centre of the measure. When the word begins 
or ends with an irregular - shaped letter, like V, T, 
or A, the blanks on each side of the line must be 
varied to make the word seem to be in the centre. 
The form of a cone reversed is to be avoided, as in 



DROIT ECCLESIASTIQUE 

DANS SES PRINCIPES GENERAUX; 
PAR GEORGES PHILLIPS, 

PROFESSEDR A LA FACOLTti D'INSPHGCK. 

The display lines of a title should be unequal in 
length and in boldness, but two or more minor lines 
closely related in sense, as in au amplification of 
the title, may be of the same size and prominence. 

To avoid making two displayed lines of the same 
length, one line may be spaced. 1 

When the title is crowded with many words, the 
minor words that are closely related in sense should 
be grouped together in smaller capitals and treated 
as a summary. 

Each summary should have a distinet style of 
type, but the styles shonld not be discordant. 

i This is hazardous. Spacing change the color of that line, 
of one line is not to be advised and make it seem a distinct face 
when thick spaces are used which of type . 



DICTIONNAIRE 

DE La. 

LANGUE FRANQAISE, 

GLOSSAIRE RAISONNE 

DE 

LA LANGUE ECRITE ET PARLEE, 

TRESENTANT 

L 'EXPLICATION DES ETYMOLOC1ES, DE L'ORTHOCRAPRE ET DE LA PRONONCUTION, 

LES ACCEPTIONS PROPRES, FICUREES OU FAMILlfeRES, 

LA CONJUCAISON DE TOUS LES VERDES IRRECULIERS OU DEFECTLEIX, 

LES PRINC1PALES SYNONYMIES, 

LES GALL1CISMES, LES LOCUTIONS POPULAIRES ET PROVERBIAlES , 

ET ENFIN LA SOLUTION DE TDUTES LES DIFFICULTES CRAHHATICALES. 



DE REMARQIES, DE JIGEMENTS LITTERAIRES, 

el d'exemples empruotes am ecmains lei plus illustres des deui deroiers socles 
et sui littfatenis conlemporaics las plus ce'ltbres; 

ET PRECEDE 

d'DD Tableau syDDptlque de I'Academle Cran^alse 
depute I'epoqoe de ea creation. 

PAR M. P. POITEVIN, 

AUTEUR DC COCRS THEORJQUR ET PRATIQUE DE LANGUE FRANCHISE. 

n Plus une langtie se repand , plus die a besom 
« tie dep&ls et d'archive*. «■ ( Rivarol. ) 



PARIS, 

TYPOGRAPHIE DE FIRM1N D1DOT FRfcRES, 

IMNUMEURS DB l/lNSTITUT, 
RUE JACOB, 5G. 

M DCCC LIU. 

Reduced facsimile. 



408 Arrangements of French title-pages 

The different divisions of the title, as the name of the 
book, its amplified description, the name of author, 
summary of contents, motto, etc., should each be 
followed by a blank of noticeable width to indicate 
more clearly the entire separation of each subject. 

The name of the author should not be in too 
small types, nor vet in types so large that the name 
will dominate other lines. 

The honorary titles of the author may be put in 
very small capitals or in lower-case characters, and 
should closely follow the name. 

The publisher's imprint should be at the foot of 
the page and be separated from the title proper by 
a broader blank, or by a device or dash. 

When it can be done without an unfair crowding 
of other lines, the leading lines of display should be 
kept apart at uniform distance. 

The types of a title should be, as much as pos- 
sible, of the same face or style. To avoid monotony 
it is sometimes expedient to select some jobbing 
types of a bolder face. 1 It may be necessary occa- 
sionally to alternate lines of capitals with lines of 
lower-case characters. 

Points of punctuation should not be saippressed 
in some lines and maintained in others. "When 
used at the ends of lines of large type, the periods 
should be of a smaller size. 

1 This license to use job types may be used for different titles, 

is not granted by English or all the types of the same title 

American publishers, who say should be of the same face or 

that although different styles family. 



NOUVEAU MANUEL 



ECOLES PRIMAIRES, 



EXERCICES NOMBREUX 

POUR DEVOIRS J0URNAL1ERS ET COMPOSITIONS DES SAMED1S : 

1° En Instruction religieuse et en Histoire lainte ; 

2° en Arithm6tique; — 3° en Grammoire frangaite ; 

4° en Hittoire de Franoe; — 5" en Geographies 

6° en Geom^trie et Deisin lineaire. 

Compositions doDt lea places doivent Gtre iascrites sur le reglstrc rtt p s Instituted r-t 
el des Instltutrices , conformement a I'articlc 25 du Reglemeat general ; 

(MATIfiRE ET CORRIGE.) 

PHECEDE D'lIN 

PETIT TR41TE D'ARITHMETIQIE 

ET DE NOTIONS SUR LA GEOMETRIE ET LE DESSIN LINEAIRE 

POrR REPONDRE A MM. LES INSPPCTEUaS ET DELEGDES. 

PAR J.-N. TOUSSAINT, 

Bachelier es lettret , Maitre de pension secondare et Ustituleur public , 
en exercice depuis dix-huit ms sans interruption. 

PARTIE DU MAITRE. 

Ouvrage desliiie' a abre'ger et a facililer la tiche deja si difficile da maitre. 

A. V 3 AGE 

DES INSTITUTEURS ET DES INSTITUTRICES, DES INSPECTEURS , 
DES DELECUES CANTONAUX, DES CURES, DES HAIRES. 

Dlx Gravnres. 

21. m. ID. 6. 



PARIS, 

FIRMIN DIDOT FRERES, ROE JACOB, 56. 

JULES DERUELLE, I HACHETTE ET C™, 

tue de la Pidilite*. 13. ] rue Pierre-Sarraiin , U. 

ET LES PRINC1PADI LIBRAIHES DE LA CAPITALE ET DE LA PROVIHCE. 

1852. 

Reduced facsimile. 



410 Arrangements of French title-pages 

When the imprint contains the names of two or 
more publishers, and it is possible to do so, these 
names should be arranged in separate columns. 1 

The title-page should be of the same size as the 
page of text, but this rule is not arbitrary. There 
are titles which require a wider or longer page. 2 

In a work of many volumes on different subjects 
it is customary to pnt the general title at the head 
of the title-page, and give it most prominence, 
separating it from the special title by a dash. 3 



JULIE 



ou 

LA NOUVELLE HELOISE; 

LETTRES DE DEUX AMANTS , 

HABITANTS D'UNE PETITE TILLE AU PIED DE5 ALPES, 

RECUEILLILS ET POBLIKES 

PAR J.-.T. ROUSSEAU. 

TOME PREMIER. 

1 Not always a safe rule. It ing display line is short, the 

seldom happens that the two measure may he narrowed, 

publishers assent to equality in 3 This is not the American 

prominence. One of them usu- practice. The general title may 

ally wants the dominant posi- he put first, hut not in the largest 

tion. type. The special word which 

- When the lines are few and most unmistakably identifies the 

the blanks between them are hook should have the greatest 

wide, the title may be shortened prominence. Lefevre prefers 

to advantage. When the lead- this method. 



OEUVRES COMPLETES 



J.-J. ROUSSEAU, 



DES ECUIRCISSEMBNTS ET DEE NOTES HISTORIQIES. 



LA NOUVELLE HELOISE. 



TOME PREMIER. 




PARIS, 

P. POURRAT FRERES, fiDITEURS, 

RUE DES PETITS-AUGUST1HS, K° 5. 



M DOCC XXXI 

Eeduced facsimile. 



412 French preference for hair-lines 

The false title, or the bastard title, as it is called in 
England and America, should set forth only the 
name of the book. It should be in smaller type 
than that chosen for the same words in the full 
title, and should be put a trifle above the centre of 
the page. The bastard title is not needed in a 
trivial work. 

On the verso of the bastard title may be put the 
name of the printer, but always at the foot of the 
page. 

In some works a false title, upon a separate page, 
is given to the important divisions of Book, Part, 
or Canto. This false title should be in types smaller 
thau those of the bastard title. 

The half-title, which is sometimes placed over 
the first chapter of the book, should not be in a 
larger type than that selected for the bastard title. 
When this half-title is at the head of a page of 
short lines of verse, it need not be spaced to fill the 
measure. 

One peculiarity of French title-pages is the fre- 
quent use of very bold and compressed types for 
the main line of display. As a rule, these types 
have very thick stems, long and feeble serifs, and 
needlessly protracted hair-lines. The contrast of 
color between the thick and the thin lines is that 
of a discarded fashion in ornamental penmanship, 
and is not now esteemed a grace in type. While 
the types of large lines may be slightly compressed, 



Desormes's notions about titles 413 

the types of the minor lines are often too compact 
and much too condensed. These blemishes could be 
avoided. In its general effect the French title-page 
is more attractive than the British or American ; 
it is sometimes over-bold, but is always impres- 
sive, and better adapted for its purpose than our 
titles in meagre Elzevirs and other colorless types. 
Ornamental types are not selected for titles by 
French printers so frequently as they were during 
the middle of the nineteenth century, but the plainer 
forms and smaller sizes of jobbing type are still in 
favor for the titles of the best books. 

Desormes, the author of a more recent book on 
practical printing, adds nothing of value to the 
rules of Lefevre, but his notions of good form, as 
set forth iu his illustrations, more strikingly exhibit 
French mannerisms. He prefers roman, but he au- 
thorizes some of the jobbing types for minor lines. 
Five of his six illustrations of model titles have 
leading display lines in condensed type. He makes 
frequent use of hair-line dashes to separate different 
portions of the title. On the same page he uses 
italic capitals and lower-case characters, and many 
different styles and shapes of type. He does not 
approve of lower-case old style for a title, for he 
thinks that it gives juvenile simplicity to the seri- 
ous book. Nor does he like the title arranged in 
the form of an inverted cone, which often compels 
a bad division of words. His indifference to har- 
mony of style and uniformity of shape in letters is 



414 Desormes>s notions about titles 

fairly presented in the illustration on this page, in 
which five sizes of type and three distinct shapes of 
letter have been selected, not so much to show the 
meaning of the writer as to exhibit printing-house 
rules. To his notion, some lines must be long and 

SOCIETE FRATERNELLE 

DES PROTES 

DES 

IMPRIMERIES TYPOGRAPHIQDES 
DE PARIS 

others short, some large and others small, without 
regard to the relative value of the words. Wheu 
the line proposed has too many words, a squeezed 
type must be used ; when it has few words or let- 
ters, a stretched-out type is equally imperative. The 
discord made by antagonism in shape is preferred to 
the violation of the rule which orders that the words 
selected for largest display must be kept together 
in one line and must have a certain prominence, 
and that the page must have lines of uneven length. 
In the title here presented by him it is not possible 
to obey his arbitrary rules and yet give to the words 
proper expression. It is one of many combinations 



NOTIONS 



DE 



TYPOGRAPHIE 

A fUSAGE DES 

ECOLES PROFESSIONNELLES 

PRECEDEES D'UN 

AVANT-PROPOS 



L'ORIGINE DE L'IMPRIMERIE 



E. DESORMES 

Directeur technique de l'ecole Gutenberg 




PARIS 

£COLE PROFESSIONNELLE GUTENBERG 

41, RUE DENFERT-ROCHEREAU, 41 

M DCCC Lxxxvni 

Reduced facsimile. 



416 Desormes's notions about titles 

of words which compel the violation of the rule. If 
all the lines were of the same length, they would con- 
vey the meaning of the writer with more propriety. 

Societe Fraternelle des 
Protes des Imprimeries 
Typographiques de Paris 

It is possible to arrange all these words acceptably 
with capital letters, produce irregular outline, and 
graduate display, without condensed type. 

SOCIETE FRATERNELLE 

DES xKU llih DES 

IMPRIMERIES 
TYPOGRAPHIQUES 

DE PARIS 

This arrangement gives suitable prominence to the 
most important word, PROTES, more equally fills 
the space, and preserves uniformity of face and of 
shape in all lines. 



XIX 

LETTERING 
PLAIN, GROTESQUE, ARTISTIC 



■ROTESQUE letters, now in 
fashion for advertising pam- 
. phlets, are kept out of the 
standard book with difficulty. 
There are compositors, as well 
as buyers of printed matter, 
who still believe that an un- 
interesting title-page can be 
made attractive by the use of 
quaint or odd letters. The ornamental types, brass- 
rule twistings, curved lines, flourishes, and flowers 
of the last fifty years were the outcome of this 
notion, for the carefully elaborated work then pro- 
duced by lithographers had led compositors to at- 
tempt these unwise experiments. To them the title- 
page of plain type only seemed thin, weak, stiff, and 
very mechanical. Worse than all, they said that 




418 Discarding of ornamental types. 

it had no individuality ; it was devoid of artistic 
grace; one title-page was too much like another. 

Without considering whether this so-called artis- 
tic grace was really required in the title-page any 
more than it was in a paragraph of the text, the 
compositor reached the conclusion that great im- 
provement could be made by a free use of orna- 
ment. For more than fifty years publishers of good 
taste had to combat persistent attempts to improve 
typography by lithographic peculiarities. At the 
end of this period, after repeated trial and failure, 
it was satisfactorily demonstrated that plain roman 
letters, arranged in a simple manner, were more 
generally acceptable than fanciful types, and that 
attempts to rival lithography were wasted labor. 

Every old type-foundry exhibits specimens of type 
once in full favor that are now heartily disliked 
by every printer. At no period, not even when in 
their high flood-tide of popularity, were they really 
needed. On the contrary, they have been a positive 
damage, for they led the compositor to believe that 
the novelty or beauty, real or supposed, of the new 
faces would add a grace to his compositions. To 
show the new faces he felt obliged to make absurd 
arrangements of lines ; he leaned too much on the 
types and too little on his own sense of propriet}'. 
What he did need was not new faces, but the abil- 
ity to use properly the old faces he already had. 
It was then, as it is now, not the types, but the fit- 
ness of the types for the work in hand, and their 



Exhibits of grotesque types 419 

symmetrical arrangement, that made composition 
attractive. Unskilful composition is never made 
pleasing by pretty types. 

When ornamental types were going out of fash- 
ion, type-founders reproduced moderately irregular 
but somewhat scraggy letters modelled after the 
pen-drawings of able architects. The imitations 
were not satisfactory, for the reader desired sym- 
metry and not scragginess. The easy grace of flow- 
ing and straggling lines quickly made with a pen by 
an expert penman was not possible in square types. 



Ityis face of fype, e^iied ft^besque, 
to^g fy f leequej)! n$e ty fye Ijqir i 8«50, 

flapper 9 , a ^pu^ imitation of 
tt?e letter^ of ^pe^iteefrj, wa<5 
in t^t? favor 3 in t^e year 3 1870. 

Jh\$ n?ope acceptable \rr)\- 
t&tiop, kr?oWr? 0,5 P5s,ln7, W&s 
n70.de about tbe yea,p 1553- 



420 Impracticability ofnetv designs 

Excessively ornamented types are out of use, but 
they are hot missed, for taste has changed. The 
" artistic " letter is now demanded. In all printing 
countries are meddlers with letters, who try to give 
new twists to each character of the alphabet, not to 
make it clearer or more readable, but to invest it 
with a new charm. With this intent they examine 
the facsimiles in Silvestre's Palaeography and other 
treatises on writing, and even the rejected types of 
printers of the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries, the 
quaint letters of the Puritan period, and the auto- 
graphic mannerisms of writers who have peculiar 
penmanship. Other amateurs in this field reject 
all models and authorities and try to design letters 
that are entirely new. Never before has the hope- 
lessness of their efforts been so clearly stated as 
by Mr. Edmund F. Strange in a lecture before the 
Society of Arts of London (May 22, 1900). 

You cannot design a letter. You may burlesque it. 
You may mutilate it by breaking its back in unex- 
pected places. You may complicate it with weird 
growths of a more or less fungoid nature, but you 
cannot design it, for design implies invention, and 
no one can be said to invent what already exists; 
^vhile any attempt to give new forms to the letters 
in current use can only be compared for audacity 
with deliberate experiments in the making of new 
words— 1 would even go so far as to say, new lan- 
guages. . . . For let us consider shortly what the 
letter really is. It is the accepted medium of intel- 
lectual exchange — the current coin of educated 



Photo-engraving made a substitute 421 

civilization. It bears its value on its face— the form 
agreed on by the millions who use it. . . . Now, if 
a craftsman lays himself out to give a letter a new 
shape, he is paying himself the compliment of ask- 
ing several hundred millions of persons to accept 
his image and superscription instead of that which 
many generations of themselves have already agreed 
upon. It would be sublime if it succeeded, but in 
practice it is simply ridiculous. . . . No age has 
yet seen such an array of ugliness as is offered by the 
average advertisement page of a magazine, or the 
lettering on a bill-head or trade circular. The soul 
of the printer delights in variety. It is his idea of 
art. A small octavo handbill issued to announce 
some recent lecture of mine on this very subject con- 
tained no less than thirteen different forms of type 
in about fifteen lines of matter ; but I did not de- 
sign it, and was, on the whole, rather glad to have 
a bad example so easily placed in my hands. . . . 
Some of the recent developments, especially those 
imported from America, are particularly vile and 
irritating. 

Photo-engraving was the next expedient. By this 
new process it was no longer necessary to have the 
artist draw or paint his design upon paper, to have 
the draftsman redraw it to a much smaller scale 
upon a block of wood, to have the engraver cut the 
drawn lines in high relief, and, lastly, to make the 
fourth remove from the original drawing upon a 
plate electrotyped in copper. The design could be 
furnished by the photo-engraver in little time and 
at small cost. Nor were cheapness and haste the 



422 Special engraving often unsatisfactory 

only promised advantages. The design that did 
not have to be redrawn and translated by the en- 
graver wonld be a more faithful exhibit of the 
artist's intent. When the designer was an expert, 
he could give new graces to the title-page, for he 
had an entirely free hand and could let his lines 
roam at will in any position on the paper ; he could 
make letters of any height or width, without regard 
to the mechanical requirements of square type- 
founding. These were advantages that promised 
a revolution in typography, but the photo-engraved 
title-page had a short life. Few proved as pleas- 
ing as those that had been composed of types only. 
Publishers soon found that there were not many 
artists who were equally expert in lettering and in 
decoration, for the ordinary artist shared the error 
of the amateur compositor in believing that pretty 
lettering and curious decoration were of more im- 
portance than a proper arrangement of the letters. 
The preference for an engraved title-page seems 
to be based on the suppositions that the artist who 
undertakes its design always has superior taste and 
that he will do what the compositor cannot, by 
drawing pleasing letters and adding fitting decora- 
tion. In many titles these expectations have not 
been realized. A pleasing title-page can never be 
produced by the artist, however able he may be in 
other branches of design, who has not studied the 
forms and combinations of letters and made experi- 
ments in the proper arrangement of words, lines, 












FJSOM TME 

ED L0Af £ 



& 




1843. 



Keduced facsimile of ornamented lettering admired in 1849. 



424 



Bad lettering alivays a fault 



and blanks, for they call for stndy as mnch as the 
figures in a picture. Quite as much as the composi- 
te a-, he needs experience as well as good taste. 1 It 
is not expected that he will even try to reproduce 
the trim and sleek uniformity of types, but it is 
expected that he will give ease and grace to letters 
and lines, even if he does disregard the mechanical 
rules of the professional type-makers. His viola- 
tions of these rules in characters that soar above or 
drop below the line, and that curve and interlock, 
may be picturesque and pleasing by reason of their 
irregularity. So treated by an expert who under- 
stands his limitations, the lettering may be much 
more attractive, but this result is never attained by 




1 It is the easiest thing in the 
world for an artist who has made 
n fine work of art, a medal, or 
a piece of sculptured decoration 
— any thing you will — to spoil 
it utterly by the badness of the 
inscription. For human nature 
is such that it cannot forgive so 
obvious a fault : the very label, 
as it should be, of the perfection 



of the handicraftsmanship. It 
is easy to make a great church 
or public building appear inde- 
scribably mean by the badness 
of the lettering displayed on it ; 
while nothing can be more dig- 
nified than a well-proportioned 
simple block of lettering in its 
right place. 

Edmund F. Strange. 




LONDON • LLKIN MATHLW5 
^JOHN LANMI 




NtWYORIVG.P.FllTN ARSONS 




Artistic title of the present. 




VHieAuthoi VPrinterV/BUke 




EXPERIENCE 




The Author &j Prmter Wfi/ake 



428 Autographic letters not in request 

the designer who regards the making and placing 
of symmetrical letters as altogether too trivial for 
artistic consideration. 

Decoration is another stumbling-block. In the 
earlier days of printing, the artist appropriated the 
larger part of the page for his pictorial illustra- 
tions, and so contracted the space for words that 
the publisher often had to provide a supplementary 
page for a readable title in type only. 1 In our time 
the artist usually provides a broad border of black 
somewhat relieved by its floriation of white lines, or 
fills up vacant spaces about lines and letters with a 
tangle of vines. Either method belittles the letters. 
Decoration is a grace when it comes from a master 
who with picture or ornament makes plainer the 
subject-matter ; it is not a grace when it breaks up 

1 In his Decorative Dlustra- There are few authors who 

tions of Books (p. 294), Walter can or will write legibly and 

Crane says that " Harmony be- decor atively. Photo-engraving 

tween types and illustration and has made facsimiles possible at a 

ornament cau never, of course, moderate expense, but the books 

be quite so complete as when the so reproduced have not been suc- 

lettering is designed and drawn cessful. To the artist autogra- 

as part of the whole ; unless the phic work always has the charm 

type is designed by the artist, of rarity and personality, but it 

... It would be a delightful is not so charming to the ordi- 

thing if every book were differ- nary buyer of books, who inva- 

ent— aniillenniutn for collectors, riably prefers the mechanical 

Perhaps, too, it might be a wh ole- uniformity of legible and undec- 

some regulation, at this stage, if orated letters. He desires the 

authors were to qualify as scribes thought of the author, and does 

(in the old seuse) and write out not wish this thought obscured 

their own works in beautiful let- by the mannerisms in lettering 

ters ! How it would purify lit- or decoration made by unquali- 

erary style ! " fled craftsmen. 






BfltfonaifolTratYoi* 



^ 



An artistic title planned for several colors. 
Reduced facsimile. 



430 Ambiguity in letters objectionable 

words improperly, mangles lines of type, confuses 
the meaning of the author, and gives first promi- 
nence to the notions of the artist. A shed of un- 
barked logs before the main entrance of a grand 
house is not more offensive than ragged lines and 
uncouth lettering on the title-page of a book that 
has been neatly printed with symmetrical types. 
The title-page is the doorway to the book, and it 
deserves as careful treatment as any other part of 
the construction. 

Designers are wise in preferring old-style letter, 
but they do not always select the highest models. 
Eude characters on stone are preferred apparently 
for no other reason than that of rudeness. Man- 
nerisms which have been given up for centuries are 
revived. One is the substitution of V for U and I 
for J, 1 in disregard of the fact that the reading 
world found it necessary to differentiate the vowel 
from the consonant in some places as early as the 
tenth century, and that U as a medial letter was 

1 Dr. Isaac Taylor, in his in- sort of ornamental initial. The 

structive books on The Alpha- consonantal sound usually oc- 

bet (vol. n, p. 72), gives this in- curringatthebeginning T andthe 

formation concerning the early vocalic in the middle of words, 

use of V and U, I and J : the two initial forms V and J 

"As a mere matter of graphic at last became conveniently but 
convenience, the signs V and U undesignedly specialized to de- 
began to vary till, in the 10th note the consonants, and the 
century, the form V came to be two medial forms U and I to 
used by preference as the initial represent the vowels." Note the 
and 17 as the medial letter. Sim- frequent use of the lower-case u 
ilarly, in the 15th century I was in facsimiles of colophons in the 
lengthened and turned to the left first chapter of this book. Why 
at the heginning of words, as a should it be obscured now ? 








Medieval artistic lettering. 



432 Huddling of capital letters 

frequently used in lower-case letters by the early 
printers, and not long after as a capital letter by 
all printers of good repute, even when they had no 
better substitute than a big lower-case U. It is 
always obligatory to use the V in every exact reprint 
of the medieval manuscript or the antique inscrip- 
tion, but of what advantage is it to the reader to 
substitute the V for U in any English word ? 

Another mannerism is the huddling of capital 
letters without a proper relief of white space be- 
tween the words, which are sometimes separated 
only by the use of a dividing dot. For this vagary, 
authority can be found in old inscriptions on stone 
or iu old writings on vellum. Letters so huddled 
are hard to read, yet they are not accepted by the 
critical reader as exhibits of the designer's superior 
knowledge of art or archaeology, but of his wilful- 
ness or entire indifference to the needs of the un- 
schooled reader. 

It should not be necessary to add that the long f 
can be properly used in lower-case characters only 
as a beginning or medial letter, and that the shorter 
S has been preferred by all copyists and printers of 
merit as the proper form for the final letter, as well 
as for the imposing decorative initial ; but there are 
draftsmen who need this caution. 

The practice of confining all the words in a title 
to a very small space at the head of the page has 
already been noticed, but one may again raise the 
old question, Why should the general practice of 



Needless use of ornamentation 433 

putting inscriptions in the centre of tablets and in 
the middle of the page in all manuscript books be 
disregarded in printed title-pages ? 

The servile revival of medieval fashions in recent 
book-printing has brought with it the teaching 
that it is good decoration to fill all blank spaces at 
the ends of paragraphs with bits of ornament. It 
is a new expression of the axiom which medieval 
philosophers made frequent use of to explain anom- 
alies : " Nature abhors a vacuum." Obeying this old 
teaching, the modern amateur maintains that white 
spaces at the ends of lines are gaps to be filled, and 
that printing may be wisely decorated by putting 
typographic flowers in blank spaces anywhere. 

This caprice has been exhibited mainly in the 
chapter head and the subtitle. Why lovers of deco- 
ration have not filled up with typographic flowers 
the broad blanks of the title-page is a neglect that 
has not been explained. The need of ornamenta- 
tion at the endings of paragraphs, or about an open 
title, is a question of adornment which every pub- 
lisher decides for himself ; but the critical reader 
will also decide that the decoration is desirable only 
where it does decorate, and that all ornamentation 
which really belittles the matter to be displayed is 
a reversal of good order and a violation of good 
taste. The illustration on page 435 exemplifies this 
error, for ornament has most prominence, and the 
men intended to be honored are made relatively 
insignificant. 
28 



434 Types serviceable as guides to spacing 

The great fault of many engraved titles is their bad 
arrangement of space : the letters are made too big 
in one line and too little in another ; lines are hud- 
dled in some quarters and injudiciously separated 
in others. This is usually the result of haste : the 
designer who does not make a preliminary sketch 
cannot foresee the general effect. When he finds 
that he has made letters too large or too small, or 
with badly proportioned blanks, he has to reject the 
entire work and begin anew. 1 

There are other designers who consider the title 
as a work that must be exclusively personal and ex- 
pressive of their own notion, without regard to its 
agreement or disagreement with the type-printed 
matter in the book. To produce a title-page in- 
tended by them to be really original and impressive, 
they put aside all the rules and traditions of title- 
making j they leave the old highroads and take a 
short cut to the objective point, which is usually on 
the line of least resistance. A title so made by an 

i Much of this disappointment select the types which will make 
can he avoided by having the lines of precise size ; they deter- 
words of the titleputin typeand mine the height, length, and 
the blank spaces between display spacing of every line, and make 
lines carefully proportioned be- provision for the blank spaces 
fore drawingis attempted. There that they will require for their 
are artists of acknowledged abil- decoration. They do not attempt 
ity in figures, landscape, and to imitate the type, for the proof 
decoration who candidly admit of type is of service only as a 
the difficulty of making letters of guide for its blanks, spacing, and 
correct proportion and properly height ;md width of lettering ; it 
distributed in symmetrical lines is a scaffolding purposely made 
over the space. To lighten this to be thrown away when it has 
drudgery they go to a printer and done the work intended. 



ALMA TADEMA, R.A., ON 

scvlpt vre. m minus 



THE names of the members of the Guild are given here: 
those with a star having taken part in the educational work of 
the School. ***■ ^ y* y* ***- *><*■ y* y* y* ^ y* y> y* <&> y* 
THE GUILD OF HANDICRAFT. %&3&%&$!&$&g&&& 

$&&?^$&3P^^^^3P^& FOUNDED MAY, 1888. 

GUILDSMEN. ^gjfc^^^^gjfc^S^gjftgJRgjftgjR 

*C R. ASHBEE, B.A., ARCHITECT & HON. DIRECTOR.^^^s^^s 
"JOHN PEARSON, FIRST METAL WORKER. &»s &■*&■* &•>&•> &•>&•>&•> 
"C. V. ADAMS, FOREMAN & FIRST CABINET MAKER.^b^^^b^ 
-JOHN WILLIAMS, METAL WORKER. ^ &•>&»> &»>&•>&■*&•>£■>£■>&•> 
*H. PHILLIPS, CABINET MAKER. ^^^^^&»> &■>£*>&■>&■*&■> 
•R. G. PHILLIPS, CABINET MAKER. ^^^^$fe&fe&*$ l *&l»&* 
W. CURTIS, CABINET MAKER.^^^^^^^^^^^^ 
W. A. WHITE, METALWORKER. £»>^^ 3^ £■>£•!&•> £•>&•>&»>£•> 
W. A. ROSE JOINER-(RESTORATION WORK). 3*&»&»3*3P*& I »3* 
•J. EADIE REID, DECORATIVE WORK & BLACK & WHITE, &■*&■>&»> 

APPRENTICES & FRANKLINS OF THE GUILD. $* 

"CHARLES ATKINSON. ^^^^^^&»>S»>&»> &•>£•> £■>£•>£•> 
•WILLIAM HARDIMAN, ^^^^^^^^^S^^^S"^ 
ARTHUR CAMERON, ^^^^5^5^^^^^^^^^>^ 
WALTER BAIN.S^S^S^S^^^^^S^^^S^^^^^S^S^S^S^S^S^ 

AFFILIATED MEMBERS OF THE GUILD. $fi$fc$* 

R. UNDERHILL, FOR WROUGHT-IRON WORK, £*&»s3* £•>£•>&»> 
H. WARREN, FOR WOOD-CARVING. 3?»3*&»3*3^$«5^3^3P& B > 
R. HOWLETT, FOR POLISHING & STAINING. &■>&■*&■>]£•>&■>&•>£•> 
H. DANCEY, FOR DECORATIVE PAINTING, &c. 3£> £■>£■> &•>&•!£•> 
J. H. ROBINSON, FOR FOUNDING & BRAZING. 3^3^ 3^ &■>&•> 5^ 
W. TURNER, FOR STONE WORK & CARVING. &■>£•>&»! 5^ &»!&»s 
FRANK PROUT, Secretary 0/ the Guild. &fe$*3^3* 3*3*3*3* &t$ft 
WILLIAM FLOWERS, Steward of Essex /faw. 3*3*3*3*3*3*3*$* 

Decoration that obscures and does not decorate. 
Reduced facsimile. 



436 



Eccentricities of designers 



artist of eminence 
may be effective 
for its originality 
and audacity, but 
it is usually in of- 
fensive contrast to 
the orderly types 
of text matter. 




PAT K S 

PXLMA* 

ENTER 




JAtABJ 
SHOE 



PAT* HANiaH 4 * 



VELA^QVEZ 

GIIirING WORTH 

ARISToftAfsES 
W°RDS wort " 

TinToreTto 

TyChoBR/HE 

On the tablets of a library. 

An occasional eccentricity in en- 
graved lettering is the combina- 
tion of two or more 
capital letters in one 
character, as in the il- 
lustrations prefixed. 
To this may be added 
the squat o in a word 
like PROPORTION. 
It seems to 



HUfU Er 
MAK eY 



Old signboards in Ireland. 

From Thackeray's Irish Sketch 

Book. 



he a con- 
founding of the old- 
style arabic numeral 
o with the accepted 



438 Title-page should mate with text 

capital 0, for which there is no better authority than 
the practice of an ignorant tombstone chiseller. 

There are title-pages in which devices, borders, 
and emblems of irregular shapes have to appear, 
for which types of appropriate size and shape are 
not to be had. For these problems in typography 
the help of the designer who is equally dexterous in 
lettering and in decoration is invaluable, especially 
so when he understands the mechanical needs of 
printing and aims to make the title in harmony 
with the general plan of the book. A title so de- 
signed is always of the highest merit, much more 
pleasing than anything that can be produced from 
mechanical type. Unfortunately, there are other 
artists who consider the title-page they have to de- 
sign as an isolated bit of work that need not be in 
harmony with the book. They make it bold and 
black, or light and ornate, with careless lettering 
and irregiilar spacing, without regard to the gen- 
eral style of the book, to suit their own notions of 
propriety. 1 The right of the artist so to make his 
own picture or priut when it appears alone without 

1 There is danger of the crafts- abstract pleasure, he must con- 
mantakingtoopersonalaviewof sider the user, or he will fail, 
his occupation, and of forgetting .... The makers of letters, 
that ho is working for other peo- whether in the arts or in "books, 
pie. I am far from suggesting musttake themselves more seri- 
that in remembering the claims ously. They must realize the 
of the public, he need necessarily greatness of the audience to 
lose one atom of his indepen- which their works may appeal, 
dence or individuality. Butifhe and divest themselves of little 
is making an object for use, and personal eccentricities accord- 
not with the single idea of giving iugly. Udmund F. Strange. 



Primness better than slovenliness 439 

type-work is not to be questioned, but this right 
ceases when he becomes a contributor to a book 
planned and made by another person. The rule 
that forbids the compositor to use ornamental let- 
ters or to mingle discordant types on the title-page 
should apply with an equal severity to the designer. 
Every title-page which is not in harmony with the 
text, whether made by compositor or designer, is in 
fault. Grotesque lettering, which is really pleasing 
in the plans of architects and in all autographic 
work of like nature, should be subject to limitation. 
It is acceptable on book-covers, in job-printing and 
newspaper advertisements, but there is always a 
risk that the designer who makes irregular shapes 
will run too perilously near to the uncouth forms 
of the old signboard and tombstone. In the title- 
pages of all standard books, and on the tablets of 
noble buildings of classic simplicity and severity, 
the malformed letter seems sadly out of place. 

It often happens that the engraved title is not so 
pleasing as a title in type. Types may be too prim, 
stiff, and mechanical from the artist's point of view, 
but primness is better than slovenliness. The ten- 
dency of the best typography has been and still 
should be in the path of simplicity, legibility, and 
orderly arrangement, while that of much modern 
designing is equally earnest in the direction of ec- 
centricity, obscurity, and real uncouthness. The 
good models of lettering made by Diirer, Holbein, 
and Rubens are generally neglected, while crude 



440 Grotesque letters hurtful to typography 

forms of letters on archaic coins and tablets are 
preferred, apparently without any consciousness of 
their unsuitability in the titles for which they are 
drawn. There are indications that this caprice has 
been pushed too far. It is probable that the eccen- 
tricities of lettering and arrangement in some re- 
cent engraved title-pages of serious books will be 
looked upon by the reader of the middle twentieth 
century with as much amusement or aversion as we 
now look on the lettering of chap-books or of old 
tombstones. 

The dress of a book should be adapted to its pur- 
pose, and be controlled by the same rules of propri- 
ety that regulate the dress of the man. We have 
one fashion of dress for work by day and another 
for pleasure in the evening, one for field sports and 
another for boating. Absurd niceties may be pre- 
scribed for any fashion, but common sense is the 
basis for the rule that there should be plain clothes 
for work or sport and finer clothes for ceremonious 
occasions. Common sense should also control the 
title-page. The book intended to catch the eye of 
the listless may have a fantastic cover and title- 
page, but the book for a student or thinker should 
have a title-page severe in its simplicity. 

Grotesque letters have been damaging to orderfy 
composition ; they eucouraged printers to construct 
inappropriate decoration, odd but inharmonious 
initial letters, and uncouth jobbing-types that are 
unwisely thought to be helpful in producing the 



Letters that obscure tvords 441 

TH^TRA- 
GEDY-OF- 

OTHEfcO- 
Tg • MOO R • 
9 -VENICE- 

A title-page for a play of Shakspere. 

picturesqueness of engraved titles. Experiments 
in this field are always dangerous. It is never safe 
to sacrifice perspicuity and the proper subordina- 
tion of different classes of title matter for the sake 
of showing any new fashion in type or decoration. 
Matter should not give way to manner. As the 
reader buys a book for its reading matter, and not 
to see the clever caprices of a printer or designer, 
it is therefore the compositor's duty to present the 
writer's words in the most direct manner, so that 



442 Artificial arrangements objectionable 

his attention shall not be diverted by mannerisms 
of composition. His skill will appear at its best 
when he selects and arranges types to show fully 
the purpose of the writer. It is a mistake to think 
that a title must be pleasing because its letters are 
quaint, or because they have been used with good 
effect in another book. Types for title-pages please 
most when they are proper mates for the types of 
their own texts and are not modelled after other 
titles, for types commendable in one book may be 
offensive in another. 

Tendency to eccentricity should be kept in check. 
The harsh advice given by a cynical critic to a 
young writer of florid prose — " When you think you 
have written a sentence uncommonly fine, draw 
your pen over it " — may be repeated to the novice 
in printing. Every compositor of much practice 
reviews the ornate compositions of his youth with 
some disgust, for a wider experience has proved 
that all or nearly all of them were inappropriate. 
This remark may seem superfluous, but the caution 
was never more called for than it is now. 

Arrangements of types in artificial shapes should 
be avoided. A title-page always pleases when it 
displays no evidence of effort, when it seems to be 
composed in the easiest way or in the only way in 
which the types could be set with propriety. It is 
waste of labor to try to compress inflexible types 
and almost indivisible words in the strait-jackets of 
arbitrary shapes. The compositor should never 



Coarseness to he avoided 443 

forget that his work is always secondary : he sets 
up a title-page not to show his own skill or exem- 
plify printers 7 rules, but to show expressed thought 
in the directest manner, and every rule of printing 
or fad of fashion that interferes with this object 
should be put aside. Title-pages are made need- 
lessly difficult when the compositor is bent on mak- 
ing them practical demonstrations of inapplicable 
rules. Many of them could be easily composed if 
the compositor could content himself with trying to 
show with directness what the author wants to say. 
The plain title-page, of roman capitals only, may 
be objected to for its want of individuality and its 
lack of boldness and blackness. This objection, 
sure to follow the too free use of condensed type, 
light-faced two-line letter, and the meagre Elzevir 
faces, can be partly removed by selecting capitals 
of thicker stems, but it will never be corrected by 
selecting the uncouth letters now favored by adver- 
tisers. These types will go out of fashion in a few 
years, and will then be as repulsive as the orna- 
mental types of the last century. A request from 
an author for old-fashioned simplicity and direct- 
ness can be made the pretext for downright coarse- 
ness, and this step is easily taken by an apprentice. 
The generous license given to illustrators who make 
uncouth letters for advertisers and magazines has 
too often tempted the compositor to imitation, but 
it is unsafe for him to try to tread in the footsteps 
of eccentric designers, and to attempt what is called 



444 Simple arrangements most pleasing 

an original or unconventional title. The clumsy 
arrangement of lines which a publisher may accept 
from the artist as his notion of simplicity and di- 
rectness may be called ignorance, laziness, or taste- 
lessness in the production of the compositor. 

Critics are more tolerant now than they were 
many years ago about proper types for title-pages. 
Eoman capital or lower-case letters are preferred, 
but other plain faces are not positively forbidden. 
A title may be composed in any face that fairlymates 
with its following text, in one size or in many sizes, 
in italic or black-letter, as a square and solid para- 
graph or in diamond indention, even in antique, 
runic, or gothic. At this point all tolerance ends. 
Having selected a face, that face should be used 
throughout, for uniformity is of importance. 

Simplicity is equally arbitrary. One may add a 
single or double rule border of light lines, but gro- 
tesque, ornamental, and so-called artistic letters, 
curved lines, flourishes, flower-bordered panels, 
ornamental dashes, twisted brass rules, and all 
arrangements of composition that betray fussiness 
or intermeddling, are prohibited in the serious book. 
They are of real service only in advertising pam- 
phlets or in other printing purposely made to attract 
the listless or the juvenile reader. Intermeddling 
with the main purpose of the book by artists or 
mechanics is a positive offence. The critics say 
that books are bought for the thought of the author, 
and not for their exhibits of paper, composition, 




A title-page elaborately engraved and decorated that 

is not so pleasing as it would be if composed 

with the plainest roman types. 



446 Roman letters most serviceable 

type, or presswork j that the eye of a reader should 
not be diverted to mechanical peculiarities, even if 
they are meritorious; that printed words always 
should be presented in the most unobtrusive form ; 
that ornamentation is the proper work of the skilled 
designer and not of the untraiued printer, and is in 
a better place on the outer cover of the book. It 
is useless to decry these severe restrictions, which 
are enforced as far as they can be by many pub- 
lishers. Sometimes uniformity is impracticable, but 
its tendency is toward the simplicity that is the 
first element of beauty, For many years typogra- 
phy has been attempting unnecessary imitations of 
lithography or copperplate. It is time that it should 
return to the practice of the feasible methods that 
always have had the approval of intelligent readers. 
It has its owu field, in which it is supreme. If it 
can be content in that field in which the early Italian 
printers won distinction, it need not fear the rivalry 
of any other graphic art. 

To do this successfully the printer should be con- 
tent with roman or italic types only. The five cor- 
related series of capitals, small capitals, lower-case, 
italic capitals, and italic lower-case are enough to 
make all the distinctions that may be required in 
the ordinary manuscript. One suggestion, how- 
ever, may be needed. Italic and small capitals of 
too diminutive size should be used sparingly in the 
title-page, for better effects are possible with large 
capitals aud lower-case of roman letter only. 



Roman characters always held in honor 447 

William Morris, who preferred gothic over classic 
forms, is the only noted disparager of roman types. 
To his notion, the great defect of the roman char- 
acter is what he called its vulgar thickening and 
thinning of structural lines. His censure of roman 
types that were made with protracted hair-lines in 
imitation of that mannerism in feminine penman- 
ship and copperplate- engraving is fairly deserved, 
but it is not applicable to roman types of the best 
form, which have all needed boldness and blackness. 
Thick and thin lines are noticeable in all alphabets 
and even in his own Troy type, for they are man- 
nerisms that cannot be entirely avoided by any one 
who uses pen or brush. 

The roman alphabet needs no defence. When we 
consider that it has been preferred for the preserva- 
tion of literature by wise readers and copyists for 
more than two thousand years ; that the fancied 
improvements added from time to time have been 
successively swept away by the healthier taste of 
the succeeding century ; and that, as Mr. Strange 
has wisely said about the inscription on the base 
of the Trajan Column, " No single designer, nor the 
aggregate influence of all the generations since, has 
been able to alter the form, add to the legibility, or 
improve the proportion of any single letter therein," 
we may conclude that it is now, as it always has 
been, the proper character for the title-page. 

The superior beauty and greater usefulness of 
properly made roman types should be as evident 



448 Simplicity the last lesson 

as any axiom in geometry, yet their merits often 
have to be explained by argument and enforced 
by comparative illustrations. This is not always 
an easy task. At the crude taste of the amateur 
who prefers for a modern and a serious book the 
intricate and mysterious lettering of early copy- 
ists of black-letter, the lawless forms of untrained 
pen -draftsmen, or the elaborately adorned letters 
of a lithographic show-bill, one may be tempted to 
fold his hands in despair. Preferences like these are 
indications of the undeveloped taste which always 
begins with hungering for eccentricity or profuse 
decoration, but after continued practice or indul- 
gence it usually ends with a just appreciation of 
the higher value of simplicity. The merit of work 
accomplished is then esteemed, not for ingenuity or 
complexity, but for simplicity. To the cultivated 
taste, simplicity may be and often is of the highest 
beauty, but the appreciation of that simplicity is 
the last lesson learned bv the amateur. 




XX 



A TITLE-PAGE IN TEN STYLES 




JIUAINTNESS is a feature that 
always attracts an inattentive 
reader. His craving for oddi- 
ties that have the sanction of 
age and authority is well un- 
derstood by the publisher, 
who at times objects to the 
monotony of the title-page 
composed after traditionary 
rules. For a new book he may ask for types and 
a treatment that will give to his title-page the stamp 
of individuality— some combination of old or new 
styles that will distinguish it at a glance from the 
books of rival publishers. 

There is no scarcity of models. In books printed 
during the last four centuries the searcher readily 
finds an abundance of illustrations of the dexterity 
or the slovenliness of the early compositors, which 



29 



449 



450 Ten variations of one title 

will surely startle the reader when they have been 
reproduced in a modern book. In type-founders' 
specimen-books also may be found some praise- 
worthy imitations of the sixteenth -century types, 
borders, and ornaments. 

Although motives and models are in abuudant 
provision, it will not be an easy task to select the 
typographic peculiarities of many centuries and 
properly combine them in ten or more variations 
of a modern title, so that (to use artistic vernacu- 
lar) the types of each title-page shall hang together. 
This experiment has been skilfully made by Mr. 
Charles T. Jacobi of the Chiswick Press, London, 
England, with the title-page of one of his instruc- 
tive books, for the education of his pupils at a 
technical training-school, as well as for his own 
amusement. The full series has never been offi- 
cially published, but by his permission ten of these 
title-pages, casts from his own electrotypes, are here 
presented as exhibits of skill and ingenuity which 
deserve study. 1 * 

i It is but simple justice to add force to other facsimiles in this 
that Mi*. Jacobi's originals, on book that have been reduced, but 
pages of octavo size and in the all of them are true exhibits of 
two colors of black and red, do form and arrangement. In no 
not appear to so good advantage facsimile from old books lias any 
when reduced to duodecimo and attempt been made to repair de- 
printed in plain black ink only, fects produced by worn types or 
This remark applies with equal imperfect presswork. 



<§ome Mxytti on %\xx^% 
anfci printing 

% $iribc fat Stiitfjor^ ant>,$tfjet£ fep 

Cfjarle£ $CI)ama£ 3jatafci, Manager of 

tfie at*)i£toitft jptc^ and examiner in 

Cppogtapfiy to t§e Citp anb 

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Court, Cfianccru SCanc, CC. 

jH&tlCCCJCCIj 



SOME 3%0TES ON 
BOOKS *AND PRINTING 

d QUIDE FOR 

AUTHORS zAND OTHERS 

<?&&> 
<sr CHARLES T. J J COB I of 

THE CHISmCK TRESS 

EXAMINER IN TYPOGRAPHY TO THE CITY AND GUILDS OF 
LONDON INSTITUTE 




LONDON 

TRINTED "BT CHARLES WHITTINGHJM & CO. 

TOOKS COURT, CHANCERY LANE 

cMDCCCXCII 



SOME NOTES ON 

BOOKS AND PRINTING 

A GUIDE FOR AUTHORS 
AND OTHERS 



Bv CHARLES T. JACOBI 

MANAGER OF THE CKISW1CK PRESS AND EXAMINER IN TYPOGRAPHY TO THE CITY 
AND OL1LOS OF LONDON INSTITUTE 




LONDON 

PRINTED BY CHARLES WHITTINGHAM AND CO. 

AT THE CHISWICK PRESS 

MDCCCXCII 




Some /Rotes on 

oofeg ani 




rutting 



2L dSufoe for authors $ £>tf)er0 

TBp Cbarles C 3|acobi 

iSanflflft of tt)c (Tfctstokft press anD ifiamtnrr (it iTppoflraptp to ttt 
Cits anC <&uitDs of itonDon Institute 




LonDon 

Pn'nrrD b£ Cfjarks {Lftljtttittgfjam anD Co. 

%ooh0 Court, Cfjancerp Hane 

iflft&cccjccij 



Some Notes on 

Books and Printing 

A Guide for Authors 
and Others 

By Charles T. Jacobi 

Manager of the Chiswick Press and Examiner in Typography 
to the City and Guilds of London institute 




London : Printed by Charles Whittingham and Co. 
21, Tooks Court, Chancery Lane, E.C. Mdcccxcij 



SOME NOTES ON BOOKS 
AND PRINTING. A GUIDE 
FOR AUTHORS AND OTHERS 



By CHARLES T. JACOBI 

MANAGER OF THE CHISWICK PRESS AND 
EXAMINER IN TYPOGRAPHY TO THE CITY V 
AND GUILDS OF LONDON INSTITUTE 




LONDON: PRINTED AT THE CHISWICK PRESS 
^ BY CHARLES WHITTINGHAM AND CO., XXI 
TOOKS COURT, CHANCERY LANE, E.C MDCCCXCIt 



SOME NOTES ON BOOKS 
AND PRINTING. A GUIDE 
FOR AUTHORS & OTHERS 
BY CHARLES T. JACOBI 

MANAGER OF THE CHISWICK PRESS 

AND EXAMINER IN TYPOGRAPHY TO 

THE CITY AND GUILDS OF 

LONDON INSTITUTE 




LONDON • PRINTED AT THE CHISWICK PRESS 
BY CHARLES WHrTTINGHAM AND CO., TOOKS 
COURT, CHANCERY LANE, E.C. MDCCCXCII 



SOME NOTES 



ON 



BOOKS AND PRINTING 

A GUIDE FOR 

AUTHORS AND OTHERS 

BY 

CHARLES T. JACOBI 

MANAGER OF THE CHISWICK PRESS AND EXAMINER IN TYPOGRAPHY 
TO THE CITT AND GUILDS OF LONDON INSTITUTE 




LONDON 
PRINTED AT THE CHISWICK PRESS 

TOOKS COURT, CHANCERY LANE 
1892 



Some Notes on 

BOOKS 

and 

PRINTING 

A Guide for 
AUTHORS AND OTHERS 



By Charles T. Jacobin manager of the Chifwick 
Prefs and examiner in Typography to the City and 
Guilds of London Inftitute. 







LONDON: 

Printed and puhlifhed by Charles Whittingham and 
Company, at the Chifwick Prefs, 20 and 21, Tooks- 
courl t Chancery-lane. MDCCCXCII. 



INDEX 



Por the translations of the colophons the author is indebted to 
Prof essor Andrew P. West of Princeton University. 



Advertisements, composition of 
bold. 269 -, difference between 
title-pages and, 269 

Aesop, Caxton's, 35, 10K, 116 

Alaman, of Burgos, title by, 62 

Album Typogjraphique, specimens 
of skilful mitring in, 86 

Aldus. See Mamttius 

Amateurs, attitude of, toward mod- 
ern printing, iv; typographical 
views of, xx; curious notion of, 
regarding typography, 19; reac- 
tion introduced by Morris car- 
ried on by, 336; preference of, 
for raggedness of outline, 384 ; 
reform of printing attempted by 
many, 387; view of typographic 
decoration held by, 433 ; crude 
taste of, 448; appreciation of 
simplicity last lesson learned by, 
448. See Critics 

America, position of printer's 
name and copyright notice ou 
books printed in, 24 (note 1) ; 
hair-line borders now rarely used 
in, 86 ; practice of mitring in, 86 ; 
square and bold-faced types in, 
184 ; amateur presses of, 234 
(note). See United States 

American Type Pounders' Com- 
pany, 244 

Amsterdam, Van Dijk designs let- 
tering for state-bouse of, 69 (note) 

Anatomy of Melancholy, reprint 
of, 226, 221 ; first edition of, 226, 
221 

Annuals, copperplate titles in, 72, 
153 

Antiochus iv of Syria, 380 (note) 

Antwerp, edition of Poggio printed 



at, 9 {see also note 2) ; highest de- 
velopment of copperplate title- 
page in, 64 

Aquinas, Thomas, translations of 
colophons of work by, 8 (note 2), 
10 (note) ; small types early 
needed for works of, 10 

Areopagitica, first title of, 87 

AristotFe, title-page of early edi- 
tion of, 23 

Arte of English Poesie, typographi- 
cal views of author of, 17-19-, 
title-page of, 164 

Artists, unsatisfactory attempts at 
color-printing under direction of, 
54, 56; two eminent American, 
376 ; designing of titles by, 422 
et seq. ; views of some, regarding 
title-pages, 438, 439. See De- 
signers 

Arts, early separation of branches 
of graphic, 66 et seq. ; typography 
need not fear any other of the 
graphic, 446 

Augsburg, large ornamental ini- 
tials for paragraphs introduced 
in, 30, 33 ; Ratdolt migrates from, 
to Venice, 43 

Augustine, St., small types early 
needed for works of, 10 

Ausonius, Becimns Magnus, Ba- 
dius's first edition of, 28, 30, 31, 
331 (note) 

Authors, words of, fitly expressed 
in title-pages, xix; method of 
composing display lines accepta- 
ble to, xix ; rightful prominence 
of, on title-pages, 41, 169; ex- 
pressed thought of, in title-pages, 
89; correct rendering of worda 



464 



Index 



of, 114; planning of title-pages 
by, 202, 203, 208, 209; books 
bought for thoughts of, 444 

Badius, Jodoeus, edition of Anso- 
nius by, 28, 30, 31, 331 (note) 

Balligault, Felix, patchwork device 
of, 20, 28, 57, 58 

Bamberg, engravings inserted in 
Psalter of 1457 at, 121 

Barker, Christopher, title-page by, 
73 

Barker, Robert, titles printed by, 01 

Baskerville, John, follows rule for 
m;iiu display lino in titles, 160; 
title-pages of various editions by, 
100, 167, 108; well-formed letters 
of, 17*, li'Jl (note) 

Basle, title-page of book printed 
at. 104, in.". 

Bastard title, apparent develop- 
ment of displayed title from, 97; 
introduction or, 98; of work by 
C'assiodorus, 98; in many books 
after 1490, 98; mostly in black- 
lntter. 98. See Title-pages 

Batarde brisee, 143, 150 

Bell, George, controls Chiswick 
Press, 42 

Berlin, print-room at. 54 

Bernard, St., protest of, against 
creations of designers, 2* (note) 

Bible, small tvpes early needed for, 
10. See following editions, and 
Xetv Testament 

Bible, " Breeches," title-page of. 01 

Bilile, Coverdale, large engravings 
of. 60 

Bible, Great, of Cm timer, largest 
English title-page engraved" in 
relief in, 110 

Bible, Luther, notewnrthv title- 
page of, 00, 125 

Bilile of Portv-twn Lines, manu- 
script introduction to, 4; sup- 
posed to have been priuted before 
1455, 4: remark at top of first 
printed page of, 4, 5 ; this remark 
a fair example of introduction in 
early books, 5; does not contain 
date and place of printing or 
name of printer, 5; date and 
place of printing of, based on 
certificate of illuminator, 5; stvle 
of bla.-k-letter used in, 115. 118, 
130; Flemish printers adhere to 
tvpes of, 118; ragged endings of, 
itnt offensive, 3*:t, ::s4 

Bilile of 1402, printed in round 
gothic, 121 



Biblia Pauperum, large blocks of, 
cut and reprinted in new books, 74 

Bibliographers, certificate of illu- 
minator known as colophon to, 
5; Ther Hoerneu's introduction 
considered bv, a step toward tbe 
title, 95-97;* the black-letter of 
French, 118, 121; charm of old 
titles relished by. 170. See Book- 
buyers 

Bibliophiles, Old English pr pointed 
black-letter preferred by, 118; 
fat-faced black-letter not in favor 
with, 130. See Book-lovers 

Binding. See Bookbinding 

Black-letter, serious hooks in, 30; 
early hastard titles mostly in, 98 ; 
many strange shapes of, produced 
in Germany, 102; Flemish style 
of, 108, 110; mixture of italic and, 
114; various styles grouped under 
name of, 115 et seq.\ style of, 
used in first Bible and in Psalter 
of 1457, 115; preferred for sump- 
tuous books, 115; Old English or 
pointed, 118, 121, 352; dense and 
forbidding, 124 ; use of, in Eng- 
land slowly abandoned. 130 ; titles 
entirely in, 133,170; best features 
of old, 133; new forms of, 133, 
147; spacing of, 136, 139, 203; 
going out of fashion, 157; early 
eopvists of, 448 

Blake, William, titles by, 426, 427 

Blankets, disadvantage of woollen, 
in early printing, 64, 200. 267 

Boccaccio, Giovanni, edition of, by 
Mansion, 10 (see also note) 

Bodoni, Giambattista, unpretend- 
ing arrangements of text types 
and title-pages approved by, xx: 
ornamental letters not made by, 
150; teacher in new school of ty- 
pography, 17s ; light and open 
letters made by, 19S; title-page 
of life of, :-ti>5; lightens density 
of solid composition, 334; on 
beautiful typography, 334 (note) ; 
novelties introduced by, 352 

Bookbinders, French, imitations of 
ornaments used by, 79 ; elaborate 
designs made with few tools bv, 
79 

Bookbinding, cheaper forms of, 99; 
early use of decoration in, 141; 
chap-books characterized by ap- 
propriately rude, 371 (note) 

Book-buyers, preference of modern, 
xx: bold devices adopted by early 
printers to attract, 21, 22 ; im- 



Index 



465 



proper decorations no offence to, 
26, 28 ; figures filled in with colors 
by early, 110; new styles of 
black-letter not in favor with, 
133, 136 ; nourished titles in script 
not favored by many, 153; Ger- 
man, 166, 169 ; compelled to ac- 
cept feeble title-pages, 198. See 
Bibliographers 

Book-lovers, edition prepared for, 
xvii; interest of, revived, 112; 
newer styles of black-letter re- 
jected by, 115. See Bibliophiles 

Book-making, one feature of mod- 
ern, xvii, xviii; beginning of, 
xviii ; many improvements in, 99 ; 
novelties in, 369 

Book of Common Prayer, uncouth 
title-page of first, 114, 119; title- 
page of De Vinne Press edition 
of, 120; title-page of Baskerville's 
edition of, 166, 167. See Queen 
Elizabeth Prayer-book 

Book-reviewers, objections of, to 
title-pages, 198 (see also note), 246 

Books, eccentric lettering of covers 
of, xvii ; attempts at uniform 
practice in title-pages of early, 
xviii ; growth or decay of skill 
illustrated by, xviii ; facsimiles 
of odd titles suitable for use in 
new, six ; title-page of severe 
simplicity preferred in standard, 
xix ; grand features of Kelmscott, 
xx ; grotesque types seldom wise- 
ly selected for new, xx; modern, 
should be consistent in all fea- 
tures, xx; copying of old faults 
for sake of oddity a disfigure- 
ment in new, xx ; title-page on 
last printed leaf of early, 3 ; 
manuscript, used as copy by first 
printers devoid of title-page, 3 ; 
name fairly written on cover of 
manuscript, 3 ; early copyists' 
method or introducing readers to, 
4; name of copyist rarely affixed 
at end of, 4; manuscript, deco- 
rated with initial letters and bor- 
ders in colors, 4; paragraph 
added by illuminator at end of 
manuscript, 4 ; title-page and 
name or imprint not used by first 
printers in, 4; -Bible of Forty- 
two Lines contains fair example 
of introduction in early, 4, 5; 
first of printed, 5 ; certificate of 
illuminator put at end of, 5 ; first 
of, with printed date, 5 ; cata- 
logued s.l.s.n., 7; impersonality 
30 



a fault in printed, 7; the critical 
reader begins to discover relative 
merit of, 7 ; imprint early consid- 
ered guaranty of accuracy of, 7; 
names of printers placed at end 
of, after fifteenth century, 8; in 
large types made at too great 
cost, 9; types of reduced size 
provided for small, 9 ; verbosity 
of some, 10; colophon used to 
extol merit of early, 10; former 
freedom adjudged unpardonable 
in modern, 16, 17 ; printed with 
usages of copyists for many years, 
21 ; device placed at end of, above 
or below colophon, 22: objection 
to colopbon at end of, 24; change 
in position of title-page in, 24, 25; 
of devotion and romance, 30, 33 ; 
of primary education, 30 ; in 
black-letter, 30; text of, enli- 
vened by large and ornamental 
initial letters, 30, 33 ; in French 
language made by French print- 
ers, 36 ; repetition of same device 
in, 37, 38 ; printers of standard, 
41 ; of merit published without 
device, 41; of Ratdolt, 43; of 
early Venetian printers, 48 ; large 
engravings in German folio and 
quarto, 00; German preference 
for large, 60; delicacy of minia- 
tures and illuminations in good 
manuscript, 63 ; title-pages of 
small and inexpensive, 64 ; cop- 
perplate title-pages supplant 
woodcuts in, 66, 69, 144; petty, 
of the Elzevirs, 69 ; pretentious, 
of eighteenth century, 69 ; not 
rated as sumptuous if destitute of 
engraved title-page, 72 ; woodcuts 
made available for cheap, 74 ; en- 
graved title-page border revived 
by Pickering for some of his best. 
74; absence of engraved design in 
title-page of cheap, 75; borders 
of rnled lines commou in manu- 
script and printed, 79 ; brass 
rules used for borders in printed. 
79 ; rule borders discarded as too 
troublesome for ordinary, 82 ; 
novelty now in fashion for title- 
page borders of, 89; panels of 
doubtful propriety in title-pages 
of standard, 89; making of mod- 
em, 97 ; early custom of owners 
of few, 97, 98 ; smaller and more 
useful shapes of, 99; paging of, 
100; uniformity of lettering of 
old manuscript, 101 ; difficulty of 



466 



Index 



rubricating, 101 ; added graces 
sorely needed bv. 101; engraving 
for early, 102, 110, 121; nse of 
colors by buyers of early, 110; 
faitbful reprints of old, 112; 
making of, given to printers at 
fixed prices, 112: newer styles of 
black-letter rejected for standard, 
115; sumptuous, 115; pointed 
black a dismal type for ordinary, 
121; cbeaper, of Jenson, 121; 
title-pages of common German, 
130; new styles of black-letter 
not favored for title-pages of 
standard, 133. 136; profusely dec- 
orated, 141; titles of dainty, 150; 
in the Latin language, 166, 169; 
condensed type used in title-pages 
of, 182 et seq.: roman capitals 
preferred for title-pages of, 233 ; 
m broad black-letter, 24* ; sub- 
ject-matter of, as guide fur title- 
pages, 266 ; many old mannerisms 
out of place in modern, 330 ; in 
solid type by first printers, 331 ; 
new methods produce more read- 
able, 334; Kelmscott, 336, 387 et 
seq. ; of amusement and of in- 
struction, 337 ; bought for thought 
of author, 444. See following, 
and Editions and Manuscripts 

Books of Hours, combination bor- 
ders made by French printers 
for, 57, 58 ; imperfect borders of 
some, 58 

Bordeaux, early treatise printed at, 
15, 17 (see also note) 

Borders, early manuscript books 
decorated with brightly colored, 
4; devices made i if pieces of deco- 
rative, 25, 26 ; use of. in early title- 
pages. 30; printing of narrow, 
47 : large black. 47 ; used by 
printers" in Italy, 48; engraved 
on wood and mortised, 57; un- 
sightly cracks in, 57 : combina- 
tion, .">7, 58; decorative, for titles, 
.'is ; as used in Italv, 58, 59 ; engrav- 
ings of remarkable, 61) ; difficulty 
of "printing movable types in pre- 
viously printed copperplate. 69; 
small woodcuts combined into, 
74; engraved title-page, revived 
by Pickering, 74; made to har- 
monize withtype, 74; title-pages 
regarded liy printers as inferior 
without engraved. 75 et seq.; of 
graceful form, 76; of flowers a 
transitory fashion, 7U. 79; of 
brass rules, 79 ; the imperf ectious 



and disadvantages of rule, 79, 82 ; 
abandonment of rule, for ordi- 
nary books, 82 ; difficulty of reg- 
ister increased by rule, 82; of 
rules abandoned for ordinary- 
books, 82 ; of good design difficult 
to get, 85 ; hair-line, 85, 86 ; thick 
lines now preferred for, in red 
ink, 86; arrangement of rules 
now in use for title-page, 89; 
suggestions for making rule, 92, 
94; when printed with type in 
black ink, 92. 94 ; broad-faced, 94 ; 
types inserted in broad, 108; 
books made attractive by en- 
graved, 121 ; cease to be captivat- 
ing, 157: as employed by Pick- 
ering, 354, 356 ; imitations of 
sixteenth -century, in specimen- 
books, 450. See Decoration, De- 
signs, Oxford comers, and Mules, 
Bra$$ 

Boswell, James, title-page of life 
of Johnson by, 226, 228 ; closely 
associated with Dr. Johnson, 230, 
231 

Bradley. 'Will H., title designed by, 
377: engraved lettering of, 378; 
letters in tvpe of, 378; style of 
composition of, 378, 380 

Britb, Sigismund, title supposed to 
have been printed by, 45 

Bruges, edition of Boccaccio print- 
ed at, 16 (see also note) 

Burgkmair, Hans, woodcuts for 
printing in colors made by, 54 

Burton, Robert, reprint of, 220, 
221 ; first edition of, 220, 221 

Caesar. Cains Julius. See Com- 
mentaries 

Calendar of Johannes Regiomon- 
tanus, first printed book with 
decorated title-page, 4"J ; title- 
page of. 44 

Capitals, Jenson sets colophon en- 
tirely in. 11; imitators of Aldus 
prefer larger, 100; old method of 
using, 105; italic lower-case made 
to mate with roman, 110; mixture 
of big and little, 114; German, 
129, 130, 133; Moxon's advice to 
compositors regarding use of, 
166, 175; width of roman, 180; 
condensed, 184; preference for 
roman, 233; beauty of Ekevir, 
246; paragraph titles in, 366 et 
seq. See Small capitals 

Carpi, Vgo de, woodcuts for print- 
ing in colors made by, 54 



Index 



467 



Caslon, William, I, ornamental let- 
ters in specimen-books of, 156; 
well-formed letters of, 178, 221 



(note) ; old style of, 234 et seq. ; 
his old-style types recast "by 
fourth Caslon, 352 



Caslon, William, iv, old-style types 
devised by first Caslon recast by, 
352 

Cassiodorus, Magnus Aurelius, 
bastard title of edition of| 97, 98 

Catholicon, colophon stating place, 
and date of printing affixed to, 
5-7 ; name of printer not given in, 
6; supposed to be later work of 
John Gutenberg, 7; round gothic 
used in 1460 edition of, 121; un- 
known printer of very early, 124 

Catullus, Cains Valerius, Basker- 
ville's edition of, 166; title-page 
of edition of, 168 

Caxton, William, edition of Aesop 
by, 35; device of, 87; inferior 
woodcuts used by, 60, 63; char- 
acteristics of work of, 108, 110 ; 
associated with Mansion, 118; 
forms of types used by, 118 

Cbap-books, coarseness of old, xx; 
old English, 369 ; eagerly bought, 
369 ; valuable exhibits of unedu- 
cated taste, 370 ; quaint features 
of, 370; silliness of matter and 
manner of, 371 ; crude typography 
of. beginning of revival of bold 
black printing, 371, 372; good 
features of, 376 ; lettering ofT 440 

Chapters, funnel or inverted cone 
approved foiin for ending of, 15 

Characters, modern roman simplest 
and most readable of, xx. See 
Letters and Types 

Chiswick Press, Charles T. Jacobi 
manager of, xix ; device of, 42. 
See Bell, Jacobi, and Whittingham 

Chronicle, Nuremberg. See Nurem- 
berg Chronicle 

Cicero, Marcus Tullins. See under 
Schoeffer, Peter 

Colinaens, Simon, edition of Silius 
Italicus by, 110, 111 

Cologne, peculiarities of introduc- 
tion in little book printed at, 95 

Colophon, or Crowning-piece, of 
Psalter of 1457, 2, 5, 9 ; of Bible 
of Forty-two Lines, 5; certificate 
of ilhuninator known to bibliog- 
raphers as, 5 ; placed at end of 
book, 5 ; used by Fust and Schoef- 
fer, 5, 21, 22 ; affixed to Catholicon 
by printer, 5-7; set in types of 



same size as used for text, 9; 
sometimes relatively insignifi- 
cant, 9 ; made a medium of self- 
assertion by some early printers, 
10; set entirely in capital letters 
by Jenson, 11; early printers in 
Italy dissatisfied with traditional, 
11 ; put in metrical form, 11, 12 ; 
eccentric arrangements of, 12 et 
seq.; not discarded in printed 
books for many years, 21; incon- 
veniences attending use of, 21 ; 
Peter Schoeffer adds device to, 
21 ; device placed above or below, 
22; objection to, at end of book, 
24; one peculiarity of old, still 
in fashion in England, 24 (note 1). 
See Device and Imprint 

Color-printing, early experiments 
in, 54, 56, 57. See Printing 

Colors, book decoration in bright, 
4 ; printing in, 54, 56, 57, 338 et seq. ; 
use of, in early prints, 110 

Commentaries of Caesar, last page 
of early edition of, 20 : early edi- 
tion of, printed at Venice, 100, 
101 

Composition, unwritten rules for 
title-page, xviii; of title-pages in 
different periods, xviii, xix; of 
display lines, xix; old mannerism 
neatly fitting in new, xx; made 
more readable by proper relief of 
white space, 11 ; approved style 
of, for chapter endings, 15 ; in 
the style of Aldus, 108 ; by piece, 
112; poor, rated as good enough, 
114; mannerisms or early, 115; 
whimsical arrangements of, 157, 
184; one cause of unpleasing, 182 ; 
title-pages no longer regarded as 
easy, 195 ; of bold newspaper ad- 
vertisements, 269 ; of typographic 
title-pages, 270 et seq. ; solid and 
leaded, 331 et seq. ; ungainly 
practices in, 374 ; what produces 
attractive, 418, 419 ; grotesque 
letters damaging to orderly, 440; 
attention should not he diverted 
hy mannerisms of, 441, 442 

Compositors, simplicity in title- 
pages should be the first purpose 
of, xix; freedom permitted to 
early, 16, 17; earnings of Plantin's, 
66 (note); difficulty of, in fitting 
letters to space, 69 ; title-pages 
treated to show skill of, 89; old 
method of half- diamonding by, 
102, 105,- compelled to make 
much display, 110 ; lack of good 



468 



Index 



taste noticeable in, 112, 114; title- 
pages badly arranged by, 114: 
how black-letter sbould be spaced 
by, 136, 139; suggestions to, when 
setting black-letter title-pages, 
139; early notions of good form 
held by, 163; Moxon's advice to. 
166; injudicious selection of types 
for title-pages by, 176 ; dislike to 
set title-pages, 195 ; plan for title- 
pages needed by, 291, 292, 298, 
225 et seq. ; new feature approved 
by, 244; how first lessons in dis- 
play are received by many, 269; 
correct display of title-pages by, 
270 et seq.; peculiarity of un- 
skilled English, of old time, 272 
{note 2) ; method of French, 396; 
fully decorated title-pages out- 
side province of, 338 ; notion of. 
regarding use of quaint or odd 
letters in title-pages, 417 ; free uso 
of ornament by, 418 : forbidden 
to use ornamental letters or dis- 
cordant types in title-pages, 439 ; 
work of, always secondary, 44^, 
443 ; illustrations of dexterity or 
slovenliness of early, 449, 450. 
See Ttfjir-setters 

Connoisseurs, paragraph title ac- 
cepted by some, 97. See Ama- 
tfiirs and Critics 

Continent, the, devices of printers 
on, 36; round gothic preferred 
on, 121 

Copperplate, engravers in relief 
imitate work in, ."9 : preference 
for, 64; title-page engraved on. 
first appears in Italy, 64; not 
common in France or Germany 
in middle of sixteenth century, 
64; highest development of, in 
Antwerp, 64 ; woodcuts sup- 
pbinted by, 66, 69; development 
of title-pages on. 66 ; lettering of 
titles drawn on and printed from, 
09; not out of fashion for titles iu 
England as late as 1*40, 69, 72 ; 
edition of Horace printed from, 
72; woodcuts an unsatisfactory 
alternative for. 72 ; abandoned by 
Pickering, 74, frecuseotfortitle- 
pages, 144; out of fashion, 153: 
font; in favor, 169; unnecessary 
imitation of, by typography, 44(». 
Sen Engraving 

Copperplate-engravers, method of, 
47: dense lines of. 70 

Copyists, manuseript books by 
early, devoid of title-page, 3*; 



taught to save space for illumi- 
nator, 3 ; tbeir method of intro- 
ducing book to reader, 4; name 
of, rarely affixed at end, 4 ; first 
printers follow usage of, 4, 8. 9, 
191 ; books printed with usages 
of, for many years, 21 ; conjoined 
lettering of early, 98, 99 ; display 
rarely attempted by, 191 ; man- 
nerisms of, 108 {note 1) ; methods 
of medieval, 139 ; taught to use 
vellum sparingly, 331; roman al- 
phabet preferred by, 447; intri- 
cate and mysterious lettering of 
early, 448. See Illuminator 

Copyright, notice of, in books, 24 
{note 1) 

Cornelius Nepos, edition of, printed 
in new roman type bv Jensou, 
11, 331 {note) 

Coverdale, Miles. See Bible, Cov- 
er dale 

Covers, eccentric lettering of, xvii; 
names of earlv books written on, 
3, 97 

Cranach, Lueas, woodcuts made 
for printing in colors by, 54; title- 
page for Luther's Bible designed 
by, 60 

Crane, Walter, on harmony of 
ty[»es. illustration, and ornament, 
4^8 (note) 

Oranmer, Thomas. See Bible, Great 

Cremer, Henry, rubricator of Bible 
of Forty-two Lines, 5 -. printer or 
printers of this Bible not speci- 
fied by, 5 

Criblee, definition of. 4* 

Critics, more tolerant regarding 
title-pages. 444. See Amateurs 
aud Connoisseurs 

Cromberger, Jacob, title-page by, 
5"J 

Croquet, Jean, title printed bv, 56 

Cross-references, insertion of oriel 

S'2 

Crowning-piece. See Cvlvphon. 
Cursive francoise, 140, 147 

Dance of Death, not satisfactory to 

certain elass of readers. 63 
Darby, J. t title-page of book printed 

by, 90 
Daye, or Day, John, device of, 32; 

Queen Elizabeth Prayer-book 

printed by. 55, 59; roman types 

made and used by, 130 
Decoration, as help or hindrance in 

development of typography, xvii; 

futility of attempting to make mi- 



Index 



469 



alterable rules for, xviii ; should 
be consistent in all features, xx ; 
improper, 26, 28; applied to title- 
pages, 30 et seq., 428, 430; earliest 
book with printed, 43 ; bright- 
colored inks as a medium for, 43 ; 
publishers compelled to use hack- 
neyed, 72, 74 ; gradual abandon- 
ment of unworthy, 76 ; simple at- 
tempt at, 85 ; unmeaning, 85 ; of 
medieval design, 139; printing in- 
vented in period of extravagant, 
141 ; abandonment of hackneyed 
typographical, 337 ; designers dex- 
terous in lettering and, 438. See 
Borders, Designs, Device, Oxford 
comers, and Rules, Brass 

Derriey, Jacques-Charles, notice of 
bis Album Typographique, 86 

Designers, effect intended by, seri- 
ously damaged, 52, 54; superior, 
GO; hesitation of careful, 64; en- 
graving in relief not satisfactory 
to, G4; freaks of, 69; letters fitted 
to space by, 69; abandonment of 
outline styleby, 72 ; determined to 
have fair showing for workman- 
ship, 110 ; object sought by early, 
180; extravagances of lettering 
by, 269; old-style letter preferred 
by, 430; methods of, 434; dexter- 
ous in lettering and in decoration, 
438; eccentric, 443, 444. 

Designs, needless refinements in, 
xix; printers' devicesatfirst small 
and simple, 22 ; combined and 
used in patchwork devices, 25, 
26; geometrical, 36; in white on 
black background, 47; impropri- 
ety of, 58 ; combination of de- 
tached pictorial, 58 ; absence of 
engraved, in title-pages regretted, 
75 ; made by type-founders, 75 
etseq. ; engraved borders of good, 
difficult to get, 85. See Borders, 
Decoration, Device, and Rules, 
Brass 

Desormes, E., notions of good form 
of, 413 et sea. 

De Veritate Catholicae Fidei, colo- 
phons of, 8 (see also note 2), 10 
(see also note) 

Device, of Fust and Schoeffer, 5, 
21, 22 ; precursors of the engraved, 
16 ; adopted by early printers, 21, 
22; distinctiveness of peculiar, 
22; placed above or below colo- 
phon, 22 ; in white on black back- 
ground, 22; changed in style, 22; 
objections to solid black back- 



ground of, 22; increased size of, 
requires full page, 22; objection 
to, at end of book, 24 ; gradually 
changed from last to first page, 
24, 25; peculiarities of, in France, 
25; of Jenson, 25; patchwork, 25, 
26; of Balligault, 26, 28, 57, 58 ; of 
Simon Vostre, 27 ; of Andrew 
Myllar, 34; use of punning, 34, 
36 ; varieties of, 36 ; of Anthony 
Gryphius, 36 ; repetition of same, 
37; made of smaller size, 38; de- 
cline of, 41; revival of, 41; of 
noted printers, 41; ingenious and 
graceful forms of , 42 ; printing of 
small, 47 ; contraction or entire 
suppression of, 72 ; woodcuts used 
as, not made in small towns, 75; 
title-page regarded by printers as 
inferior without, 75; substitute 
for old, 85; types appearing at 
bead of large, 108; use of, con- 
tinued, 110 ; ceases to be capti- 
vating, 157. See Colophon and 
Imprint 

De VinnePress, title-pages designed 
and printed at, 93, 120, 134, 213, 
239, 279, 303, 339, 365, 367 ; book in 
antique type printed at, 240 {note) 

Dibdin, Thomas Frognall, 203 {note) 

Dictionary. Greek and Latin, pre- 
cedes poem in edition of Statius 
by Aldus, 100 

Didot, Ambroise Firmin-, con- 
densed types designed by, 177 
(see also note) ; teacher in new 
school of typography, 178 (see 
also note); novelties* introduced 
by, 352 

Didots, leading practised by, 334 

Display, prefiguration of one 
method of title-page, 11 ; rarely 
attempted hy early copyists, 101 ; 
first attempts at, 102 ; composi- 
tors forced to make much, 110 ; 
impropriety in selection of words 
for, 114; methods of, in title- 
pages, 163 etseq. ; condensed capi- 
tals in, 184; m advertisements, 
269 ; in title-pages, 270 et seq. 

Duns Scotus, John, colophon of 
edition of, 24 (see also note 2) 

Diirer, Albert, woodcuts for print- 
ing in colors made by, 54; great 
master in design, GO ; blocks of, 
in best state, 63 ; dissatisfied with 
work of letterpress printers, 63 ; 
treatise on proper shapes of let- 
ters by, 121, 124; title by, 122; fine 
models of letters by, 169, 439 



470 



Index 



Ecclesiastical Politie, Hooker's, 
title-page of, 142 ; peculiarities of 
edition of, 144 

Editing, little heed given hy some 
early printers to, 7 

Editions, importance of attractive 
title-pages to, xvii ; not rated as 
sumptuous if destitute of en- 
graved title-pages, 72; copper- 
plate title-pages not used for 
cheap, 72; woodcuts made avail- 
able for cheap, 74; information 
needed about, 99. See Books and 
Manuscripts 

Editors, some early printers brag 
of superior ability as, 10 

Elzevir, Daniel, title printed by, 65 

Elzevirs, device of, does not belittle 
name of book, 41 ; copperplate 
title-pages in petty books by, 69, 
144; letters of, characterized as 
"ugly,"17s ; old type copied from 
one of the books of, 246 {see also 
note) 

Emhlems, heraldic, 36 ; hackneyed, 
41 

England, one peculiarity of old 
colophon still iu fashion in. 24 
(note 1) ; revival of device in. 41 : 
punning devices favored by print- 
ers in, 41 ; early attempt at com- 
bining woodcuts for border in, 
59 ; copperplate title-pages not 
out of fashion in, as late as 1849, 
69,72; hair-line border now rarely 
used in, 86 ; practice of mitring 
in, 86 : revival of Aldine title in, 
108; Caxton begins work iu, 118 ; 
round gothic revived in, 121 ; 
black-letter slowly abandoned iu, 
130; profusely nourished script 
titlein,153; ornamentaltypesused 
with discretion in, 156; Moxon's 
rules followed in, 160; ablest Ger- 
man punch-cutters go to, 169 ; 
condensed types at first sparingly 
used in, 177; amateur presses or, 
234 (/tote); skilful experiment in 
title-pages in, 450-460 

Engravers, work of, in outline, 44, 
70; effective results sought by, 
47; increasing skill of, 57; work 
of copperplate-printer imitated 
by, 59; fine work of, injured by 
bad printing, 64; hesitation of 
careful, 64; engraving in relief 
not satisfactory to. 64; freaks of, 
69; woodcuts requiring expert, not 
made in small towns, 75; con. 
joined letteiiug of early, 99 ; 



abandon traditions of typography, 
378 ; Pickering title not approved 
hy, 354 

Engraving, outline, preferred by 
critical Italiau publishers. 22, 44, 
76 ; new style of, 47 ; decline of, 
47, 48; impracticable with black 
background, 48; close lines of, 
choked hy excess of ink. 50; 
check to development of relief, 
57 ; in relief on metal, 58 ; French 
or Italiau mannerisms of, not 
imitated in Germany, 60; German 
preference for large, 60; of re- 
markahle borders, 60; bad print- 
ing a hindrance to fine, 64: on 
soft metal, 64 ; liheral use of, by 
Plantin, 64, 66 (see also note) ; 
degradation of, on wood, 69 ; for 
early English books, 116; cbap- 
books characterized by crudest 
forms of, 369. See Copperplate, 
Device, Photo-engraving, and 
Woodcuts 

Enschede, Isaac, ornamental letters 
in specimen-hooks of, 156; type- 
foundry of, 169, 177 (note) 

Expert, variation in treatment of 
title-pages by, xix, 450H160 

Facsimiles, not reproduced to re- 
vive old or make new rules, xviii ; 
not selected inconsiderately, 
xviii ; exhibit methods of com- 
posing title-pages in different 
periods, xviii, xix ; show impossi- 
bility of uniformity in treatment 
of title-pages, xix; devices found 
in, 42. See Title-pages 

Fashions, title-pages creatures of 
arbitrary, xviii ; futility of at- 
tempting to provide models for 
unalterable, xviii ; desire for 
change not suppressed by new, 
xviii ; old methods of merit not 
supplanted by new, xviii 

Faust, Goethe's, title-page of edi- 
tion of, 138 

Field, Richard, title printed bv, 
164 

Figures, arabic, 100, 108 (note 1) 

Firmiu-Didot. See I>idot 

Fischer, Gotthelf, stvle of title-page 
of, 172, 173 

Fleischmann, John Michael, main- 
stay of Enschede type-foundry, 
169 ; compressed roman lower- 
case made by, 177 (note) 

Florence, title-page of book pub- 
lished at, 104, 105 



Index 



471 



Fonderie Generale, volume of spe- 
cimens published by, 179 {note) 

Founders. See Type-founders 

Fournier, Pierre-Simon, copper- 
plate preferred to wood- engraving 
by, 69; title-page of book by, 81 ; 
specimen of type from book by, 
140; ornamental faces exhibited 
by, 15G ; specimens of book types 
shown by, 177 (note) ; well-formed 
2etters of, 178 

Fractur, condensed letters of, 129 

France, printers of. most forward 
in changing position of device, 
25 ; black-bordered title-page ad- 
mired in, 48 ; combination of pic- 
torial designs in borders rarely 
practised outside of, 58 ; Little 
Masters in, 60; development of 
typography in, 63 (note) ; copper- 
plate title-page not common in, 
in middle of sixteenth century, 
64; thick line now preferred for 
border in, 86 ; profusely flour- 
ished script title in, 153 ; orna- 
mental types esteemed in, 156; 
admirable models of letters pro- 
duced in, 1G0 ; Moxon's rules fol- 
lowed in, 106 ; ablest German 
punch-cutters go to, 169; small 
capitals cast on wider body in, 
175; condensed type used for title- 
pages in, 184 

Franchise b&tarde, 118 

Frederick in, Roman emperor, 15 
(note) 

Froben, John, device of, does not 
belittle name of book, 41 

Fust, John, sketch of, 15 (note). 
See Fust and Sohoeffer 

Fust and Schoeffer, custom of il- 
luminator in use of colophon fol- 
lowed by, 5; memorable device of, 
5, 21, 22. See Schoeffer, Peter 

Garamond, Claude, admirable mod- 
els of letters by, 160 

Genesis, title-page of early edition 
of, 117 

German text, models for, 127 ; pro- 
fusely flourished, 150 - 

Germany, heraldic emblems pre- 
ferred in, 3G ; Ratdolt migrates to 
Venice from, 43 ; Ratdolt's work 
at Venice superior to his earlier 
work in, 44; woodcuts made in, 
for printing in colors, 54; French 
or Italian mannerisms of engrav- 
ing not imitated in, 60; large 
Taooks and engravings preferred 



iu, 60 j great masters of design 
in, 60 ; copperplate title-page not 
common in, in middle of sixteenth 
century, 64; practice of mitring 
in, 86; many strange shapes of 
black-letter produced in, 102; pop- 
ularity of round gotbic in, 121, 
124 ; ideas of correct f orm iu, 129 ; 
ornamental types based on roman 
model first made in, 156; Moxon's 
rules followed to some extent in, 
166: books in broad black-letter 
made in, 248; round gothic used 
by early printers in, 388 

Gift-books, copperplate titles in, 153 

Goes, Matthew, colophon of work 
printed by, 9 (see also note 2) 

Goethe, Johann Wolfgang von. See 
Faust 

Gothic, modern roman not likely to 
be superseded by revival of, xx; 
picturesqneness " of manuscript 
known as, xx ; black borders best 
suited to, 48 ; round form of, 118 
et seq. ; favored by ordinary Ger- 
man reader, 124 

Grafton, Richard. See Grafton and 
Whitchurch 

Grafton and Whitchurch, Cran- 
mer's Great Bible printed by, 116 

Granjon, Robert, eccentric script 
modelled by, 147; receives teu 
years' patent, 147; lightness of 
larger types of, 179; punches of 
remarkable lightness or face made 
by, 246 (note) 

Great Bible. See Bible, Great 

Greene, Robert, title-page of book 
by, 78 

Gregoriis, John and Gregory de, 
title printed by, 53 

Greswell, William Parr, title-page 
of work by, 132 

Grolier Club, treatise on title-pages 
published by, xvii ; title-page of 
edition of Philobiblon issued by, 
134 

Gryphius, Anthony, device of ,34, 36 ; 
edition of Sallnst by, 102, 103,105 

Gutenberg, John, printing of Ca- 
tholicon supposed to be later 
work of, 7 ; name and services of, 
suppressed by John Scboeffer, 12 

Gnyart, John, treatise printed by, 
15 ; colophon of, 17 (see also note) 

Hahn, Ulrie, colophons put in metre 

by, 12 
Hammen, Johann, print in colors 

made by, 54 



472 



Index 



Hand-press, weakness of, 4*. 50 

Hansard, Thomas Cnrson, 252 
(note), 268 

Harper & Brothers, title-pages de- 
signed and printed by, 189, 107, 
373 

Haselberg, John, 15 (note) 

Hatfield, A., title-page printed by, 
so 

Head, Barclay V., old coin repro- 
duced from book by, 3*0 (see also 
note) 

Head-bands, classical, 72 

Herodian (Herodianus), edition of, 
105, 107, 10* 

Hoeruen. See Titer Hoerncn 

Holbein. Hans, great master in de- 
sign, 60 ; dissatisfied with work 
of letterpress printers, 63; good 
models of lettering by, 439 

Holivier. See Olivier 

Holland, combination of pictorial 
designs in borders attempted in, 
58; Moxou's rnles for use and 
spacing of capitals followed in, 
166; Enschede type-foundry in, 
lti'i 

Hollar. Wenceslaus, engraver. 66 
(note) 

Hood, Thomas, brief title of poems 
by. 209, 210, 211 

Honker. Richard. See Ecclesiastical 
J'olitie 

Horace (Quintus Horatius Flaceus). 
edition of. printed by copper- 
plate process. 72 

Husner. George, romau capitals of, 
124. 127 

Illuminations, delicncvof, in manu- 
script books, 63 

Illuminator, or Rubricator, early 
copyists taught to save space for, 
3; not so iriudcst as copyist, 4: 
paragraph added bv, at end of 
book, 4; date and place of print- 
ing of Bible of Forty-two Lines 
based on certificate of, 5; certifi- 
cate of. known to bibliographers 
as colophon, 5 : induced by pro- 
priety toplace colophon at end of 
book! .">; Fust and Schoeffer fol- 
low custom of, 5; work done by, 
3*H ; difficulty of securing ser- 
vices of. 101 ; brilliant color-work 
of, 102. See Copyists 

Illustrations, Ratdolt's beautiful. 
44; outline, 4K; failure of at- 
tempts to print in colors. 57; in- 
creasing desire on part of readers 



for. 57 ; around pages of text, 59; 
liberal use of engravings for, by 
Plantin, 64, 66 (see also note) ; on 
copperplate supplant woodcuts, 
66, 69; classical, 72; engraved, 
102 ; Lefevre first to treat subject 
of title-pages with, 272 (notei); of 
dexterity or slovenliness of early 
compositors, 449, 450 

Illustrators, license given to, 443 

Imprint, not used by first printers, 
4; early considered gnaranty of 
accuracy of book, 7; of the 
Psalter of 1457 not obscure, 9; 
of edition of Statins by Aldus, 
100. See Colophon and Device 

Indention, diamond, 114 

Index, colophon sometimes ob- 
scured by, 21 

Initials, early manuscript books 
decorated with brightly colored, 
4, use of. in early title-pages, 30; 
large ornamental, 30, 33 ; often in 
outline. 33 ; appropriate for first 
pages of books of devotion, 33 ; 
French, 36; large decorative, a 
fleeting fashion, 36, 37; elegance 
of Ratdolt's, 43 ; printing of small, 
47 ; of the Psalter of 1457, 54 ; cost 
of engraving, 66 (note) ; printed 
by copperplate process, 69; clas- 
sical, 72; books made attractive 
by engraved, 101, 102, 121 ; intri- 
cate, 127, 129 ; cease to be capti- 
vating, 157; huge, in old manu- 
scripts, 382 

Ink, difficulty of printing with full 
color of black, 22; invention of 
bright-colored, 43 ; excess of, in 
printing, 49. 50 ; roughness of 
paper prevents perfect transfer 
of, 50, 52 ; suggestions for print- 
ing type and border in black, 92, 
94 ; broad-faced border printed in 
red, 94 ; engraved initials in 
black, 102; lines colored alter- 
nately with black and with red, 
114 

Inland Type Foundry, 250 

Introduction, Bible* of Forty-two 
Lines contains fair example of 
early, 4, 5; peculiarities of, in 
little book printed by TherHoer- 
nen. 95-97; long, to text, 108 

Islip, Adam, title-page printed by, 
165 

Italic, first made in Italy, 99; at- 
tracts attention and is copied, 
102 ■, lower-case of, made to mate 
with roman capitals, 110; mix- 



Index 



473 



tnre of black-letter and, 114 ; re- 
jected by tbe ordinary German 
reader, 124; profuse use of, 270; 
large lower-case of, selected for 
titles, 358 ; capitals of, in verbose 
title-pages, 364; favorite type for 
display m cbap-books, 371 {note) 
Italy, dissatisfaction of early print- 
ers in, with traditional colophon, 
11; early printers of, pnt colo- 
phon in metre, 11, 12; borders 
with black background used by 
printers in, 48 ; early attempts at 
color-printing in, 54; woodcuts 
made in, for printing in colors, 
54 ; style of mortised border used 
in, 58, 59 ; great masters of design 
in, 60; copperplate title-page first 
appears m, 64; many improve- 
ments in book-making in, 99 ; 
neglect of title-page in, 99 ; round 
gotbic finds small favor in, 121; 
ornamental types esteemed in, 
156 ; condensed type used for 
title-pages in, 184 

Jackson, John Baptist, woodcuts 
for printing in colors made by, 
54: shapely types of, 221 (note) 

Jacobi, Charles Thomas, contrib- 
utes illustrations of titles, xix; 
skilful experiment in title-pages 
by, 450-460. See Chiswick Press 

Jenson, Nicolas, colophons of 
works printed by, 8 (see also note 
2), 10 (see also note), 11 (see also 
note), 24 (see also note 2) ; in front 
rank of type-founders and print- 
ers, 10; colophon used for self- 
laudation by, 10, 11; breaks away 
from custom and sets colophon in 
capitals, 11 ; device of, 25 ; ad- 
heres to old form of title, 99 ; 
cheaper books of, 121 ; more read- 
able roman made by, 248 ; leads 
or quadrats used by, 331 (note) ; 
title in type of, 364; Golden type 
said to be modelled ou roman 
letter made by, 388 

Job-work, mitriug feats of doubtful 
value in, 86 ; use of panels in, 89 ; 
extra- condensed types used in, 
182, 184 ; types suitable for, 260 

John of Cologne, edition of Duns 
Scotus printed by order and at 
expense of, 24 (see also note 2) 

Johnson, Jobn, title-page of, ex- 
hibit of misdirected skill, 84, 85 

Johnson, Samuel. See Boswell 

Juvenal (Decimus Junius Juve- 



nalis), Baskerville's edition of, 
166; Madan's edition of, 171, 172, 
196 

Keepsakes, copperplate titles in, 

Kelmscott Press, grand features of 
books printed at, xx ; books of, 
printed from types designed by 
William Morris, 387, 388; char- 
acterized by thorough virility, 
392; its style of typography, 392, 
393 ; workmanship of books 
printed at, 394 et seq. See Morris, 
William 

Kerver, Thielman, device of, 29; 
small woodcuts made for, 49; 
combination borders made by, 
74; title-page of Book of Hours 
by, 135 

Koburger, Anthony, title printed 
by, 50 

Kuilenburg, old woodcuts rear- 
ranged and reprinted at, 74 

Lanciani, Peter, work of Thomas 
Aquinas emended by, 8 (note 2) 

Leads, use of, in pages with rule 
borders, 94; in black-letter re- 
prints, 136 ; in book texts, 326 et 
seq. ; types made long before, 331 

Lefevre, Theotiste, subject of title- 
pages first treated by, with illus- 
trations, 272 (note 1) ; rules of, 
for composition of title-pages, 
403 et seq. 

Lemoine, Henry, 203, 206 

Le Ronge. Gnillaume, edition of 
Lucan printed by, 146, 153 

L'Bstrange, Roger, title-page of 
work by, 88 

Letters, eccentric, xvii ; modern 
roman, xix, xx; gothic, xx ; early 
copyists taught to compress, 3 ; 
early manuscript books decorated 
with brightly colored initial, 4; 
Jenson sets colophon entirely in 
capital, 11; title-pages made at- 
tractive by, 30; large and orna- 
mental, 30, 33; large decorative 
initial, for title-pages a fleeting 
fasbion, 36,37; Ratdolt honored 
for elegance of his initial, 43; 
borders in outline best suited to 
ligbt-faced, 48 ; cost of engraving 
initial, 66 (note); initial, printed 
by copperplate process, 69 ; diffi- 
culty of fitting, to space, 69 ; title- 
page in light-faced two-line, 92; 
conjoined after fashion of early 



474 



Index 



copyists, 98, 99; modest titles of 
Aldus in open small capital, 100; 
of light or bold face, of open or 
compact form, 102 ; old method 
of spacing, 105; large readable 
lower-case, 105 ; italic lower-case, 
made to mate with roman capi- 
tals, 110; badly spaced, 114; 
Durer's treatise on proper shapes 
of, 121, 124; ornamental, 144, 184; 
uncouth, 160; Moxon on use of 
capital, 166, 175; condensed, 177 
et seq.; well-formed, 178: agree- 
ment concerning width of capital, 
180; characteristics of condensed, 
182; spacing of condensed, 184, 
186; demand for larger, bolder, 
and blacker, 198 ; of the old chap- 
book, 372 ; on old coins, tiles, 
and tablets, 380, 381, 439, 440; 
grotesque, 417 et seq. ; uncouth, 
now favored by advertisers, 443. 
See Characters and Types 

Lettrede forme, 118; desomme, 121 

Librarians, books of fifteenth- cen- 
tury printers catalogued s.l.s.n. 
by, 7; copy for title-pages made 
by, 202 

Life nf Christ, impropriety of Bal- 
ligault's frontispiece to, 26, 28 

Life of the Virgin, genuine print 
of, 63 

Lines, treatment of, in title-pages, 
xvih; arrangement of display, 
xix; spacing of single types in 
ahort, 19; proper rehef of white, 
54 ; early fondness for diamond- 
ing, 105; badly spaced, 114; col- 
ored alternately with black and 
red inks, 114; absurd arrange- 
ments of, 418; clumsy arrange- 
ment of, 444 

Lippmann, Dr., on books of early 
Venetian printers, 48 ; on early- 
col or -printing, 54 

Lithographers, carefully elaborated 
work or, 417 

Lithography, attempts of typog- 
raphy to rival, 418, 446 

Litio, Roberto de, edition of, by 
Rennor, 12 (see also note) 

Little Masters, contributors to im- 
provement of typography, 60 

Little Passion, not satisfactory to 
certain class of readers, 63 

London, title-page in ten styles by 
expert of, xix; revival of device 
in, by Pickering, 41 ; attempts at 
color-printiugiu, 54; Queen Eliz- 
abeth Prayer-book printed at, 55, 



59; first Book of Common Prayer 
printed at, 114; Caxton's rivals 
in, 118 ; use of Old English black- 
letter in, 118 

Low Countries, inferior woodcuts 
used by early printers in, 60; round 
gothic of early printers of, 388 

Lucan (Marcus Annaeus Lucanus), 
octavo edition of, 146, 153 

Luckombe, Philip, typographic 
flowers from book of, 77 

Luere, Simon da, title printed by, 51 

Lnfft, Hans, Luther's translation 
of Bible printed by, 60 

Luther, Martin. See Bible, Luther 

Lyons, larger types designed by 
Granjon at, 179 

Madan, Rev. M., title-page of Juve- 
nal and Persins by, 171. 172. 196 

Mainz, Bible of Forty-two Lines 
probably printed m, 5 ; this 
Bible rubricated at. 5; Catholi- 
eon printed at, 5, 6 (see also note); 
edition of Trithemius printed by 
John Schoeffer in, 14, 15 (note) ; 
innovations of Rewick at, 124 

Mannerisms, too close imitation of 
early, not helpful to typography, 
xix; modern roman not likely tu 
be superseded by revival of gothic, 
xx; old, neatly fitting in new 
compositions, xx ; of French or 
Itahan engravers not imitated in 
Germany, 60; of copperplate- 
engraving unwisely imitated by 
typography, 76; of copyists, 108 
(notel); of Flemish printers, 108, 
110; of early composition, 115: 
medieval, 248 ; many old, out of 
place in modern books, 330 ; Flem- 
ish, 371 (note) ; Moms not a ser- 
vile imitator of old, 390; French, 
413; revival of old, by designers, 
430, 43li ; attention should not be 
diverted by, 441, 442. See Style 

Mansion, Colard, colophon of, 16 
(see also note) ; Caxton associated 
with, 106; Flemish peculiarities 
of types of, 118 

Mantegna, Andrea, great master of 
design, 60 

Manuel Typographique, absence of 
woodcuts in, 69; flower borders 
of, 79 ; reduced facsimiles of 
pages from, 83 ; specimen of type 
from, 140; ornamental faces in. 
150; series of book types in, 177 
(note) 

Manuscripts, inability of modern 



Index 



475 



printers to reproduce gothic, xx; 
used as copy by first printers de- 
void of title-page, 3 ; devoting en- 
tire leaf to title-page of, probably 
deemed waste, 3; copyists 'method 
of introducing readers to, 4 ; name 
of copyist rarely affixed at end of, 
4; many early, without name, 
date, or place, 4 ; decorated with 
initial letters and borders in col- 
ors, 4 ; paragraph added by illu- 
minator at end of, 4 ; delicacy of 
miniatures and illuminations in 
good, 63 ; borders of ruled lines 
common in, 79 ; characterized by 
uniformity of lettering, 101 ; let- 
ters of early, 133 ; ordinary, 446. 
See Books and Editions 

Manutius, Aldus, unpretending ar- 
rangements of text types and 
title-pages approved by, xx; de- 
vice of, 32, 34 ; device of, does not 
belittle name of book, 41 ; Picker- 
ing adapts trade-mark of, 41, 351 ; 
peculiarities of edition of Statins 
printed by, 100 ; modest titles of, 
100, 157, 356 ; italic of, 102 ; titles 
of, out of fashion before 1600, 108; 
style of , revived by Mores, 108 (see 
also note)-, simplicity of, 110; com- 
mended for his new italic, 147; 
half -diamond form preferred by, 
212; tablets in book printed by, 
332, 333 

Marques Typographiques, more 
tban thirteen hundred devices re- 
produced in, 36 

Mayeur, Gustave, old type of, 246 
(see also note) 

Mechanick Exercises, absence of 
woodcuts in, 69; title-page of, 131 

Metre, colophons put m, 11, 12; 
Puttenham's views on, 17-19 

Milton, John, title-page of work 
by, 87 

Miniatures, delicacy of, in manu- 
script books, 63 

Mitring, modern method of, un- 
known to early printers, 82; 
specimens of sltilful, 86 ; brass 
rules now made to form right an- 
gles without, 92 

Mitring-machines, introduction of 
improved, 86 

Mocenigo, John, doge of Venice, 8 
{note 2) 

Monogram, use of, as device, 41, 42 

Moon, George Washington, date 
assigned to very early Catbolicon 
by, 124 



Moreau, Pierre, script of, 143, 150 

Mores, Edward Rowe, Aldine title 
revived by, 108; reformer of ty- 
pography, 108 {note 1); peculiari- 
ties of style of, 108 (note) ; title- 
page of work by, 109 

Moretus, John and Balthazar, suc- 
cessors of Plautrii, 66 (note) ; Ru- 
bens their favorite designer, 66 
(note) ; title printed by Balthazar, 
67 

Morris, William, round gothic re- 
vived by, 121; Golden types of, 
234 (note), 244; Troy type of, 263, 
329 ; on making of types and use 
of leads, 329, 330 ; dictum of, 330 ; 
bis dislike of leading, 332; reac- 
tion introduced by, 336; title in 
style of, 364; bold black printing, 
originating in cbap-books, devel- 
oped on other lines by, 371, 372 ; 
beauty of bis presswork, 387; an 
iconoclast in printing, 387 ; state- 
ment of his reasons for beginning 
printing of books, 387 (note) ; his 
booksprinted fromtypes designed 
by himself, 387, 388 ; characteris- 
tics of Golden, Troy, and Chaucer 
types of, 388-390; bis methods of 
book -making, 390; his reverence 
formedievalormonastic fashions, 
392; peculiarities of title-pages 
of, 393; huge initials of, 394; 
methods of spacing employed by, 
394 et seq.\ on types, spacing, and 
leading, 396 (note) ; much done 
for virile typography by, 398 ; 
tasteless imitations of types and 
ornaments of, 398 (note); his style 
discredited by travesties of imi- 
tators, 400, 401 ; preferred gothic 
over classic forms, 447. See 
Kelmscott Press 

Motto, use of, 25; inclosed in bor- 
der of typographic flowers, 184; 
suggestion regarding, 214; treat- 
ment of, 284, 286 

Moxon, Joseph, copperplate pre- 
ferred to wood -engraving by, 69 ; 
first English writer on typog- 
raphy, 79; on use of capitals, 
166, 175 ; his rules followed for 
more than a hundred years, 166; 
advice of, applied to small capi- 
tals, 175 

Myllar, Andrew, device of, 34 

New Testament, Tyndale's, large 

engravings of, 60 
Notes, insertion of brief, 82 



476 



Index 



Numerals, roman, 100 

Nummeister, John, pupil of Guten- 
berg, 58 (note) 

Nuremberg, Albert Durer's trea- 
tise on letters published at, 121 

Nuremberg Chronicle, large en- 
gravings of, 60 

Old English. See Black-letter 

Olivier, or Holivier, M. P., initial 
and device of, 33; York Missal 
printed by, 33 

Oporinus, Jobn, title-page of book 
printed by, 104, 105 

Ornaments, made by type-founders, 
75 et sea. ; profuse, 270 ; use of 
unmeaning, 366, 368; careful 
selection of, 366; too prominent, 
•433, 435; imitations of sixteenth- 
century, in specimen-books, 450. 
See Borders, Decoration, Designs, 
Device, and Rules, Brass 

Othmar, Sylvan, facsimile of title- 
page by, 123 

Oxford corners, description of, 86, 
89; specimen of, 91. See Rules, 
Brass 

Padna, Lanciani a theologian of, 8 
(note 2) ; early edition of Petrarch 
made at, 12, 13 

Pamphlets, eccentric lettering of, 
xvii ; title-page of severe simpli- 
city preferred in many, xix ; ad- 
vertising, 89, 248, 417, 444 ; speci- 
mensoftypes inform of, 153 (note) 

Paper, modern roman enfeebled by 
presswork on dry and shiny, xix, 
xx ; charm of grotesque types 
destroyed by printing on dry ma- 
chine-made, xx ; linen, formerly 
of high price, 3 ; perfect transfer 
of ink prevented by roughness of. 
50, 52; woodcuts printed on bad, 
60, 63 ; coarse and uneven, used 
for early printing, 04 ; of chap- 
books, 369,371 (710(e); of Kelms- 
cott books, 401 

Paragraphs, avoidance of, by early 
copyists, 4; use of, for certifi- 
cates by illuminators, 4; colo- 
phons often in petty, at end of 
text, 21: value of, 30; lar^e and 
ornamental initial letters tor im- 
portant, 30. 33, 101 ; titles set in 
form of , 95-97, 98, 358 et seq. ; 
selection of large types for first 
lines of. 102; long introductions 
set as, 108; title-page divisions in 
solid, 110 



Paris, edition of Ausonius pub- 
lished at, 28; attempts at color- 
printing in, 54; small woodcuts 
combined and used as borders at, 
74 ; interesting title-pages of 
books printed in, 105-108; octavo 
edition of Lucan printed at, 153 

Passion, genuine print of the, 63 

Paul ii, pope, 12 (note) 

Persius (Aulus Persius Flaccus), 
Baskerville's edition of, 166 

Petrarch (Francesco Petrarca), 
early edition of, 12; colophon of 
wotk by, 13 (see also note) 

Petronius Arbiter, title of edition 
of, 39 

Pfister, Albert, engravings inserted 
by, in Psalter of 1457, 121 

Philobiblon, title of, 134 

Photo-engraving, process of, 421 ; 
applied to title-pages, 422 

Pickering, William, unpretending 
arrangements of text types and 
title-pages approved by, xx ; one 
of the first to revive use of device, 
41 ; trade-mark of Aldus adapted 
by, 41, 351 ; title-page border of, 
71 ; borders engraved on wood for 
title-pages revived by, 74; faith- 
ful reprints of old books by, 112; 
half-diamond form preferred by, 
212; a famous publisher. 351 ; an 
admirer but not a servile imitator 
of Aldus, 351 ; condensed capitals 
and other novelties disapproved 
by, 351, 352 ; his preference for 
old-style types, 352 ; character- 
istics of bis titles, 352, 354, 356 ; 
meritorious simplicity of method 
of, 356 

Pictures, use of, in early title-pages, 
30; text fitly illustrated by, in 
Germany, 60 ; combination bor- 
ders made up of small, 74 ; in 
Psalter of 1457, 121. See Prints 
and Woodcitte 

Pine, John, has edition of Horace 
printed by copperplate process, 72 

Plantin, Christopher, printer of 
Antwerp, device used by, does 
not belittle name of book, 41 ; un- 
equalled in liberal use of engrav- 
ings on wood and copper, 64, 66 
(see also note) ; prices paid by, 66 
(note) ; copperplate title in every 
important book made by, 144; 
Granjon's script used as text type 
by, 147, 150 

Poetry, construction of, in geomet- 
rical forms, 19 



Index 



477 



Poggio (Gian Francesco Poggio 
Bracciolini), colophon of edition 
of, by Goes, 9 (see also note 2) 

Pollard, Alfred W., book on title- 
pages by, 36, 397 

Presswork, modern roman en- 
feebled by, xix, xx ; new style of 
engraving makes hard, 47; by 
piece, 112; of chap-books, 369, 
371 {note); beauty of William 
Morris's, 387; of Kelmscott books, 
401. See Color-printing, Print- 
ing, and Typography 

Printers, edition on practical title- 
page making for, xvii ; novelty in 
styles of type and in arrangement 
of title-pages demanded from, 
xviii; should be qualified to pro- 
duce odd arrangements of title- 
pages, xix; too close imitation of 
mannerisms of early, not helpful 
to typography, xix ; types of early 
Venetian, xx ; inability of mod- 
ern, to reproduce gotaic manu- 
scripts, xx; induced to attempt 
imitations of old chap-books and 
Puritan title-pages, xx; unpre- 
tending arrangements of text 
types and title-pages approved by 
eminent, xx ; no title-page in man- 
uscripts used as copy by first, 3 ; 
style of copyists followed by first, 
4, 101; Bible of Forty-two Lines 
work of unknown, 4, 5 ; place and 
name omitted from books of fif- 
teenth-century, 7 ; careful con- 
trasted with careless work of 
early, 7; piratical, 7; unknown, 
7 ; names of, put at end of books 
after fifteenth century, 8 ; self-as- 
sertion of some early, 10 ; Jenson 
in front rank of, 10 ; traditional 
colophon dissatisfies early Italian, 
11; colophons put in metre by 
early, 11, 12 ; eccentric arrange- 
ment of colophons by, 12; bold 
devices formerly used by, 21, 22 ; 
position of device changed by 
French, 25; serious hooks in 
black-letter made by, 30 ; method 
of Zainer adopted by, 33; pun- 
ning devices of, 34, 36 ; hooks in 
French language made by French, 
36 ; of trivial works, 38 ; of stan- 
dard books, 41 ; devices of noted, 
41, 42 ; designs of, in white lines 
on black background, 47 ; new 
style of engraving makes hard 
presswork for, 47; ornamental 
borders used by Italian, 48 ; charm 



of hooks of early Venetian, 48 ; 
black-bordered title-page imi- 
tated by, 4H; exact registry of 
printed color unattainable by 
early, 56, 57 ; combination borders 
made by French, 57, 58; inferior 
woodcuts used by early, CO, 63, 64 ; 
reproduction of early master- 
pieces by German, 63 ; designers 
not satisfied with work of, 63; 
engraving in relief not satisfac- 
tory to, 64; books by qualified, 
69 ; device of, suffers contraction 
or entire suppression, 72 ; decora- 
tive borders of early Italian, 74 ; 
borders made to add distinction 
to work of, 74 ; title-pages with- 
out device or border regarded as 
incomplete by, 75; unworthy dec- 
oration abandoned by, 76 ; follow 
style of manuscript books in use 
of ruled borders, 79 ; hackneyed 
decoration of French and Ger- 
man, 85 ; rule of one-point face 
and five-point body preferred by, 
for borders, 89, 92 ; reading world 
largely indebted to Italian, 99; 
early, of Venice and Rome, 99; 
cling to established usage, 100 ; 
new attractions devised by early, 
101,102; not disconcerted by want 
of adaptability in types, 102; 
need of more sizes and faces of 
type by early, 102; roman letters 
introduced by Italian, 102; man- 
nerisms of Flemish, 108, 110; use 
of device continued by, 110 ; mak- 
ing of books given to, at fixed 
prices, 112; luck of good taste 
noticeable in, 112, 114; pointed 
black preferred by early French, 
118; old types adhered to by 
Flemish, 118; Parisian, 118, 267; 
initials, borders, and woodcuts 
used in black-letter books by 
early. 121 ; ou tbe Continent, 121 ; 
German forms unacceptable to 
other, 129 ; use of roman by Eng- 
lish, 130, 133; ornamental types 
used for title-pases by, 144, 147; 
Moxon's rules followed by, 166; 
important words in title-pages 
seldom properly displayed by old, 
176 ; condensed letters come into 
favor with, 177 et seq. ; new fash- 
ion approved by, 182 ; mannerisms 
of early, now in favor, 198 {note) ; 
of the Georgian period, 320; books 
in solid type by first, 331 ; should 
be content with roman or italic 



478 



Index 



types, 446. See Compositors and 
Typesetters 

Printing, writers on practical, avoid 
making rules, xviii; controversy 
concerning invention and in- 
ventor of,~5; printer of Catholi- 
con calls reader's attention to 
new nrt of, 6, 7 ; John Wchoeff er's 
notice of invention of, 15 (note); 
decline of, 41 ; early attempts at, 
in colors, 54, 56, 57; inferior 
woodcuts mnde worse by bad, 60, 
63; state of, in France as con- 
tracted with other countries, 63 
(note)', of woodcuts a work of 
difficulty, 64; shabby, 72; many 
benefits of, 99; reformers of, 108 
(note 1); regarded as a mechan- 
ical craft, 112; invented in period 
of extravagant decoration, 141; 
degradation of, 160; establish- 
ment of new standard of merit 
in, 178; in colors, 338 et sea.; 
crude typography of chap-books 
beginning of revival of bold black, 
H71, 371'; rude simplicity of early 
English, 376; preferred to manu- 
script, 384. See Color-printing, 
Presswork, and Typography 

Printing-press, limitations of the 
old wood-framed, 47, 48, 50, 64 

Prints, old mannerisms of, neatly 
fitting in new compositions, xx; 
value of attractive, 30; early 
imane. often in outline, 33; thick- 
ened by excess of ink, 50; effect 
of, seriously damaged by pntches 
of gray. 52, 54 ; lovers of, 03 ; 
muddy. 76 : gray and indistinct, 
70; outline work in early, 110. 
See Facsimiles, Pictures, and 
Woodcuts 

Trolius, Aeinilius, edition of, by 
Jensen, 11 (see ills. ■ fit#/»*> 

Procrustes, legendary Greek rob- 
ber, allusion to method of, 19 

Proof-reading, little heed given by 
some early printers to, 7 

Proverbia Seuecc, bastard title of. 98 

Prnss. John, bastard title printed 
bv. !IH; partlv rubricated title 
by. 'MX 

Psalter of 1457, colophon of. 2, 5. 9; 
accepted as first book with printed 
date, ."»; colophon added by Fust 
and Sfhoeffer to, 5: noble" types 
uf text of, used also for colophon, 
9; L'reat initials nf, 54; last edi- 
tion of, 54: style of bhick-letter 
u^ed in, 115; enlivened with red 



ink and large initials, 121; en- 
gravings inserted in, 121 
Publishers, devices engraved in 
outline preferred by critical 
Italian, 22; names of, on title- 
pages, 41; monogram a favorite 
device with modern French, 42; 
slow to admit unfitness of new 
style of engraving, 47; engraving 
in relief not satisfactory to, 64; 
books destitute of engraved title- 
page not rated as sumptuous by, 
72; compelled to use hackneyed 
decoration on title-pages, 71!, 74; 
beautiful decoration used by 
Italian, 76; lack of good taste 
noticeable in, 112, 114; German, 
124; free use of copperplate by, 
144; return to plain roman letter, 
157; parsimonious, 160; more in- 
telligent grading of display de- 
manded by, 169, 172; condensed 
type approved by, 1K2 ; dislike of, 
to title-pages in mixed types, 191 ; 
admire early books, 330; books 
made more attractive by, 337; 
English and French, 351, 352; of 
good taste, 41H; readers' craving 
for oddities well understood by, 
449 
Publishing, a separate trade, 112 
Pun eh -cutters, rude faces designed 
by unknown, 100 ; incompetent, 
160; emigration of ablest German. 
169; foresight of old, 267 
Punctuation, in title-pages, 346, 348 
Pnttenham, George, typographical 
advice to versifiers by. 17-19; fan- 
tastic examples of, 363 
Pyle, Howard, lettering revived un- 
der direction of, 378 

Queen Elizabeth Prnyer-book, at- 
tempt at combination border in, 
59. See Book of Common Prayer 
and Ihtijf, John 

Rabelais, Francois, title of early 
edition of. 113 

Ratdolt, Erhardus, first printed 
book with decorated title-page 
made by, 43; follows his craft at 
Venice, 43 ; honored for the ele- 
gance of his initials, 43 ; inventor 
of bright-colored inks, 43; beauti- 
ful illustrations printed by, 44; 
his work at Venice finer than his 
earlier work in Germany, 44; de- 
sign of, in white on black back- 
ground, 47 ; attempts at color- 



Index 



479 



printing by, 54; adheres to old 
form of title, 99 

Readers, impression made "by title- 
page upon, xvii ; method of com- 
posing display lines acceptable 
to, six; attempts by printers to 
arouse curiosity or inattentive, 
xx; tire of reproduction of old 
faults in new books for sake of 
oddity, xx ; early copyists' method 
of introducing books to, 4 ; rela- 
tive merit of books discovered by 
critical, 7 ; obscurity of colophon 
often a cause of annoyance to, 21 ; 
repetition of same device monot- 
onous to, 37; increasing desire of, 
for illustrations, 57 ; dissatisfac- 
tion of educated, with inferior 
printing of woodcuts, 63 ; elabora- 
tion preferred to design by, 63 ; 
engraving in relief not satisfac- 
tory to, 64; books destitute of en- 
graved title-page not rated as 
sumptuous by, 72 ; shabby print- 
ing from types sours critical, 72 ; 
mechanical monotony of borders 
objection able to, 76; information 
needed by, concerning editions, 
99; pointed black a dismal type 
for ordinary, 121 ; roman and 
italic rejected by German, 124; 
compressed letters acceptable to 
French and Italian, 182 ; profuse 
use of italic not pleasing to mod- 
ern, 270; roman alphabet pre- 
ferred by, 447; inattentive, at- 
tracted by quaintness, 449 

Reformers, mannerisms of copyists 
neglected by modern, 108 {note 1) 

Register, difficulty of, 82 ; how to 
secure exact, 89, 92 ; one cause of 
untrue, 94 

Renner, Franz, colophons of works 
printed by, 9 (see also note 1), 12 
{see also note) ; colophons put in 
metre by, 12 ; adheres to old form 
of title, 99; lightness of larger 
types of, 179 ; more readable 
roman made by, 248 

Reprints, faulty, 7; faithful, 112; 
correct old-style flavor imparted 
to, 371 (note) w 

Republic, Venetian. See Venetian 
Republic 

Rewick, Erhard, type of, 124; in- 
novations of, 124 

Reynard the Fox, title-page of edi- 
tion of, 137 

Roce, Denis, edition of Lucan pub- 
lished by, 146 



Roman, disfavor of modern, xix; 
enfeeblement of, xix, xx; con- 
trasted with types of early Vene- 
tian printers, xx; simplest and 
most readable of characters, xx ; 
not likely to he superseded, xx ; 
borders in outline best suited to, 
48 ; first made in Italy, 99 ; varie- 
ties of, introduced by Italian 
printers, 102; italic lower-case 
made to mate with capitals of, 
110 ; Jenson compelled to lay 
aside his neat, 121; rejected by- 
ordinary German reader, 124; 
gradually accepted in England, 
130 ; used for German scientific 
and classic works, 124, 166, 169; 
publisbers return to, 157 ; prefer- 
ence for capitals of, 233 ; many 
varieties of, 233, 234 ; disparaged 
by Morris, 447 

Rome, colopbons put in metre by 
printers of, 12; printers of, ad- 
here to old form of title, 99 

Rooses, Max, details concerning 
Plantin and his successors from 
books by, 66 (note') 

Rouen, York Missal printed at, 33 

Rubens, Peter Paul, favorite de- 
signer of Plantin's successors, 66 
(note); good models of lettering 
by, 439 

Rubrication, of Bible of Forty-two 
Lines, 5 

Rubricator. See Illuminator 

Rules, inference of unwritten, for 
composition of title-pages, xviii; 
not stated with clearness in any 
English work, xviii; writers on 
practical printing avoid the mak- 
ing of, xviti ; title-pages not easily 
brought under fixed, xviii; fac- 
similes not reproduced to revive 
old or make new, xviii; futility 
of attempting to make title-pages 
conform to unalterable, xviii ; 
antiquated, xix ; title-pages com- 
posed after traditionary, 449 

Rules, Brass, used as borders for 
title-pages, 79; imperfections and 
disadvantages of, 79, 82, 85, 86; 
modern method of mitring, un- 
known to early printers, 82 ; diffi- 
culty of register increased by 
borders of, 82; abandoned for 
ordinary books, 82; hair-line, 85, 
86 ; arrangement of, now used for 
borders of title-pages, 89; best 
adapted to exact register, 89, 92 ; 
specimens of modern borders of, 



480 



Index 



91; now made to form right angle 
without mitring, 92 ; suggestions 
for borders of, 92, 94. See Bor- 
ders, Decoration, Designs, and 
Oxford corners 

Sallust (Caius Sallustius Crispus), 
edition of, 102, 103, 105 

Salomon, Bernard, one of the Little 
Masters, 60 

Schoeffer, John (son of following), 
edition of Trithemius by, 12, 14, 
15 (note); suppresses name and 
services of Gutenberg, 12 

Schoeffer, Peter, sketch of, 15 (note); 
experiments in color-printing by, 
54, 121; edition of ri<-ero by, 331 
(note), See Fust and Schoeffer 

Sehoensperger, Hans, innovations 
of. in Tbeuerdank, 127 

Schwabacher, wide letters of, 129, 
130 

Septem Arboribus, Mnrtinus de, 
colophon of, 13 (see also note) 

Sessa, Melchior, title priuted by, 46 

Siberch, John, title priuted by, 6H 

Silius Italicus, Caius, title-page of 
edition of, 110. Ill 

Silvestre, M. J. B., printers' devices 
reproduced l>y . 36; facsimiles of 
old ma nu scripts reproduced by, 
331 (note), 420 

Sixtus iv, pope, 12 (note) 

Small capitals, first made in Italy, 
99; modest titles of Aldus in 
open, 100; catch-lines of spaced, 
172; spacing of, 175. See Capi- 
tals 

Smith, John, 203 (see also note), 
204, 332 

Spaiu. inferior woodcnts used by 
early printers in, 60; popularity 
of round gothic in, 121; orna- 
meutal types esteemed in, 156; 
condensed type used for title- 
panes in, 18-t; round K<»thie used 
by early printers in, 3H,s 

Specimen-books, new styles «>f 
Iduek-letter in inc idem, ' 133, 136; 
imperfectly graded series in, 235; 
many faces of merit found in, 
260; praiseworthy imitations of 
sixteenth-century types, borders, 
and ornaments in, 450 

Speyer brothers, colophons put in 
metrical form by, 1U; adhere to 
old form of title,' 99 

States, United. See Vnited States 

Statius, Publius Pu pin ins, device 
of Aldus in, 32 ; bastard title to, 



99; imprint to, 100; peculiarities 
in edition of, printed by Aldus, 
100 

Stephens. Henry, title-page and 
device of, 40 

Stephens, Robert, unpretending ar- 
rangements of text types and 
title-pages approved by, xx; de- 
vice of, does not belittle name of 
book, 41 ; interesting title-pages 
of, 105-108, 157, 356 ; decorates his 
titles with half-page borders in 
new style, 160, 163 

Strange, Edmund F., 420, 424 (note). 
438 (note), 447 

Strasburg, bastard title printed at, 
98; roman capitals used with 
round gothic at. 124, 127 

Students, exhibit of title-pages for 
use of, xviii, xix ; should begin at 
the real beginning, 3 

Style, demand for types of new, 
xviii ; uniformity of, in title- 
pages neither possible nor desir- 
able, xix ; skilful variation of, 
in ten titles by expert, xix, 450- 
460 ; modern roman not likely to 
be superseded by new. xx; aban- 
donment of outline, 72 ; paragraph 
title accepted by some connois- 
seurs as model of good, 97 ; va- 
riety of types in new, 102; of 
Aldus, 108; paragraph, for title- 
pages, intf. 110-112; Flemish, of 
black-letter, 168, 110; meritorious, 
112; of black-letter used in first 
Bible and in Psalter of 1457. 115; 
fifteenth-century, 24K : of William 
Morris, 398 ; combination of old 
with new, 449. See Mannerisms 

Subject-matter, named by early 
eopvists in introducing book to 
reader. 4; distinction between 
different chapters of, 30; plates 
fitly illustrative of, 69 ; should 
indicate type most fittiug for title- 
page, 266 

Syllables, curious notion of some 
amateurs regarding dislocation 
of, 19; avoidance of mangling of, 
366; letters disjointed without 
regard to, 381, 3*2 ; divisions of 
words on, 382 

Taylor, Isaac, on early use of V 
and U, I and J, 430 {note) 

Testament, New. See Xew Testa- 
m en t 

Text, title a trifle compared with, 
xvii ; unpretending arrangements 



Index 



481 



of types for, approved by emi- 
nent printers, xx; early copyists' 
method of treating, 4 j colophons 
set in types of same size as used 
for, 9; colophon often a petty 
paragraph at end of, 21 ; enlivened 
by ornamental initials, 30, 33 ; 
connected illustrations around 
pages of, 59; fitly illustrated hy 
decorative title-pages, 60 ; plates 
illustrative of, 69 ; ornaments not 
made to agree with color of types 
of, 76 ; types suited for, not vague 
or uncertain, 99 ; new attractions 
devised to relieve sombre, 101, 
102; italic of Aldus used for, 102; 
long introductions to, 108; letter- 
ing of engraved title-page seldom 
much larger than that of, 110; 
early use of engraved pictures in, 
121 ; ornaments should be lighter 
than types of, 139 ; of German 
type, 169 ,- style of title-page 
should harmonize with that of, 
191, 235, 439, 442; profuse use of 
italic and capitals m, 270; leaded 
and solid, 326 et seq. 
Text, German. See German text 
Theoderic, archbishop of Mainz, 

15 (note) 
Ther Hoernen, Arnold, peculiari- 
ties of introduction in little book 
printed by, 95 ; much of his print- 
ing stigmatized as barbarous, 97 
not a master in typography, 97 . 
ragged endings in early books of, 
383, 384 
Theuerdauk, type of, 127; first edi- 
tion of, 127 
Thorne, Robert, series of blacks 
produced by, 133, 136; two-line 
types of, 198, 252; thick faces of, 
suitable for job-printing only, 267 
Timperley, C. H., 203 (note) 
Title, Bastard. See Bastard title 
Title-pages, practical side of mak- 
ing of, xvii; trifling compared 
with following text, xvii; impres- 
sion made upon reader by, xvii ; 
first inspected, xvii; attract or 
repel at a glance, xvii ; typograph- 
ical examples of, preferred for 
instruction, xvii; decorated, xvii ; 
unwritten rules for composition 
of, xviii; variation in number 
and treatment of words of, xviii; 
creatures of fashion, xviii; fac- 
similes of, not reproduced to re- 
vive old or make new rules, xviii ; 
futility of attempting to make 

31 



unalterable rules for, xviii; print- 
ers asked to provide new types 
and arrangements for, xviii ; diffi- 
culty of complying with this 
request, xviii; old-style, not uni- 
versally approved, xviii; deserv- 
ing of study, xviii; simplicity a 
noticeable feature of, xviii; prop- 
er exhibit of different methods 
of composing, xviii, xix; typo- 
graphical, in greatest request and 
demand first consideration, xix; 
facsimiles show impossibility and 
nn desirability of uniformity of 
style in, xix; variation in treat- 
ment of, by expert, xix, 450-460; 
preference for severe simplicity 
in, xix ; remodelled, xix, 205, 217, 
223, 229, 237, 241, 245, 247, 249, 251, 
253, 255, 257, 258, 271, 273, 275, 277, 
283, 285, 289, 293, 295, 297, 299, 301, 
311, 313 ; helpfulness of a study of 
quaint, xix ; coarseness of Puri- 
tan, xx; unpretending arrange- 
ments of, approved by eminent 
printers, xx; colopbon the fore- 
runner of modern, 2; reasons for 
changes in, 3; on last printed 
leaves of early books, 3 ; manu- 
scripts used as copy by first print- 
ers devoid of, 3 ; giving up full 
leaf to, probably adjudged waste 
by early copyists, 3 ; not used by 
first printers, 4; prefiguration of 
one method of displaying, 11 ; 
printer's name and copyright 
notice usually on back of, in 
America, 24 (note 1); change in 
position and improved arrange- 
ment of, 24, 25 ; one of the most 
interesting of early, 28, 30; first 
steps toward fashioning of mod- 
ern, 30; early pictorial, 30; Pol- 
lard's book on, 36 ; large decora- 
tive initials for, afleetingfasbion, 
36, 37 ; need of decoration on, 41 ; 
names of hook, author, and pub- 
lisher on, 41 ; devices found in fac- 
similes of , 42 ; borders with black 
background used for, 48 ; no illus- 
tration of early, with borders in 
colors, 54; borders engraved on 
wood and mortised for types of, 
57; decorative borders for, 58; 
superior designers secured in Ger- 
many for, 60 ; remarkable borders 
for, 60; copperplate first used for, 
in Italy, 64; on copperplate not 
common in France or Germany 
in middle of sixteenth century, 



482 



Index 



64; highest development of cop- 
perplate, in Antwerp, 64; liberal 
use of engravings for, by Plantin, 
64, 66 (see also note) ; development 
of copperplate, 66 ; on copperplate 
supplant woodcuts, 66, 69; of 
petty Elzevirs, 60; difficult print- 
ing of some, 69; en copperplate 
net out of fashion in England in 
1840, 69, 72; boeks net rated as 
sumptuous if destitute of en- 
graved, 72; on copper more ex- 
pensive than those composed of 
types, 72; abandonment ef fnll- 
sized, on wood, 72 ; trivial decora- 
tion of, 72, 74; borders engraved 
on wood for, revived by Picker- 
ing, 74; weodents for, not made 
in small towns, 75; cheap beoks 
not provided with engraved, 75; 
regarded by printers as inferior 
without engraved device or bor- 
der, 75, 79, 85; ornaments made 
by type-founders for, 75 et seq.; 
borders ef brass rules used with, 
79 ; imperfections of rale borders 
of, 79, 82 ; labored and ragged, 85 ; 
Oxford corners used for borders 
ef, 86, 89; arrangement of rules 
now in use for borders ef, 89; of 
standard hooks, 89; borders of 
brass rules for, 92 ; when printed 
with borders in black ink, 92, 94; 
set in the form of paragraphs, 95- 
97; developed from the early bas- 
tard title, 97 ; date of hastard, 98; 
peculiarities of paragraph, 98 ; 
neglected in Italy, 99; early print- 
ers adhere to old form of, 99, 100; 
new attempt at displayed, 101; 
first attempts at display of, 102; 
italic, of Aldus used iu, ] 02 ; early 
fondness for diamondiug lines in, 
105; interesting, 105-108; Aldine, 
out of fashion before 1600, 168; 
eaTly practice in paragraph, 108, 
110; modern displayed, 110; let- 
tering of engraved, 116; simple 
form ef paragraph, 110 ; verbose, 
110; old-fashioned paragraph, 
112; marked deterioration of, 
112; setas piecework, 111!; shock- 
ingly mean, 112; badly arranged 
bv compositors, 114, 176 ; example 
of uncouth, 114; in black-letter, 
115, 133; in all German capitals 
found to be impracticable, 129; 
of common German boeks, 130; 
new styles ef black-letter net 
in favor for, 133, 136- compo- 



sition of black-letter, 139; free 
use ef copperplate, 144; orna- 
mental types in, 144, 147, 156; of 
dainty hooks, 150; copperplate, 
out ef fashion, 153; decorated, 
cease to be captivating, 157; bald, 
157; rude faces appear in, 160; 
coarseness ef typographic, 160 ; 
verbose, 163; early notions of 
good form in, 163; rule for main 
display line in, 166; types of, 
widely spaced, 166, 175 ; new fash- 
ion of, 169; forerunner of mod- 
ern displayed, 172; spacing of, 
172, 175, 176, 215 et seq.-, charm ef 
old, 176; neglect of proper display 
by old printers, 176; condensed 
letters used in, 177 et seq. ; im- 
portance of proportion in, 186 ; 
use of different shapes ef types 
in, 188, 190, 191 ; style of, should 
harmonize with that ef text, 191, 
235; compositors dislike to set, 
195, 196; changed with the times, 
196; feeble, 196 (see also note), 
198 ; orderly methods in composi- 
tion of, 198 ; importance of plan 
in composition of, 200 et seq. , 225 
et seq. -, regular divisions of, 209 
et seq. ; roman capitals best suited 
for, 233 ; uniformity in composi- 
tion of, 260; Pickering's admira- 
ble, 262 ; reproductions of old- 
style, 264, 265; in old-style type 
of small body, 266 ; difference 
between advertisements and, 269 ; 
correct display in, 270 et seq. ; 
photo -en graving applied to, 270 
(note) ; fully decorated, outside 
province of compositors, 338 ; 
remarks en colors as applied to, 
338 et seq.; punctuation of, 346, 34* ; 
Pickering's, 351 et seq.-, merito- 
rious simplicity ef Pickering's 
method of setting, 356; in old- 
style lower-case, 356; large italic 
lower-case selected for, 358; faults 
of squared, 358, 360; paragraphed, 
in reman capitals, 360 et seq. ; 
italic capitals preferred for ver- 
bose, 364; improved by leading 
lines of capitals, 364 ; difficulty of 
separating sentences iu squared, 
364, 366; Puritan, 374, 375, 376; 
ragged, 380 et seq. ; of William 
Morris, 393; Lefevre's directions 
for composition of, 403 et seq.\ 
bold and compressed types m 
French, 412; French contrasted 
with British or American, 413; 



Index 



483 



plainer forms and smaller sizes of 
jobbing type in French, 413; use 
of quaint or odd letters in, 417; 
of plain type regarded as weak 
and mechanical, 417, 418; photo- 
engraving applied to, 421, 422; 
short life of photo- engraved, 422; 
preference for engraved, 422 ; 
great fault of many engraved, 
434; devices, borders, and em- 
blems in, 438 ; ornamental letters 
and discordant types forbidden 
in, 439; should be controlled by 
common sense, 440 ; please most 
when without evidence of effort, 
442; of roman capitals may be 
objected to, 443; original or un- 
conventional, 443, 444; critics 
more tolerant about proper types 
for, 444 ; uniformity of impor- 
tance in, 444; composed after 
traditionary rules, 449. See Bas- 
tard title, Borders, Colophon, 
Copperplate, Decoration, Designs, 
Device, Engraving, Facsimiles, 
and Iiules, Brass 

Titles. See Title-pages 

Tory, Geoffrey, admirable models 
of letters by, 160 

Treatise, written for and published 
by Grolier Club, xvii; title-page 
rated as trifling subject for 
lengthy, xvii ; illustrations of 
title-pages contributed to this, 
xix; printed by Gnyart in 1524, 
15; development of copperplate 
title-page deserving ot, 66; on 
proper shapes of letters, 121, 124 

Trithemius, Abbot, early edition 
of, 12, 14, 15 (note) 

Trot, Bartholomew, colophon of 
edition of Xenophon by, 8 (see 
also note 1) 

Tucker, Henry <T. t contributes in- 
formation about types, 179 (note) 

Tner, Andrew, chap-books repub- 
lished by, 370-372 

Turlot type-foundry, title from 
specimen-book of, 70 

Tyndale, William. See New Testa- 
ment 

Type-founders, Jenson in front 
rank of, 10 ; books by qualified, 
69; ornaments for title-pages 
made by, 75 et seq., 139 ; Norman, 
118, 133; Dutch, 133; French and 
German, 133 ; modern French, 
150, 267; ornamental types made 
with difficulty by, 153, 156 ; small 
capitals cast on wider body by 



French, 175; abandon traditions 
of typography, 178; agreement 
among, as to width of capitals, 
180; no fixed standard for width 
of capitals established by early, 
180 (note); condensed letters of 
many sizes made by, 182 ; Thorne 
face copied and exaggerated by, 
198; inadequate supply of types 
of, 200; specimen-books of, 235, 
450; two-line letters of many, 
267 ; novelties developed by Eng- 
lish, 352 ; roman types made by 
English, 388; irregular and 
scraggy letters produced by, 419 

Type-founding, limitations of early, 
150; a separate trade, 160; so- 
called triumphs of, 179 (see also 
note) ; mechanical requirements 
of square, 422 

Types, title-pages printed from, 
preferred for instruction, xvii ; 
printers asked to provide new 
styles of, xviii; never made with 
more skill or in greater variety, 
xviii; title-page of, in greatest 
request and demands first consid- 
eration, xix; properly selected 
roman, xix ; of early Venetian 
printers, xx ; preference of mod- 
ern book -buyer for simplicity 
and legibility in, xx; grotesque, 
seldpm wisely selected for new 
books, xx ; their charm destroyed 
by printing on dry machine-made 
paper, xx; unpretending arrange- 
ments of text, approved by emi- 
nent printers, xx ; text and colo- 
phon in same, 9 ; books in large, 
made at too great cost, 9 ; of re- 
duced size provided for small 
books, 9 ; increasing use of 
smaller, 10 ; attempts to make 
colophons noticeable by eccentric 
arrangements of, 12; early freaks 
with, 15, 16 ; difficulty of cramp- 
ing, in geometrical forms, 16, 17 ; 
curious notion of amateurs re- 
garding distortion of, 19 ; spacing 
of single, in short lines, 19; books 
printed from, with usages of 
copyists, 21; colophon often set 
in very small, 21; resistance of 
pages of, 47 j borders in outline 
best suited to roman or light- 
faced, 48; borders engraved on 
wood and mortised for, 57, 58, 59; 
difficulty of printing movable, 
in previously printed copperplate 
border, 69; shabby printing from, 



484 



Index 



72; copperplate title-pages more 
expensive than those composed 
of, 72 ; borders made to harmo- 
nize with, 74 ; engravings in pure 
outline as easily printed as, 76 ; 
ornaments not made to agree 
with color of, 76, 79; suggestions 
for using horders with, 92, 94; of 
paragraph titles, 98; for texts 
not vague oruncertain, 99; roman 
and italic, 99 ; imitators of Aldus 
use bolder, 100 ; first attempts at 
display with, 102 ; arrangement 
of, in half-diamond form, 102; 
early need of more faces and sizes 
of, 102; variety of new styles 
of, 102; inserted within a broad 
border, 108 ; mixing of discordant 
faces and sizes of, 114; injudicious 
selection of, 114, 176 ; grouped 
under general name of black- 
letter, 115; Flemish printers ad- 
here to old, 118 ; with strong 
Flemish peculiarities, 118; of the 
first Bible, 118 ; roman, made and 
used in England, 130; without 
proper legihility, 133 ; modern 
specimen-books of, 133, 136; or- 
namental, in title-pages, 144, 147, 
153, 156 ; new faces and shapes of, 
147 ; script, 147, 150 ; difficulty of 
making ornamental. 153, 156 ; af 
terward produced in endless va- 
riety, 156; in bad taste, 157; need 
of large, 160; badly cut and hadly 
composed, 160, 163; early notions 
of good form in use of, 163; widely 
spaced, 166, 175, 184, 186; con- 
densed, 177 et seq. ; extra-con- 
densed, 1*2 ft seq. -. limitations of 
condensed, 1*4, l*i>; expanded, 
188, 190, 191; petty, 198; selection 
of disliked, 200 ; varieties of old- 
style and modern-cut, 234 et set/. -, 
imperfect grading in sizes of, 235 ; 
suitable for printing in red, 240, 
244; display of, in advertise- 
ments, 269; in title-pages, 270 et 
seq. ; without shoulder, 326; read- 
ability of, 327, 32K ; spacing of, 
328 et seq. -, black characters of 
Troy, 329; made long before 
leads, 331 : title-pages in old-style 
lower-case, 356 ; used in chap- 
books, 1(69, 371 (note), 374; disor- 
derly method of arranging, 382; 
characteristics of Golden, Troy, 
and Chaucer, 388-390; bold and 
compressod, in French title-pages, 
412; plainer forms and smaller 



sizes of johhing, 413 ; title-pages 
of plain, regarded as weak and 
mechanical, 417, 418 ; once in 
favor but now disliked, 418; or- 
namental, out of fashion, 419, 420; 
compositors forbidden to mingle 
discordant, 439; for title-pages 
please most when proper mates 
for text, 442; arrangements of, 
inartificial shapes, 442; printers 
should he content with roman or 
italic, 446 ; William Morris a dis- 
parager of roman, 447; superior 
beauty and greater usefulness of 
properly made roman, 447, 448; 
imitations of sixteenth-century, 
in specimen-books, 450; skilful 
treatment of, by expert, 450-460. 
See Black-letter, Characters, Frae- 
tur, German text, Gothic, Italic, 
Letters, Roman, Schwabacher 

Type-setters, painstaking in devis- 
ing new arrangements of titles, 
xviii ; title-pages set as piece- 
work by, 112. See Compos-ttors 

Typographia, labored title-page of 
Johnson's, 84, 85; title-page of a 
German, 126, 128; Hansard's, 252 
(note), 26H 

Typography, influence of decorated 
title-pages upon, xvii ; too close 
imitation of mannerisms of early 
printers not helpful to, six ; curi- 
ous notion of some amateurs re- 
farding, 19; improvement of, 60; 
evelopment of, in France, 63 
(note) ■, stagnation or decadence 
of, in other countries, 63 (note) ; 
copperplate title-page outside 
field of strict, 66 ; regarded as an 
inferior art, 72 ; stinging rehuke 
to wretched, 72 ; mannerisms of 
copperplate-engraving unwisely 
imitated by, 76; Moxon first Eng- 
lish writer on, 79; feats of skill 
in mitring not of service in prac- 
tical, 86 ; Ther Hoernen not quali- 
fied to teach good form in, 97 ; an 
English reformer of bad practices 
in, 108 (note 1) ; sumptuous deco- 
ration not attainable hy. 141 ,- 
degradation of, 160, 274; tradi 
tious of, abandoned, 178; new 
school of, 178; gloominess of old, 
330; revolution in, 334; of chap- 
hooks, 371. 372; Kelmscott, 387 
et seq.; attempts to improve, hy 
lithographic peculiarities, 418 ; 

f>hoto- engraving promised revo- 
ution in, 422; problems in, 43*; 



Index 



485 



tendency of best, 439; unneces- 
sary imitations of lithography or 
copperplate by, 446. See Color- 
printing, Presswork, Printing 

United States, condensed types at 
first sparingly used in, 177. See 
America 

Valdezocchio, Bartholomew, edi- 
tion of Petrarch by, 12 ; colophon 
of, 13 {see also note) 

Van der Linde, Abraham, stigma- 
tizes much of Tber Hoernen's 
printing as barbarous, 97 

Van Dijk, Christopher, lettering 
for Amsterdam state-bouse de- 
signed by, 69 (note); letters of, 
described as " stumpy," 178 

Veldener, Jobn, woodcuts of Biblia 
Pauperum rearranged and used 
in new book by, 74 

Vellum, name of early book fairly 
written on cover of, 3 ; formerly of 
bigh price, 3 ; old writings on, 432 

Venetian Republic, flourisning time 
of, 8 (note 2) 

Venetus de Vitalibus, Bernardinus, 
colophon of edition of Caesar 
printed by, 20; bastard title of 
same, 101 

Venice, works printed by Jenson 
at, 8 (note 2), 10 (note), 11 (see also 
note), 24 (see also note 2); colo- 
phons put in metre by printers 
of, 12; work printed by Renner 
in, 12 (see also note) ; edition of 
Aristotle printed at, 23; first 
printed book with decorated title- 
page published in, 43 ; Ratdolt's 
finer work done at, 44 ; attempts 
at color-printing in, 54; printers 
of, adhere to oldform of title, 99 ; 
edition of Statius printed by 
Aldus at, 100; early edition of 
Caesar printed in, 100; cheaper 
books of Jenson in, 121 

Virgil, or Vergil (Publius Vergilius 
Maro), Baskerville : s edition of, 
166 

Volumes, bulky and expensive, 10 

Vostre, Simon, device of, 27 ; small 
woodcuts combined as borders 
by, 74 

Ware, Richard, title-page of book 

printed for, 145 
West, Andrew Fleming, title-page 

of Philobiblon edited by, 134 
Whitchureh, Edward, first Book of 



Common Prayer printed by, 114, 
119. See Orajton and Whitchurch 

Whittingham, Charles, many de- 
vices of, 41, 42 j faithful reprints 
of old books by, 112; title-page by, 
174; associated with Pickering, 
351; his preference for old-style 
types, 352. See Ohiswick Press 

Wicricx, Jerome, Plantin's favorite 
engraver, 66 (note) 

Wittenberg, translation of Bible by 
Luther printed at, 60 

Woodcuts, early title-pages deco- 
rated by old, 41; for printing in 
colors, 54; early English attempt 
at combining, for border, 59; 
badly engraved and printed, 60, 

63, 64; printed on bad paper, 60, 
63 ; qualities lacking in early, 63 ; 
printing of, a work of difficulty, 
64; supplanted by copperplate, 

64, 66, 69 ; an unsatisfactory alter- 
native for copperplate, 72; made 
available for cheap editions, 74; 
rearranged and reprinted as new, 
74 ; small, combined into borders, 
74 ; not made in small towns, 75 ; 
finer, 99 ; types appearing at head 
of, 108; books made attractive by 
engraved, 121 ; of cbap-books, 
371 (note). See Engraving, Pic- 
tures, and Prints 

Words, treatment of title-pages 
dependent on quantity of, xviii; 
skilful variation in arrangement 
of, xix; fit expression of, in title- 
pages, xix ; early copyists taught 
to huddle, 3 ; notion of some ama- 
teurs regarding abbreviation of, 
19; absurd prominence given to 
insignificant, 114; impropriety in 
selection of, for display, 114; Ger- 
man usage regarding, 169; divi- 
sions of, 382, 398 

Writers, on practical printing, xviii ; 
black-letter of English, 118; words 
of, should be presented in most 
direct manner, 441, 442 

Xenopbou, colophon of edition of, 
8 (see also note 1) 

York Missal, decorative initial in, 33 
Young, Edward, title-page of work 
by, 174 

Zainer, Gunther, large ornamental 
initials of, 30, 33; method of, 
adopted by printers of all coun- 
tries, 33